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society, has been only partially worked out. This fact, however, should no more count against sociology than against physics or biology. The science of society, like other sciences, deals with phenomena. It makes no effort to break outside the charmed circle of phenomena; for if the sociologist should do that he would be lost in the metaphysician. Sociology is the crown of all the sciences. It comprehends, and also transcends, the special social sciences like politics, economics, and ethics. The social sciences are in themselves nothing. They deal only with abstractions from the reality which is common to them all. Sociological training is tủe necessary summation of all the experience that prepares for the most intelligent work in philosophy.

It is believed that the general conception of this work furnishes a practical sociological discipline of great importance. It helps to show what the science of society is; and it emphasizes that the special social sciences deal with phases of the reality common to them all.

The book itself is an examination of society; but it does not try to formulate a definition of society. It is a treatise on sociology; but it does not try to formulate a definition of sociology. It assumes that we need experience of society and sociology more than precise definitions of either. It is willing to let definitions grow out of experience, without trying to churn experience from definitions born out of due time.

We have tried to produce a text which will be intelligible not only to scholars, but to non-technical readers. This, however, not without misgivings. Generally speaking, a new thesis ought to be presented first in technical form to the experts who are qualified to pass judg. ment on it. This condition has been partly complied with by the publication of the paper noted above. As a plain matter of fact, if a book of this nature obtains any recognition from competent authorities, it is sure to come into the hands of non-technical readers. People of intelligence, who need a guidance in sociology which has

either not been available, or of which they are not informed, are now reaching forth for books from which they get more harm than good; and we have tried to adapt our treatment with these facts in mind.

We should like to acknowledge the guarded encouragement given to our enterprise by Professor Albion W. Small, of the University of Chicago. His kindly interest has been a stimulating influence. August, 1903.

L. W.

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(Pages 19-28.)

The scientific doctrine of evolution as applied to human society.
Bird's-eye view of the course of world-history, from primeval savagery
and animality up through the oriental, classic, and western civilizations
into modern society.

(Pages 29-37.)

The scientific proposition that the original state of mankind was
that of savagery and animality, unrelieved by progress in the industrial
arts. Proofs and implications of this proposition. Primeval men neces-
sarily scattered over the earth in small and hostile groups. Large societies
impossible, since men possessed neither the material tools nor the knowl-
edge whereby to develop the resources of nature.

CHAPTER IV.

THE CAPITALIZATION OF SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT.

(Pages 47-59)
The integration, or drawing together, of mankind in social groups
of increasing size rests upon the concomitant integration of a huge
mass of material and spiritual capital whereby the resources of nature
are adapted to human needs. Present day civilization based upon a vast
mass of capital in the form of material tools, technical knowledge, etc.
If this mountain of social capital were destroyed, men would be reduced
at once to primeval savagery. Social capital not accumulated by the free
combination of small quantities of individual capital Social cleavage
into two principal classes, upper and lower, the main factor in the
capitalization of social development. The significance of cleavage not
realized, either by scholars or by the general public. Cleavage known
as a fact, but not hitherto treated as its importance demands. Society a
collectivism paradoxically developing under the forms of individualism.

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(Pages 60-196)
Application of this thesis to the most ancient circle of communities
that lay in the path of the world's higher progress - the society centering
around the eastern seaboard of the Mediterranean, Egypt, Chaldea, etc.
The relation of social cleavage to all sides of ancient oriental life
political, industrial, religious, intellectual, etc. Paradoxical nature of
cleavage. An instrument of social good and evil simultaneously. The
world ruled by the play of opposed forces. Decline and fall of the ancient
oriental world largely involved in abuses of social cleavage. These
propositions as to both aspects of cleavage illustrated in dramatic fashion
by the history of Israel, a nation which lay at the center and cross-roads
of the ancient civilization here under survey. Early politics and religion
united. The history of Israel a secular history under the guise of relig-
ious history. The origin and social nature of religion. The early re-
ligion of Israel shown by modern historical criticism to have been a
local Semitic heathenism. Israel knew no god by the name of "Jehovah.”
This name first composed by a European monk. The true name of Israel's
national god partly given in the fourth verse of psalm 68 under the form
"JAH." This name-syllable pronounced as in the word "hallelu-jah."
The full name of Israel's national god to be rendered thus: "YAHWEH."
Historical reality of the sojourn of certain Israelitish tribes on the bor-
ders of Egypt. Historical reality of Moses. The man Moses a pre-
supposition of Israelite history. The part played by Moses in the escape
of Israel from the borders of Egypt. The god Yahweh not originally

the god of Israel. Derived by covenant from the Kenites, a nomadic
people in the region of Mount Sinai, opposite the northeastern border
of Egypt. Why Moses was not invited to the sacrificial meal at Mount
Sinai. The economic basis of all these movements. The covenant be-
tween the Israelites, the Kenites, and Yahweh, interpreted by the social
consciousness as the choice, or election, of Israel, by the god Yahweh.
Attack of the allied Israelites and Kenites, under the assumed leadership
of Yahweh, upon the land of Canaan. This movement plainly an eco-
nomic movement arising from the needs of Israelites and Kenites. The
Kenites partly absorbed into Israel. The partial nature of the so called
"conquest of Canaan” by Israel revealed in Judges 1: 27-36 and numer-
ous other sources. The vast importance of social cleavage as a fact in the
social history of Israel. The Israelite invaders unable to take the Canaan-
ite cities. The subjugation of the Canaanite agricultural districts by the
Israelites. The Israelites a rustic aristocracy during the period of the
"Judges.” Multiplication of alliances and unions between the Israelite
agricultural upper class and the Canaanite city upper class. Gradual
mingling and reconciliation of the population. Marriage of Gideon, an
Israelite clan chief, with a woman of the Canaanite city of Shechem a
good example of this. Abortive attempt of the Gideonites to found a
kingdom embracing city and country. Final union of Israelites and
Canaanites forced by pressure of the Philistines, Ammonites, and other
outsiders. The centripetal direction of the Israelite kingship from country
to city. Gideon an Israelite clan chief in the agricultural districts. King
Saul a country aristocrat from first to last. King David marries a
daughter of Saul; then contracts a union with Abigail, widow of Nabal,
a wealthy rustic landlord; but later in life is identified with Jerusalem,
"the city of David.” King Solomon and all subsequent kings, men of
the city. Passage of the Kingship from country to city a sign of the
concomitant passage of economic power in Canaanitish Israel in the same
direction. The litical conditions underlying and controlling the rise
of Yahweh from the state of a tribal god to that of a national deity, and
presently to that of an imperial god. Worship of the Canaanite baalim,
or local gods, a sign of the Canaanite element in the mingled blood of
Canaanitish Israel. Gradual contraction upon itself of the upper class
of slaveholders and landowners. Real estate in Israel falls more and
more into the power of city aristocrats and large rustic proprietors.
This largely caused by poorly adjusted system of taxation, which pressed
more heavily upon the country districts than upon city property. Con-
sequent increasing economic difficulties of the less wealthy members of
the upper class. David undertakes a census of Israel - probably to
ascertain extent of taxable property. His son Solomon marks the king-
dom into taxation districts regardless of tribal and clan affiliations.
Division of the kingdom over the matter of taxation at the accession of
Rehoboam. The kingdoms of Israel and Judah. Gradual social decline
of both kingdoms. Gradual idealization of the imagined earlier golden

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