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the nominative "peace" before "to men," and the nominative "good will" following it, would seem to have struck some copyist as if the latter nominative was a mistake, and as if it ought to be " peace to men of good will," or "of peaceful disposition;" and the scribe has corrected the supposed error by adding the letter "s," which has changed the nominative ευδοκια—eudokia-into the genitive ευδοκιας—eudokias, and the mistake is accounted for.


On the assumption, on the other hand, that šípývn ανθρωποις ευδοκιας (eirene en anthropois eudokias) was the real form of the angelic hymn, the scribe who introduced the change must have dropped the final "" in sudoxias—eudokias-an omission that might very easily occur by simple accident.

When the evidence in favour of the hymn as we have always been accustomed to it in the Authorised Version, is compared with the altered form in the Revised Version, it will be seen that the change in the Revised Version depends almost entirely upon the great uncials discovered since the Authorised Version was translated; while the evidence from the Ancient Versions and other sources is almost entirely in favour of the old form.

For "Good will towards men." (the nominative.)


A has the nominative in the "Gloria in Excelsis," or the "Morn ing Hymn," after the Psalms. C is defective in this portion (W.

& H.), and therefore is put aside. The Greek Psalters (W. & H.) Every known Lectionary (Quar.


For "Peace among men in whom
he is well pleased."
(the genitive.)

A has the genitive in Luke.
, B, and D have the genitive.

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If it should be granted that Eudoxias has established its claim, in spite of the evidence against it, the translation given to it in the Revised Version still remains a question of doubt. The Vulgate has adopted Eudoxias, and gives the hymn "et in terra pax homnibus bonæ voluntatis," but the

* The text thus described is sanctioned by the Holy Synod and the Patriarchs and other authorities in the whole Eastern Church, and is used throughout the Greek Communion.

Roman Catholic authorised translation of this into English differs very widely from that given in the Revised Version, for it is translated in the Rheims Version, which has the official authority of the Romish Church, "on earth peace to men of good will;" very different indeed from the Revised Version, which renders sudoxias by "in whom he is well pleased."

3rd. God MANIFEST IN THE FLESH-He who was

The third illustration exhibits the difficulties encountered, not only in interpretation, but in reading the original letters, for again the controversy turns upon a single letter. 1 Tim. iii. 16: "Great is the mystery of godliness: God was manifest in the flesh." (Authorised Version.) This is changed into "He who was manifest," in the Revised Version.

The controversy here turns upon whether the Greek word is Oos-, Os,- Os-, or O;, or O, the first three being different modes of writing Theos-God-in ancient MS. Greek, the fourth being the Greek for "who," and the last the Greek for "which." The Revised Version has adopted "who," as being the true Greek, on the authority of N, A, and C.

It is not disputed that is present in N, but "the letters are added above the line by the latest corrector of this MS., who is assigned to century xii." (Westcott and Hort," Introduction," p. 133. Notes.)

Both the cross strokes are present in A, but "the result of microscopical examination shows that they were not originally present, but they have been added at a later date, and by a different penman." (Idem, p. 133.)

The Bishop of Gloucester (Bishop Ellicott) pronounces "indisputably, after minute personal inspection," that the lines were not originally present, but Dr. Scrivener * says,

Introduction," p. 453, 1st. ed.

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"I have always felt convinced, with Berriman and the earlier collators, that Codex A read C," i.e., that the lines were present. "The opinion of those who had an opportunity of examining the Codex soon after it was brought to England, and when it must have been far easier to decide the question than at present, in the now worn condition of the leaf containing the passage, appears to be almost unanimous that the reading was OC," but Alford says that it is a "matter of certainty" that A has Os. Dr. Roberts says that "N, and probably C, witness to this reading "-Os-" who."

B does not contain the Epistles to Timothy at all, and D has O neuter, not Os; so that the case against Theos-turns upon the above three, N, A, and C, of which appears, from the above account, to be the only one absolutely free from doubt, while D is against Os, the rendering adopted in the Revised Version, and has the neuter O, which is adopted in several "versions." The original absence, then, or the subsequent loss, of the transverse lines, changes the <God-into Os, "who." But the Greek sentence is

μέγα ἔστὶ τὸ τῆς εὐσεβειας μυστήριον (neuter)
great is the of the godliness mystery

+ Roberts, p. 68.



And if the masculine Os, "who," follows the neuter "μvorpiov," it is so ungrammatical that most of the scribes who have adopted the relative pronoun in preference to Os, have converted the Os, masculine, into O, neuter, resembling the Vulgate, which translates it, "Magnum est pietatis sacramentum QUOD manifestum est in carne "-"great is the sacrament of piety which was manifest in the flesh." (Rheims.) The Revised Version, therefore, in adopting "He who," departs not only from the Textus Receptus, but adopts another text which is at variance with the majority of ancient versions. This last objection is dis

missed by Westcott and Hort. "The western O is a manifest correction of Os." (p. 133.)

In addition to these great MSS., others of less weight, according to present estimation, are adduced. In favour of Os—C, D ̧, ?F, K, L, L,, P., and, according to the Quarterly Review, "all the Cursives except No. 17." All the Eastern Lectionaries also support Os. (Quarterly Review.) And for O,-F, and Cursives 17, 73, and 181.

It is not disputed that the Greek Fathers of the fourth century, embracing the highest names-Gregory of Nyssa, Gregory of Nazianzen, Didymus, Chrysostom, and others— adopt Os, and that Cyril sometimes used Os, and sometimes Os, but there are no Greek Fathers of the second or third century who adopt Os. Such, then, are the arguments on both sides at present before the public; and it cannot be a matter of surprise that those who have been accustomed to read "God manifest in the flesh," should be startled and shocked at finding this changed in the Revised Version into "He who was manifest," with no further explanation than a simple marginal note, "the word God, in place of He who, rests on no sufficient ancient evidence."


Passing over numerous omissions of minor importance, the following from the Gospels alone are important on various grounds. (The words printed in Italics are omitted in the Revised Version.)


i. 25.

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"firstborn son."

"bless them that curse you, do good to

them that hate you."

"holy angels with him."
"that it might be fulfilled."
"waxed strong in spirit."

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