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II. The (so called) historic books, with their appendages, Chronicles and the book of Ruth, contain the

Melech in V. T. Libros...... particula complectens Prophetiam Jona. Vers. Lat. et Indice illustravit, Paraphrasin Chald. Textui Hebr. adposuit atque Præf. præmisit Ern. Chr. Fabricius; Gott. 1792, 8vo.


Origen, Exegetical Remains on the O. T., in Origenis Commentaria, ed. Huetius; Rothomagi, 1668. Opera, ed. De la Rue, vol. ii. iii.

Jo. Chrysostomus, Homilies, Opp. ed. Montfaucon; Paris, 1718-1738, 13 vols. fol.

Ephraem the Syrian's Commentary on the O. T., after the Peshito, in his Opp. Syr. et Lat. ed. Petr. Benedictus; Rom. 1740, fol.

Theodoreti Quæst. in Pentat., Jos., Jud., Ruth, Sam., Regg., Paralip. Comment. in Psalm., Cant. Cant., Proph., Opp. ed. Jac. Sirmond; Par. 1642, 4 tom. fol.; ed. J. L. Schulz et J. A. Nösselt; Hal. 1769-1774, 5 tom. 8vo.

Procopii Gazaei Comment. in Octateuchum Lat.; Tigur. 1555; in Libros Regg. et Paralipp. Græce et Latine a Jo. Meursio; Lug. Bat. 1620, 4to. Variorum in Esaiam Prophetam Commentariorum Epitome Græce et Lat. a Jo. Curterio; Paris, 1580.

Σειρὰ ἑνὸς πεντήκοντα υπομνηματιστῶν εἰς τὴν ̓Οκτάτευχον καὶ τῶν Βασιλειῶν ἤδη πρῶτον τύποις ἐκδοθεῖσα ἐπιμελείᾳ Νικηφόρου; Leipz. 1772, 2 vols. fol. Catena Græcorum P. P. in beatum Job. Collectore Niceta ed. et Lat. Vers. Op. et St. Patricii Junii; Lond. 1637, fol. Expositio Patrum Græcorum in Psalmos a Balth. Corderio ex Codd. concinnata, Latinitate donata; Antwerp, 1643-1646, fol. 3 vols. Eusebii, Polychronii, Psellii in Cant. Cant. Expositt. Græce Jo. Meursius publicavit; Lug. Bat. 1617, 4to. Hieronymi Comment. in Prophetas, Eccles. Quæst. Hebr. in Genes. Epist. critt. xviii. Opp. ed. Martianay; Par. 1693-1706, 5 vols. fol.; — ed. Vallarsi; Veron. 1734-1742, 11 vols. fol.; ed. 2, 1766-1772, 11 vols. 4to. Augustini Liber de Genesi ad Litteram imperf.; de Genesi ad Litteram LL. xii.; Quæst. in Heptateuchum LL. vii.; Enarrat. in Psalm.; Annotatt. in Job. L. I. Opp. ed. Bened.; Par. 1679-1701, 11 vols. fol. ;-ed. 2, Cur. Clerici; Antwerp, 1700-1703, 12 vols. fol.


Conr. Pellicani Comm. in Libros V. et N. T.; Tigur. 1532-1539, 9 vols. fol.

Jo. Piscatoris Comm. in omnes Libros V. T.; Herborn. 1646, fol.
Cornel. a Lapide, Comm. in omnes S. S. Libros; Venet. 1688, 16 vols. fol.
Calvini Comm. in his Opp.; Amst. 1671, 9 vols. fol.

subsequent history of the theocracy, its struggle and downfall.

Franc. Vatabli (Vatblé) Annotatt. in V. T. ex ejus Prælectt. collectæ a Bertino le Comte; Par. 1545; also at the end of the Vulgate of Rob. Stephanus; 1557, 2 vols. fol.

Seb. Münster, Annotatt. in omnes Libros V. T. in his Bibl. Hebr. Lat.; 1535-1546.

Jo. le Mercier, Comm. in Gen.; 1598; in Job., Proverbb., etc.; 1573, fol.; in Prophetas quinque priores inter eos, qui minores vocantur; 1698, 4to.

Jo. Drusii Annotatt. in Loca diffic. Pentateuchi; Frankf. 1617, 4to.; in Loca diffic. Jos., Judd., et Sam.; 1618, 4to. Lectiones in Proph. Nahum, Hab., Sophon., Joel., Jon., Abdiam. In Græcam Editionem Conjectanea, et Interpretum vett. quæ exstant Fragmenta; Leid. 1595. Lect. in Hos., etc.; Leid. 1699. In Amos; Leid. 1600. In Mich., Agg., Zachar., et Malach.; Amst. 1627, 4to. Comm. in Prophetas min., ed. Sixt. Amama; Amst. 1627, 4to. Comm. in Libr. Ruth; 1586, 4to. Annotatt. in L. Esther; Leid. 1586. Scholia in Job.; Amst. 1636. In Cohel.; ib. 1635, 4to.

Grotii Annotatt. in V. T.; Par. 1644, 3 vols. fol. ;— ed. G. J. L. Vogel et Döderlein; Hal. 1775, 1776, 3 vols. 4to.;- with an Auctarium by Döderlein; 1779, 4to.

See these and other interpreters in Critt. sacris; Lond. 1660, 9 vols. fol., (by J. and R. Pearson Scattergood, and Gouldman,) reprinted and enlarged; Amst. 1698, 9 vols. fol., ed. by Gürtler; Frankf. 1696, 7 vols. fol.; and 2 suppl. vols.; 1700, 1701. Matth. Poli, Synopsis Criticorum aliorumque S. S. . Interpretum; Lond. 1669, 5 vols. fol.; Frankf. 1712, 5 vols. fol.; ib. 1694, 5 vols. 4to.

Jo. Maldonati Comm. in Præcip. Libr. V. T.; Par. 1643, fol.

Lud. de Dieu, Animadverss. in V. T. Libros omnes; Leid. 1648. Critica sac. sive Animadverss. in Loca quæd. diffic. V. et N. T.; Amst. 1693, fol. Lud. Cappelli Comm. et Notæ critice in V. T., cum Jac. Cappelli Observatt. in V. T.; Amst. 1689, fol.

Abrah. Calovii Biblia V. et N. T. illustrata, sive Comm. Locupl. in V. et N. T., præmissis Chronico s., Tractatu de Nummis, Ponderibus, et Mensuris, insertis et refutatis Annotatt. Grotianis universis; Frcf. a. M. 1672— 1676, 4 vols. fol.

Seb. Schmidt, Annotatt. super Mosis L. I.; Arg. 1697, 4to. Prælect. in viii. priora c. Jos. in his Comm. in Jes.; Hamb. 1723, 4to. Comm. in Libr. Judd.; Arg. 1706, 4to. Annotatt. in L. Ruth; ib. 1696, 4to. Comm. in Librr. Sam.; ib. 1697, 4to. Annotatt. in Librr. Regg.; ib. 1697. 1705, 2 vols. 4to. In Cohel.; ib. 1704, 4to. Super 1702, 4to. In Jerem.; Frcf. a. M. 1706, 2 vols. 4to. In Proph. min.; Lips. 1698, 4to.

Comm. in Job.; ib. Prophet. Jes.; Hamb.

Jo. Clerici Comm. in Pentat.; Amst. 1710. In Libros hist. V. T.; 1708. In Hagiogr.; 1731. In Proph.; 1731, fol.

III. The books of Ezra, Nehemiah, and Esther, treat of the history of the people of Israel after the exile, that is, of the second temple.

Commentaire littéral sur tous les Livres de l'Ancien et N. T. par Augustin Calmet; Paris, 1724-1726, 8 vols. fol.

J. H. Michaelis, Annotatt. in V. T., in his Bib. Heb.; Hal. 1720. Engl. Bibelwerk, deutsch herausgeg. von Romanus Teller, Baumgarten, Dietelmaier, and Brucker; Leipz. 1749-1770, 19 vols. 4to.

J. D. Michaelis, Uebers des A. T. mit Anmerk. für Ungelehrte, 13 vols. ; Gött. 1769-1783, 4to.

Uebers. u. Erkl. der heil. Bücher des A. T. von Moldenhauer; Quedlinb. 1774-1787, 10 vols. 4to.

W. F. Hezel, Die Bibel A. und N. T. mit vollst. erklär. Anmerkk.; Lemgo, 1780-1791, 10 vols.


Die heil. Schrift d. A. T. v. Dm. v. Brentano, 1 pt., fortges. v. Dereser, 2 4 pt. 3 vols., geend. v. Scholz, 4 pt. 4 vol.; 1797-1832.

J. D. Dathe, Pentateuchus Lat. Vers. Notisque philol. et crit. illustr.; Hal. 1781; ed. 2, 1791, 8vo. Libri hist.; 1784. Proph. maj.; 1779; ed. 2, 1785. Proph. min.; 1773; ed. 2, 1779; ed. 3, 1790. Psalmi; 1787; ed. 2, 1794. Job, Prov., Sal., Eccles., Cant. Cant.; 1789.

J. Chr. F. Schulz, Schol. in V. T. inde a iv. tom. contin. a G. Lor. Bauer; Norimb. 1783-1798, 10 vols. 8vo.

E. F. C. Rosenmüller, Schol. in V. T. P. I. cont. Gen. et Exod.; Lips. 1788; ed. 2, 1795; ed. 3, 2 vols. 1821, 1822. P. II. Lev., Num., et Deuteron.; 1790; ed. 2, 1798; ed. 3, 1824. Schol. in Pentat. in Compend. redacta; 1828. P. III. sect. 1-2, cont. Jes.; 1790-1793; ed. 2, 3 vols., 1810, 1818, 1820; ed. 3, 1829, vol. i. P. IV. vol. i.-iii. cont. Pss.; 1800-1804; ed. 2, 1821-1823; in comp. red.; 1831. P. V. vol. i. ii., cont. Job.; 1806; ed. 2, 1824. P. VI. vol. i. ii. cont. Ezech.; 1808; ed. 2, 1826. P. VII. vol. i.—iv. cont. Proph. min.; 1812-1816; ed. 2, 1827, 1828. P. VIII. vol. i. ii. cont. Jer., Vatic., et Thren.; 1826, 1827. P. IX. vol. i. ii. cont. Salom. scripta; 1829, 1830. P. X. cont. Dan.; 1832.

Exegetisches Handbuch des A. T.; Leipz. 1797-1800, 9 vols., cont. Jos., Richter, Ruth, Sam., B. der Kön., Jes.

Kurzgefasstes exegetisches Handbuch zum Altes Test. pt. i. die 12 kleinen Proph.; Leipz. 1838, by Hitzig; pt. ii. Job; ib. 1839, by Hirzel; pt. iii.; ib. 1841, Jeremiah, by Hitzig; pt. iv.; 1842, Samuel, &c.

[The Reformer's Bible, (reprinted ;) Lond. 1810, 4to. Annotations on all the Books of the Old and New Testament, (the " Assemblies' Annotations; ") Lond. 1657, 2 vols. fol.

Poole, Annot. upon the Holy Bible; 1683, 2 vols. fol. The Old and New Testament, with Annotations, &c., by Samuel Clarke; Lond. 1690, fol. (A false book was published in the name of S. Clarke; 1811, fol.)

Patrick, Louth, Whitby's and Arnald's Commentary on the Bible; Lond.

§ 136, a


1727-1760, 7 vols. fol. (reprinted 1809, 1821.) Henry's Exposition, 5 vols.
fol. Gill's Exposition of the Old and New Testament; 1748-1763, 9 vols.
fol. Other works, more or less valuable, have been prepared by Purver,
Wesley, Benson, Cruden, Dodd, Goadby, Scott, Wilson, Yonge, Bulkley,
Priestley, Trimmer, Burder, Hewlett, D'Oyly and Mant, and Adam Clarke.]

which belong to an age destitute of the theocratic spirit; that is, in the historical books of the Hagiographa.

[The application of the term mythology to certain narratives and opinions in the Bible need excite no surprise. The Jews had their mythology, as well as the Hindoos, the Goths, and the Greeks. Symbols and myths are necessarily used, by a rude people, to clothe abstract truths. It is evident the ancient Hebrews made use of them as the drapery of religious truth. This appears from the temple ceremonies, the visions and symbolic actions of the prophets; from the figurative expressions relating to the Deity, and the perpetual recurrence of anthropo-morphitic views of him. It is often difficult to determine where the myth begins, and the plain statement ends. But the Hebrew Scriptures have this difficulty in common with all very ancient, and especially Oriental writings. Symbolical language is sometimes used consciously, as properly symbolical, and sometimes unconsciously, when the writer himself had no clear conception of the subject, but confounded figure and fact.

"A dogma is a creation of the Understanding; a symbol, of the Feelings; and a myth, of Fancy. The first expresses itself in ideas; the second, in æsthetic images; the third, in history. The first is an object of faith; the second, of devout reverence; but the third is, originally, neither the one nor the other; it is a free play of fiction."]"

"We apply the term mythology to historical narratives, some of which relate to the supersensuous, and others date back to an ideal antiquity, and both rise above the ordinary laws of historical causality. Such narratives usually originate in legends, whence the name. See De Wette, Bib. Dogmatik. § 55. [Bauer, Heb. Mythologie, 1802, § 1-7.] Georgi, Mythus and Saga; Berlin, 1837. Tuch, Genesis, p. 1, sqq. A myth is an idea clothed in facts: a saga contains facts penetrated and transformed by ideas.

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