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iticisms, have taken notice of many par-
cular lines and expressions which are
anslated from the Greek poet; but as I
ought this would have appeared too mi-
te and over-curious, I have purposely
nitted them. The greater incidents, how-
er, are not only set off by being shown in
e same light with several of the same na-
re in Homer, but by that means may be
so guarded against the cavils of the taste-
Es or ignorant.

a 352.] Monday, April 14, 1712.

Si ad honestatem nati sumus, ea aut sola petenda est, aut certe omni pondere gravior est haada quam reliqua omnia.


fwe be made for honesty, either it is solely to be ght, or certainly to be estimated much more highly an all other things.

that nothing but truth and ingenuity has any lasting good effect, even upon a man's fortune and interest.

'Truth and reality have all the advantages of appearance, and many more. If the show of any thing be good for any thing, I am sure sincerity is better; for why does any man dissemble, or seem to be that which he is not, but because he thinks it good to have such a quality as he pretends to? for to counterfeit and dissemble is to put on the appearance of some real excellency. Now the best way in the world for a man to seem to be any thing, is really to be what he would seem to be. Besides, that it is many times as troublesome to make good the pretence of a good quality, as to have it; and if a man have it not, it is ten to one but he is discovered to want it, and then all his pains and labour to seem to have it is lost. There is something unnatural in painting, which a skilful eye will easily discern from native beauty and complexion.

"It is hard to personate and act a part, long; for where truth is not at the bottom, nature will always be endeavouring to return, and will peep out and betray herself one time or other. Therefore, if any man think it convenient to seem good, let him be so indeed, and then his goodness will appear to every body's satisfaction; so that upon all accounts sincerity is true wisdom. Particularly as to the affairs of this world, integrity has many advantages over all the fine and artificial ways of dissimulation and deceit; it is much the plainer and easier, much the safer and more secure way of dealing in the world: it has less of trouble and difficulty, of entanglement and perplexity, of danger and hazard in it: it is the shortest and nearest way to our end, carrying us thither in a straight line, and will hold out and last longest. The arts of deceit and cunning do continually grow weaker and less effectual and serviceable to them that use them; whereas integrity gains strength by use, and the more and longer any man practiseth it, the greater service it does him, by confirming his reputation, and encouraging those with whom he hath to do to repose the greatest trust and confidence in him, which is an unspeakable advantage in the business and affairs of life.

WILL HONEYCOMB was complaining to e yesterday, that the conversation of the wn is so altered of late years, that a fine entleman is at a loss for matter to start disurse, as well as unable to fall in with the Ik he generally meets with. Will takes tice, that there is now an evil under the in which he supposes to be entirely new, cause not mentioned by any satirist, or oralist, in any age. Men,' said he, 'grow aves sooner than they ever did since the eation of the world before.' If you read e tragedies of the last age, you find the tful men, and persons of intrigue, are adnced very far in years, and beyond the easures and sallies of youth; but now Will serves, that the young have taken in the ces of the aged, and you shall have a man five-and-twenty, crafty, false, and inguing, not ashamed to over-reach, cozen, dbeguile. My friend adds, that till about e latter end of king Charles's reign there as not a rascal of any eminence under forIn the places of resort for conversation, u now hear nothing but what relates to proving men's fortunes, without regard the methods towards it. This is so shionable, that young men form themlves upon a certain neglect of every thing at is candid, simple, and worthy of true teem; and affect being yet worse than ey are, by acknowledging, in their general mn of mind and discourse, that they have Truth is always consistent with itself, any remaining value for true honour and and needs nothing to help it out; it is alnesty; preferring the capacity of being ways near at hand, and sits upon our lips, tful to gain their ends, to the merit of and is ready to drop out before we are spising those ends when they come in aware; whereas a lie is troublesome, and ompetition with their honesty. All this is sets a man's invention upon the rack, and e to the very silly pride that generally one trick needs a great many more to make revails of being valued for the ability of it good. It is like building upon a false founying their point; in a word, from the dation, which constantly stands in need of inion that shallow and inexperienced peo- props to shore it up, and proves at last. e entertain of the short lived force of cun- more chargeable than to have raised a subBut I shall, before I enter upon the stantial building at first upon a true and nous faces which folly covered with ar- solid foundation; for sincerity is firm and ice, puts on to impose upon the unthink-substantial, and there is nothing hollow and & produce a great authority for asserting unsound in it; and, because it is plain and

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open, fears no discovery; of which the crafty | No. 353.] Tuesday, April 15, 1712.

man is always in danger: and when he
thinks he walks in the dark, all his pre-
tences are so transparent, that he that runs
may read them: he is the last man that
finds himself to be found out; and whilst he
takes it for granted that he makes fools of
others, he renders himself ridiculous.

'Add to all this, that sincerity is the most
compendious wisdom, and an excellent in-
strument for the speedy despatch of busi-
ness; it creates confidence in those we have
to deal with, saves the labour of many in-

quiries, and brings things to an issue in a
few words. It is like travelling in a plain
beaten road, which commonly brings a man
sooner to his journey's end than by-ways,
in which men often lose themselves. In

In tenui labor-
Virg. Georg. v.6
Though low the subject, it deserves our pains.

THE gentleman who obliges the world in general, and me in particular, with his thoughts upon education, has just sent me the following letter:

fourth letter upon the education of youth. 'SIR,-I take the liberty to send you a In my last I gave you my thoughts upon

it might not be amiss to mix with their some particular tasks, which I conceived usual exercises, in order to give them an propose some others, which I fancy might early seasoning of virtue: I shall in this

in it.

a word, whatsoever convenience may be contribute to give them a right turn for the
thought to be in falsehood and dissimula-world, and enable them to make their way
tion, it is soon over; but the inconvenience
of it is perpetual, because it brings a man either to render a man an agreeable com-
'The design of learning is, as I take it,
under an everlasting jealousy and suspi-panion to himself, and teach him to support
cion, so that he is not believed when he solitude with pleasure; or, if he is not bom
speaks the truth, nor trusted perhaps when to an estate, to supply that defect, and fur-
he means honestly. When a man has once nish him with the means of acquiring one.
forfeited the reputation of his integrity, he A person who applies himself to learning
is set fast; and nothing will then serve his with the first of these views may be said to
turn, neither truth nor falsehood.
'And I have often thought, that God hath himself the second, properly studies for use.
study for ornament; as he who proposes to
in his great wisdom, hid from men of false The one does it to raise himself a fortune;
and dishonest minds the wonderful advan- the other to set off that which he is already
tages of truth and integrity to the pros- possessed of. But as far the greater part
perity even of our worldly affairs: these of mankind are included in the latter class,
men are so blinded by their covetousness I shall only propose some methods at pre-
and ambition, that they cannot look beyond sent for the service of such who expect to
a present advantage, nor forbear to seize advance themselves in the world by their
upon it, though by ways never so indirect; learning. In order to which, I shall pre-
they cannot see so far as to the remote con-
mise, that many more estates have been
sequence of a steady integrity, and the
vast benefit and advantages which it will acquired by little accomplishments than by
bring a man at last. Were but this sort of make the greatest figure in the
extraordinary ones; those qualities which
eye of the
men wise and clear-sighted enough to dis-world not being always the most useful in
cern this, they would be honest out of very themselves, or the most advantageous
knavery, not out of any love to honesty and
virtue, but with a crafty design to promote
and advance more effectually their own in-
terests; and therefore the justice of the Di-
vine Providence hath hid this truest point
of wisdom from their eyes, that bad men
and upright, and serve their own wicked
might not be upon equal terms with the just
designs by honest and lawful means.

their owners.


and uncommon parts to discharge them are The posts which require men of shining out of the world without ever having an so very few, that many a great genius goes

occasions fitted to their parts and capaci opportunity to exert itself; whereas, per sons of ordinary endowments meet with

ties every day in the common occurrences of life.

Indeed, if a man were only to deal in the world for a day, and should never have occasion to converse more with mankind, were formerly school-fellows, and have "I am acquainted with two persons who never more need their good opinion or good been good friends ever since. One of them word, it were then no great matter (speak-was not only thought an impenetrable blocking as to the concernments of this world,) head at school, but still maintained his reif a man spent his reputation all at once,

brated person in the college of which he was a member. The man of genius is at

and ventured it at one throw; but if he be putation at the university; the other was
to continue in the world, and would have the pride of his master, and the most cele
the advantage of conversation whilst he is in
it, let him make use of truth and sincerity
in all his words and actions; for nothing but
this will last and hold out to the end: all
other arts will fail, but truth and integrity
will carry a man through, and bear him

out to the last."


"Swift, and Mr. Stratford, a merchant. Stratford is worth a plumb, and is now lending the government 40,000l. yet we were educated together at the same school and university. Swift's Works, vol. xxii. p. 10

cr. 8vo. Stratford was afterwards a bankrupt."



resent buried in a country parsonage of ght-score pounds a year; while the other, ith the bare abilities of a common scriner, has got an estate of above a hundred ousand pounds.

'I fancy from what I have said, it will most appear a doubtful case to many a ealthy citizen, whether or no he ought to sh his son should be a great genius: but is I am sure of, that nothing is more abrd than to give a lad the education of e, whom nature has not favoured with y particular marks of distinction.

The fault, therefore, of our grammar hools is, that every boy is pushed on to orks of genius: whereas, it would be far ore advantageous for the greatest part of em to be taught such little practical arts d sciences as do not require any great are of parts to be master of them, and t may come often into play during the urse of a man's life.

"Such are all the parts of practical geoetry. I have known a man contract a endship with a minister of state, upon tting a dial in his window; and remember clergyman who got one of the best beneces in the west of England, by setting a untry gentleman's affairs in some method, dgiving him an exact survey of his estate. While I am upon this subject, I cannot rbear mentioning a particular which is of e in every station of life, and which, meinks, every master should teach scholars; mean the writing of English letters. To is end, instead of perplexing them with


fied for the finer parts of learning; yet I believe I might carry this matter still further, and venture to assert, that a lad of genius has sometimes occasion for these little acquirements, to be as it were the forerunners of his parts, and to introduce him into the world."

History is full of examples of persons who, though they have had the largest abilities, have been obliged to insinuate themselves into the favour of great men, by these trivial accomplishments; as the complete gentleman in some of our modern comedies, makes his first advances to his mistress under the disguise of a painter or a dancing-master.

"The difference is, that in a lad of genius these are only so many accomplishments, which in another are essentials; the one diverts himself with them, the other works at them. In short, I look upon a great genius, with these little additions, in the same light as I regard the Grand Seignior, who is obliged, by an express command in the Alcoran, to learn and practise some handicraft trade; though I need not to have gone for my instance farther than Germany, where several emperors have voluntarily done the same thing. Leopold the last, worked in wood: and I have heard there are several handicraft works of his making to be seen at Vienna, so neatly turned that the best joiner in Europe might safely own them without any disgrace to his profession.*

I would not be thought, by any thing I epistles, themes, and verses, there have said, to be against improving a boy's ight be a punctual correspondence esta-genius to the utmost pitch it can be carried. ished between two boys, who might act What I would endeavour to show in this any imaginary parts of business, or be essay is, that there may be methods taken lowed sometimes to give a range to their to make learning advantageous even to the vn fancies, and communicate to each other meanest capacities. I am, sir, yours, &c. hatever trifles they thought fit, provided Either of them ever failed at the appointed me to answer his correspondent's letter.


'I believe I may venture to affirm, that No. 354.] Wednesday, April 16, 1712.

e generality of boys would find themselves ore advantaged by this custom, when they

me to be men, than by all the Greek and atin their masters can teach them in seven

eight years.

The want of it is very visible in many arned persons, who, while they are adring the styles of Demosthenes or Cicero, ant phrases to express themselves on the ost common occasions. I have seen a ter from one of these Latin orators which uld have been deservedly laughed at by

common attorney.

Under this head of writing, I cannot it accounts and short-hand, which are arned with little pains, and very properly me into the number of such arts as I have en here recommending.


You must doubtless, sir, observe that ve hitherto chiefly insisted upon these ings for such boys as do not appear to ve any thing extraordinary in their natutalents, and consequently are not quali

-Cum magnis virtutibus affers Grande supercilium.Juv. Sat. vi. 168. Their signal virtues hardly can be borne, Dash'd as they are with supercilious scorn. 'MR. SPECTATOR,-You have in some of your discourses described most sort of women in their distinct and proper classes, as the ape, the coquette, and many others; but I think you have never yet said any thing of a devotee. A devotee is one of those who disparage religion by their in

discreet and unseasonable introduction of

the mention of virtue on all occasions. She professes she is what nobody ought to doubt she is; and betrays the labour she is put to, to be what she ought to be with cheerfulness and alacrity. She lives in the world, and denies herself none of the diversions of it, with a constant declaration how insipid all things in it are to her. She is never

The well-known labours of the Czar Peter may be

added to those enumerated above.


herself but at church; there she displays | her virtue, and is so fervent in all her devotions, that I have frequently seen her pray herself out of breath. While other young ladies in the house are dancing, or playing at questions and commands, she reads aloud in her closet. She says, all love is ridiculous, except it be celestial; but she speaks of the passion of one mortal to another with too much bitterness for one that had no jealousy mixed with her contempt of it. If at any time she sees a man warm in his addresses to his mistress, she will lift up her eyes to heaven, and cry, "What nonsense is that fool talking! Will the bell never ring for prayers?" We have an eminent lady of this stamp in our country, who pretends to amusements very much above the rest of her sex. She never carries a white shock-dog with bells under her arm, nor a squirrel or dormouse in her pocket, but always an abridged piece of morality, to steal out when she is sure of being observed. When she went to the famous ass-race, (which I must confess was but an odd diversion to be encouraged by people of rank and figure,) it was not, like other ladies, to hear those poor animals bray, nor to see fellows run naked, or to hear country squires in bob wigs and white girdles make love at the side of a coach, and cry, "Madam this is dainty weather." Thus she described the diversion; for she went only to pray heartily that nobody might be hurt in the crowd, and to see if the poor fellow's face, which was distorted with grinning, might any way be brought to itself again. She never chats over her tea, but covers her face, and is supposed in an ejaculation before she tastes a sup. This ostentatious behaviour is such an offence to true sanctity, that it disparages it, and makes virtue not only unamiable, but also ridiculous. The sacred writings are full of reflections which abhor this kind of conduct; and a devotee is so far from promoting goodness, that she deters others by her example. Folly and vanity in one of these ladies is like vice in a clergyman; it does not only debase him, but makes the inconsiderate part of the world think the worse of religion. I am, sir, your humble servant,


'MR. SPECTATOR,-Xenophon in his short account of the Spartan commonwealth speaking of the behaviour of their young men in the streets, says, "There was so much modesty in their looks, that you might as soon have turned the eyes of a marble statue upon you as theirs; and that in all their behaviour they were modest than a bride when put to bed upon her wedding-night." This virtue, which is always subjoined to magnanimity, had such an influence upon their courage, that in battle an enemy could not look them in the face, and they durst not but die for their country.


"Whenever I walk into the streets of London and Westminster, the countenances of all the young fellows that pass by me make me wish myself in Sparta: I meet with such blustering airs, big looks, and bold fronts, that, to a superficial observer, would bespeak a courage above those Gre cians. I am arrived to that perfection in speculation, that I understand the language of the eyes, which would be a great misfor tune to me had I not corrected the testiness of old age by philosophy. There is scarce a man in a red coat who does not tell me, with a full stare, he is a bold man: I see several swear inwardly at me, without any offence of mine, but the oddness of my per son; I meet contempt in every street; ex pressed in different manners by the scornful look, the elevated eye-brow, and the swelling nostrils of the proud and prosperous. The 'prentice speaks his disrespect by an extended finger, and the porter by stealing out his tongue. If a country gentleman appears a little curious in observing the edifices, clocks, signs, coaches, and dials, it is not to be imagined how the polite rabble of this town, who are acquainted with these objects, ridicule his rusticity. I have known a fellow with a burden on his head steal & hand down from his load, and slily twirl the cock of a 'squire's hat behind him; while the offended person is swearing, or out of countenance, all the wag-wits in the highway are grinning in applause of the ingenious rogue that gave him the tip, and the folly of him who had not eyes all round his head to prevent receiving it. These things arise from a general affectation of smartness, wit, and courage. Wycherly where rallies the pretensions this way, by making a fellow say, "Red breeches are a certain sign of valour;" and Otway makes a man, to boast his agility, trip up a beggar on crutches. From such hints I beg a specu lation on this subject: in the mean time I shall do all in the power of a weak old fel low in my own defence; for as Diogenes, being in quest of an honest man, sought for him when it was broad daylight with lantern and candle, so I intend for the future to walk the streets with a dark lantern, which has a convex crystal in it; and if any man stares at me, I give fair warning that I will direct the light full into his eyes Thus despairing to find men modest, I hope by this means to evade their impudence. I am, sir, your humble servant, T.



No. 355.] Thursday, April 17, 1712.

Non ego mordaci distrinxi earmine quenquam
Ovid Trist. Lib. ii. 563.

I ne'er in gall dipp'd my envenom'd pen,
Nor branded the bold front of shameless men.

I HAVE been very often tempted to write invectives upon those who have detracted from my works, or spoken in derogation of

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no more than one of those fictitious names
made use of by an author to introduce an
imaginary character. Why should a man
be sensible of the sting of a reproach, who
is a stranger to the guilt that is implied in
it; or subject himself to the penalty, when
he knows he has never committed the
crime? This is a piece of fortitude, which
every one owes to his own innocence, and
without which it is impossible for a man
of any merit or figure to live at peace with
himself, in a country that abounds with wit
and liberty.

my person; but I look upon it as a particu-
lar happiness, that I have always hindered
my resentments from proceeding to this
extremity. I once had gone through half
a satire, but found so many motions of hu-
manity rising in me towards the persons
whom I had severely treated, that I threw it
into the fire without ever finishing it. I have
been angry enough to make several little
epigrams and lampoons; and, after having
admired them a day or two, have likewise
committed them to the flames. These I
look upon as so many sacrifices to humanity,
and have received much greater satisfac-
tion from suppressing such performances,
than I could have done from any reputation
they might have procured me, or from any
mortification they might have given my
enemies in case I had made them public.
If a man has any talent in writing, it shows
good mind to forbear answering calum-
ies and reproaches in the same spirit of
bitterness with which they are offered. But
when a man has been at some pains in
making suitable returns to an enemy, and
as the instruments of revenge in his hands,
o let drop his wrath, and stifle his resent-me
ments, seems to have something in it great
and heroical. There is a particular merit
n such a way of forgiving an enemy; and
he more violent and unprovoked the of
ence has been, the greater still is the merit
fhim who thus forgives it.

I never met with a consideration that is nore finely spun, and what has better leased me, than one in Epictetus, which laces an enemy in a new light, and gives s a view of him altogether different from hat in which we are used to regard him. The sense of it is as follows: Does a man eproach thee for being proud or ill-natured, nvious or conceited, ignorant or detractg? Consider with thyself whether his reroaches are true. If they are not, consider hat thou art not the person whom he reroaches, but that he reviles an imaginary cing, and perhaps loves what thou really t, though he hates what thou appearest be. If his reproaches are true, if thou Et the envious, ill-natured man he takes ee for, give thyself another turn, become ild, affable, and obliging, and his reroaches of thee naturally cease. His proaches may indeed continue, but thou t no longer the person whom he reoaches.*


I often apply this rule to myself; and hen I hear of a satirical speech or writing at is aimed at me, I examine my own art, whether I deserve it or not. If I ing in a verdict against myself, I endeaur to rectify my conduct for the future in ose particulars which have drawn the nsure upon me; but if the whole invece be grounded upon a falsehood, I troue myself no further about it, and look on my name at the head of it to signify

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The famous Monsieur Balzac, in a letter to the chancellor of France, who had prevented the publication of a book against him, has the following words, which are a lively picture of the greatness of mind so visible in the works of that author: If it was a new thing, it may be I should not be displeased with the suppression of the first libel that should abuse me; but since there are enough of them to make a small library, I am secretly pleased to see the number increased, and take delight in raising a heap of stones that envy has cast at without doing me any harm.ʼatoloq The author here alludes to those monuments of the eastern nations which were mountains of stones raised upon the dead bodies by travellers, that used to cast every one his stone upon it as they passed by. It is certain that no monument is so glorious as one which is thus raised by the hands of envy. For my part, I admire an author for such a temper of mind as enables him to bear an undeserved reproach without resentment, more than for all the wit of any the finest satirical reply.

Thus far I thought necessary to explain myself in relation to those who have animadverted on this paper, and to show the reasons why I have not thought fit to return them any formal answer. I must further add, that the work would have been of very little use to the public, had it been filled with personal reflections and debates; for which reason I have never once turned out of my way to observe those little cavils which have been made against it by envy or ignorance. The common fry of scribblers, who have no other way of being taken notice of but by attacking what has gained some reputation in the world, would have furnished me with business enough had they found me disposed to enter the lists with them.bro se dors VOL

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I shall conclude with the fable of Boccalini's traveller, who was so pestered with the noise of grasshoppers in his ears that he alighted from his horse in great wrath to kill them all. This,' says the author,

was troubling himself to no manner of pur pose. Had he pursued his journey without taking notice of them, the troublesome insects would have died of themselves in a very few weeks, and he would have suffer ed nothing from them.'


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