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tions not noticed above, were his "Speaker," a selection of pieces for the purpose of recital; "Exercises on Elocution," a sequel to the preceding; "The Preacher's Directory," an arrangement of topics and texts; "The English Preacher," a collection of short sermons from various authors, 9 vols. 12mo; "Biographical Sermons on the principal characters in the Old and New Testament." After his death a selection of his "Sermons" was published in 3 vols. 8vo, with a life by Dr. Aikin. As a divine, Dr. Enfield ranks among the Socinians, and his endeavours in these sermons are to reduce Christianity to a mere system of ethics.'

ENGHELBRECHTSEN (CORNELIUS), a celebrated painter, was born in 1468, in the town of Leyden, and took for his guide the works of John van Eyck. He was the first that painted in oil in his country; was a good draftsman, and executed with no less vigour than dispatch both in water-colours and in oil. His works, which escaped the disturbances that ravaged the country, being preserved with respect, by the citizens in the town-house of Leyden, were two altar-pictures, with the side-pieces, since put up in the church of Notre-dame du Marais; one representing Christ on the Cross between the Thieves, the other Abraham's Sacrifice, and another, a Descent from the Cross. In the same place is preserved a cartoon in water-colours, representing the adoration of the kings. Lucas van Leyden formed himself on his manner. But the principal work of Enghelbrechtsen, according to his biographer Van Mander, is a picture designed to enrich the tombs of the barons of Lockhorst. It was in their chapel in the church of St. Peter of Leyden, and in 1604 was conveyed to Utrecht, to M. van den Bogaert, son-in-law of M. van Lockhorst. The main subject represents the lamb of the Apocalypse: a multitude of figures, well disposed, the physiognomies noble and graceful, and the delicate style of his pencil render this picture the admiration of all that see it. His genius led him to make a particular study of the emotions of the soul, which he had the art of expressing in every physiognomy. He was considered by the masters his contemporaries as one of the greatest painters of his age. He died at Leyden in 1533, in the sixty-fifth year of his age."

1 Life as above.-Gleig's Supplement to the Encyclopædia Britannica.Wakefield's Memoirs. ? Descamps, vol. I.—Pilkington.


ENGHELRAMS (CORNELIUS), another artist, was born at Malines in the year 1527. Though he has left chiefly pictures in distemper, yet he is allowed to be a very able artist. His principal works are in the church of St. Rombout. He has represented on a large canvas, the works of mercy. A multitude of figures, well designed, form the object of this grand composition, and among them he is said to have distinguished, with great spirit, the poor that deserve our compassion, from those who do not. works are dispersed in the principal towns of Germany. At Hamburgh, in the church of St. Catharine, was a grand and learned composition representing the conversion of St. Paul. He painted for the prince of Orange, in the castle of Antwerp, the history of David, from the designs of Lucas van Heere. De Vries painted the architecture of it, the friezes, the terms, and the other ornaments. The whole was executed in water-colours. Enghelrams died in 1583, at the age of fifty-six.'

ENGLISH (HESTER), a French woman by extraction, was eminent for her fine writing in the time of queen Elizabeth and James I. Many of her performances are still extant both in our libraries and private hands; particularly one in the Harcourt family, entitled "Historiæ memorabiles Genesis per Esteram Inglis Gallam," Edenburgi, ann. 1600. It appears by Hearne's spicilegium to Gul. Neubrigensis, vol. III. p. 751, 752, that she was the most exquisite scribe of her age. A curious piece of her performance was in the possession of Mr. Cripps, surgeon in Budge-row, London, entitled "Octonaries upon the vanitie and inconstancie of the world. Writin by Ester Inglis, The firste of Januarie, 1600." It is done on an oblong 8vo, in French and English verse; the French is all in print hand, and the English mostly Italian or secretary, and is curiously ornamented with flowers and fruits painted in water-colours, and on the first leaf is her own picture, in a small form, with this motto,

"De Dieu le bien,

De moy le rien."

All we know of this curious artist is, that she lived single to the age of about forty, and then married Mr. Bartholomew Kello, a North Briton; that she had a son who was educated at Oxford, and was minister of Speckshall, in

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Suffolk. His son was sword-bearer of Norwich, and died in 1709. Joseph Hall, bishop of Norwich, when dean of Worcester, 1617, is styled by her, " My very singular friend," in a manuscript dedicated to him, now in the Bodleian library.'

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ENNIUS (QUINTUS), an ancient Latin poet, was born at Rudiæ, a town in Calabria, anno U. C. 514, or B. C. 237. That this was the place of his nativity, we learn from himself, as well as from others; and the Florentines at this day claim him for their fellow-citizen. He came at first to Rome, when M. P. Cato was quæstor, whom he had instructed in the Greek language in Sardinia. C. Nepos informs us, that "Cato, when he was prætor, obtained the province of Sardinia, from whence, when he was quæstor there before, he had brought Ennius to Rome: "which we esteem,' says the historian, "no less than the noblest triumph over Sardinia." He had a house on the Aventine mount; and, by his genius, conversation, and integrity, gained the friendship of the most eminent persons in the city. Among these were Galba and M. Fulvius Nobilior, by whose son (who, after his father's example, was greatly addicted to learning) he was made free of the city. He attended Fulvius in the war against the Etolians and Ambraciotæ, and celebrated his victories over those nations. He fought likewise under Torquatus in Sardinia, and under the elder Scipio; and in all these services distinguished himself by his uncommon valour. He was very intimate with Scipio Nasica, as appears from Cicero: Nasica, going one day to visit Ennius, and the maid-servant saying that he was not at home, Scipio found that she had told him so by her master's orders, and that Ennius was at home. A few days after, Ennius coming to Nasica, and inquiring for him at the door, the latter called out to him, "that he was not at home." Upon which Ennius answering, "What! do I not know your voice?" Scipio replied, "You have a great deal of assurance; for I believed your maid, when she told me, that you were not at home; and will not you believe me myself?" Ennius was a man of uncommon virtue, and lived in great simplicity and frugality. He died at the age of seventy years; and his death is said to have been occasioned by the gout, contracted by an immoderate

Massey's Origin and Progress of Letters.

use of wine, of which he always drank very freely before he applied himself to writing. This Horace affirms :

Ennius ipse pater nunquam nisi potus ad arma
Prosiluit dicenda.

Lib. i. epist. 19.

Inspir'd with wine old Ennius sung, and thought
With the same spirit that his heroes fought.


He was interred in the Appian way, within a mile of the city, in Scipio's sepulchre; who had so great an esteem and friendship for him, that he ordered him to be buried in his sepulchre, and a statue to be erected to him upon his monument. Valer. Maximus observes, that "Scipio paid these honours to Ennius, because he thought that his own actions received a lustre from that poet's writings; and was persuaded, that the memory of his exploits would last as long as the Roman empire should flourish."

Ennius is said to have been perfectly well skilled in the Greek language, and to have endeavoured to introduce the treasures of it among the Latins. Suetonius tells us, that "he and Livius Andronicus were half Greeks, and taught both the Greek and Latin languages at home and abroad." He was the first among the Romans who wrote heroic verses, and greatly polished the Latin poetry. He wrote the Annals of Rome, which were so highly esteemed, that they were publicly recited with unusual applause by Quintus Vargonteius, who digested them into books; and they were read at Puteoli in the theatre by a man of learning, who assumed the name of the Ennianist. He translated several tragedies from the Greek, and wrote others. He published likewise several comedies; but, whether of his own invention, or translated by him, is uncertain. He gave a Latin version of Evemerus's sacred history, and Epicharmus's philosophy; and wrote Phagetica, epigrams; Scipio, a poem; Asotus or Sotadicus, satires; Protreptica & Præcepta, and very probably several other works. It appears from his writings, that he had very strong sentiments of religion. The fragments of Ennius, for there are nothing but fragments left, were first collected by the two Stephenses; and afterwards published by Jerom Columna, a Roman nobleman, with a learned commentary, and the life of Ennius, at Naples, 1590, 4to. Columna's edition was reprinted at Amsterdam, 1707, 4to, with several additions by Hesselius, professor of history and elo

quence in the school at Rotterdam, and this is by far the best edition of Ennius.1

ENNODIUS (MAGNUS FELIX), bishop of Pavia in Italy, and an eminent writer, was descended from an illustrious family in Gaul, and born in Italy about the year 473. Losing an aunt, who had brought him up, at sixteen years of age, he was reduced to very necessitous circumstances, but retrieved his affairs by marrying a young lady of great fortune and quality. He enjoyed for some time all the pleasures and advantages which his wealth could procure him; but afterwards resolved upon a more strict course of life. He entered into orders, with the consent of his lady, who likewise betook herself to a religious life. He was ordained deacon by Epiphanius, bishop of Pavia, with whom he lived in the most inviolable friendship. His application to divinity did not divert him from prosecuting, at his leisure hours, poetry and oratory, in which he had distinguished himself from his youth; and his writings gained him very great reputation. Upon the death of Epiphanius, he appears to have been elected one of the deacons of the Roman church; and in the year 503, having presented to the synod of Rome an apology for the council there, which had absolved pope Symmachus the year before, it was ordered to be inserted among the acts of the synod. He was advanced to the bishopric of Pavia about the year 511, and appointed to negociate an union between the eastern and western churches; for which purpose he took two journeys into the east, the former in the year 515, with Fortunatus, bishop of Catanæa; the latter in the year 517, with Peregrinus, bishop of Misenum. Though he did not succeed in these negotiations, he shewed his prudence and resolution in the management of them. For the emperor Anastasius, having in vain used his utmost efforts to deceive or corrupt him, after other instances of ill treatment, ordered him to be put on board an old ship; and, forbidding him to land in any part of Greece, exposed him to manifest danger, yet he arrived safe in Italy; and, returning to Padua, died there, not long after, in the year 521. His works consist of, 1. "Epistolarum ad diversos libri IX." 2. "Panegyricus Theodorico regi Ostrogothorum dictus." 3. "Libellus apologeticus pro Synodo Palmari." 4. "Vita B. Epiphanii episcopi Ticinensis." 5. "Vita B. Antonii monachi Lirinensis."

Gen. Dict.-Vossius de Poet. Lat.-Saxii Onomasticon.

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