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"Imprimis usurpatur de diabolo." "It is especially used for the devil."-Dr. Payne Smith; also quoted by Bishop of Durham as a higher authority. "A malo." Indefinite, masculine or neuter.--Leusden's translation (Amsterdam, 1717), an edition of high character.

From "evil."-Translated by Rev. Dr. Murdock, Professor of Ecclesiastical History, New Haven, U.S. From "the evil."-Etheridge's translation of the Syriac Gospels. Longmans & Co.

From "the evil."-CURETON's translation of the Syriac Gospels. Probably the most ancient version. London.


Sixth century.

"From evil" or "from the evil." Translated by Rev. Dr. Malan.

OLD LATIN, before the time of Jerome, probably early in the second or third century.

Codex Veronensis-" A malo."-(In Verona.)
Codex Brixianum-" A malo."-(In Brescia.)

Codex Vercellensis-" A malo."—Attributed to Euse-
bius, Bishop of Vercellensis, and Martyr.
Codex Corbeiensis-" A malo."

Codex Aureus-" Ante Hyeronimum."-" A malo." These are all indefinite, and according to classical

usage, and the authority of St. Augustine, and of the later Latin Church, they mean from "evil" generally.*

EGYPTIAN or COPTIC, two different versions.

SAHIDIC OF THEBAIC, the version of Upper Egypt, probably late in the second or early in the third century. It has p-poneros-" the evil one," masculine. The Greek article Tou is changed into See the Bishop of Durham's rejoinder upon this, p. 294.

the Coptic article p, and the Greek indefinite πονηρου is changed into the masculine πονηρος. This masculine translation is scarcely challenged.

MEMPHITIC, or the version of Lower Egypt, probably of a somewhat later date, but still early in the third century. pi—pet—hôou “is altogether ambiguous."-Bishop of Durham.

It is "the word which I believe it (the Memphitic) uses invariably to render To Topov the neuter."Canon Cook.

The VULGATE, by St. Jerome, in the fourth century, who says that he saw the original MS. of St. Matthew's Gospel in the possession of the Monks of Bethlehem, where he translated so large a portion of the version that bears his name. LIBERA NOS A MALO. Indefinite, masculine or neuter. The LATIN FATHERS, and especially St. Augustine, unquestionably support "evil" generally. AUTHORITATIVE INTERPRETATIONS by the Latin Church. There are three of special weight.

1st. The RHEIMS Version of the New Testament in English, which translates it "Deliver us from evil" (general evil).

2nd. A beautiful 4to edition, edited by Rev. G. L. Haydock and Very Rev. Dr. Husenbeth, published by Henry & Co., London, with notes, and the general approbation of Cardinal Wiseman and all the Roman Catholic Hierarchy of England, Scotland and Wales; and also a smaller 8vo edition, published by Duffy, of Dublin, with notes, and the approbation of the Irish Roman Catholic Hierarchy, both give "evil" generally as the translation, but

add in the footnotes that rou rovnpov admits of being translated "the evil one."

3rd. The most authoritative exposition is undoubtedly the CATECHISM OF THE COUNCIL OF TRENT (translated by the Very Rev. Dr. Donovan, Domestic Chaplain to Pope Gregory XVI., and one of the Professors in Maynooth College.-Dublin, Duffy, and also at 22, Paternoster Row, London, 1867). This catechism sums up a long and exhaustive discussion on the subject of the Lord's prayer by these words (Part iv., chap. xvi., question vii., p. 501), "The Church interprets this petition, both in the Mass and the Litanies, thus-viz., that in it we pray to be delivered from all evils, past, present, and to come."

ETHIOPIC (perhaps fourth century, perhaps sixth or seventh) is the authorised version in the Abyssinian Church. It has, "Deliver us from all evil." This is not disputed, and its use in that sense in the present day is confirmed by the Rev. Dr. Stern, who was for so many years a missionary and a prisoner in Abyssinia, and whose captivity occasioned our war with that country. He adds, in a letter, that it is now quite a dead language, and although it is still read officially in the churches, few even of the priests understand it. Amharic, which is the vernacular of Abyssinia at the present time, is not allowed to be used in the public services of the Church.

GOTHIC, fourth century, translated from the Greek by Bishop Ulphilas-"Als thamma ubilin," "from the evil," indefinite. Ubilin is both an adjective and a noun, and may mean in this case either "evil" generally, or "the evil thing," or


'the evil person article).

(thamma is the definite

ARMENIAN, fifth century, called by La Croze "the Queen of Versions," because of the extreme care with which it was made at first from the Syriac, and was afterwards revised and corrected from the Greek. (Bible of Every Land, Bagster, p. 77.) The ancient Armenian has no articles, such as we see in Greek and other European languages, but a letter (Z), corresponding with the English N, or Greek, is added to nouns or adjectives, and in this latter case it corresponds with the neuter gender. From an examination of one MS. of the ninth century, and five others of the tenth, twelfth and thirteenth centuries, in the British Museum, and a further examination of two editions of the Armenian Testament, printed in Venice, also in the British Museum, the Rev. Dr. Barronian, an accomplished Armenian scholar, has favoured me with the following result:

Matt. vi. 13, i tcharen abl. = from the evil. "The most ancient MSS. generally possess the final N-the article-and so also do the two Venice editions, but in more modern times they begin to show the word without the N-the article. Thus the MS. of the ninth century, in the British Museum, reads i tcharen, the evil, but all the others read i tchare, without the N. The most ancient Armenian Version is therefore definitely neuter, and the more modern versions are "evil," without the article. The Bishop Khosrov Antzivadsi, of the tenth century, in his Commentary on the Armenian Liturgy, read i tcharen, with the article, and he explains the phrase as "from all the snares diabo

lic;" but in the Armenian Liturgy, in one of the prayers offered by the priest, it reads i tchare, without the article. GEORGIAN. "Deliver us from evil" generally. This version is of doubtful age, but was commenced, it is said, in the sixth century, and certainly completed in the eighth, the translation being unquestionably made from Greek MSS. of the Constantinopolitan family. This version would be of great value if it were not that, owing to the political troubles and the unsettled state of the Caucasus for many centuries, portions of it were lost, and they were replaced by re-translations from the Slavonic-so that it is not always certain what is original Georgian and what is of Slavonic colouring. (Bagster's Bible of All Lands, p. 354.) Such as it is, the translation of the St. Petersburg edition, 1818, given by the Rev. S. C. Malan (said by the Arabic Professor at Cambridge to be the most competent Georgian scholar in England), is "Deliver us from evil" generally.

ARABIC, eighth century. MSS. of this date can scarcely be said to exist (gathered from Bagster's Bible of All Lands), but several printed editions have been made at different periods, from such MSS. as are still in existence, and the following is from the version published by the Propaganda in Rome, in 1671:-Lákin najji-ná mina el-shirriri, which is translated by Professor Wright, Professor of Arabic, Cambridge, "but deliver us from the evil one." He accompanied his translation by an explanatory letter, saying, "Shirrir is only a stronger form of Sharir; the latter means evil, wicked, the former "very evil, "very wicked."


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