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Subfam. Danaine.


Papilio Erippus, Cramer, Pap. Exot. i. pl. 3, fig. a. B. (1775). Papilio Archippus, Fabricius, Ent. Syst. iii. p. 49 (1793). Smith, Abbott, Ins. Georgia, i., pl. 6.

LARVA. a, Full-fed. Santo Paulo, March 6, 1880.

The caterpillar feeds on a species of Asclepias, and is found full-fed at the end of February. (See fig. I, plate VI.)

PUPA. a, March, 1880.

When full-fed the caterpillar suspends itself by the tail, and in that position changes to the beautiful pale green chrysalis, ornamented with a ring of gold round the abdomen and gold spots on other parts of the body.

IMAGO. a, b.

The butterfly appears a fortnight after the caterpillar is full-fed.


Papilio Lysimnia, Fabricius, Ent. Syst. iii. i. p. 161 (1793). Hübner, Zutr. Exot. Schmett. fig. 187-8.


The beautiful white eggs are laid in clusters of about a

dozen on the upper surface of the leaf of a species of Solanum on which the caterpillar feeds. I have sometimes found the eggs on the underside of the leaf also.

LARVA. a, Full-fed. Santo Paulo, May 30, 1878.

Caterpillars that emerged from the egg on April 22nd, 1878, were full-fed on May 30th. The colour is a dull white with a bluish tinge, and there is an orange mark at the joints of the segments; on each side of the segments there is a long fleshy protuberance. They are very sluggish in their habits, and are to be found in clusters on the underside of the leaves of the Solanum.


a, Hatched, Ap. 22; Full-fed, May 30; Imago, June 22, 1878; Pupation, 23 days.

(b, c, May, 1878.

When full-fed the caterpillars hang themselves up by the tail in a cluster on the underside of the leaf, and one of these families of chrysalids after the change has taken place is a lovely sight. The appearance is that of pure burnished gold, which in the sunshine is dazzlingly beautiful. A couple of days before the butterfly emerges, the markings of its wings become very visible through the delicate shell of the pupa, and the latter becomes shaded with dark steel blue and the prismatic colours of tempered steel.

a, Full-fed, May 10; Imago, June 2, 1878-23 days.

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The butterfly appears about three weeks after pupation. It is a very common species, and flies in shady places in woods and campos. The flight is slow and graceful, and the fly is constantly settling upon the leaves of the trees, where it stays slowly opening and shutting its wings.

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Papilio Hercules, Dalmann, Anal. Ent. p. 40 (1823).

LARVA. a, Full-fed. Santo Paulo, Dec. 20, 1878.

The caterpillars were found on the stem of a "cipo," or climber, on the Serra da Cantareira, near Santo Paulo, on Dec. 16th, 1878. They were in a cluster of about twenty individuals. The colour is brick-red, with tufts of black and of white hairs in rings round the segments. The black hairs are barbed, and cause a good deal of irritation if one gets them between one's fingers. The caterpillar has a disagreeable smoky sort of smell, something like that of No. III. (Morpho Epistrophis), but at the same time quite distinct.

PUPA. a, January, 1881.

On Dec. 20th some of the specimens were full-fed, and became of a dull greenish colour. They hung themselves up by the tail, and in a few days changed to the robust green chrysalis. The chrysalis is marked with a white bloom, especially on the wing-cases, which bloom easily rubs off. (See fig. 2, plate III.)

a, Full-fed, Dec. 20, 1878; Imago, Feb. 8,

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The splendid imagos appeared at the beginning of February, being in the pupa state about seven weeks. These grand butterflies are very common at the Cantareira, where they sail about in hundreds on a hot day. Sometimes half-adozen will be seen in a group, chasing one another round and round, or having a dance with one of their pearly cousins, M. Epistrophis.


Leonte Epistrophis, Hübner, Samml. Exot. Schmett.



The eggs of this species are laid in clusters of twenty or thirty on the upper side of the leaf of the food plant, and incubate in about fifteen days.


a, Full-fed.

Santo Paulo, Dec., 1878.

b, Cast skins Dec., 1879.

After emerging from the egg, the young caterpillars are. very sluggish, and apparently do not move at all for a couple of days. For some weeks after they are hatched they scarcely eat anything, and do not seem to grow at all. They lie in a cluster on the under side of the leaf, radiating from a centre, their great black heads pointing outwards and presenting a very curious appearance. They probably hybernate during the cold season, for I have found specimens at the end of July still very small. The food plants that I have found the caterpillar upon are all forest trees, two of them belonging to the Papilionaceæ.

The caterpillars are social, and hang in a cluster on a leaf of the tree quite close together, and very beautiful they look with their intricate mosaic markings and soft downy hair. At night they separate to feed, returning to the same leaf in the morning, which leaf is covered with a silken web to give security to their hold. When walking they have a curious habit of wagging the head up and down. I have noticed the same habit in other caterpillars, but the motion is generally from side to side. The object of this wagging of the head seems to be to drive the preceding caterpillar on when the brood is marching in single file to its feeding ground, or back to its resting place, for I have only observed this habit in those caterpillars that live in clusters. The whole lot of

caterpillars, walking close one after the other, wag their heads in this way to touch up the "tail" of the individual . in front of each, the effect being very comical. I have found, when changing them to new food, that the only way to get them to move was to imitate this movement of the head with my finger applied to their tails. If the caterpillars were in their resting position, I could generally start the whole regiment by tickling the hindermost ones, who in their turn stirred up those in front, till they all got on the move.

The caterpillar has a very unpleasant and peculiar odour that is quite indescribable. The mandibles are very powerful, and are capable of giving a severe bite if their owner is annoyed. In eating, the noise of the crunching of the leaves is considerable.

When full-fed the caterpillar hangs itself up by the "tail,” the size diminishes, and the bright colours become dull and suffused with a greenish grey colour. They are full-fed in December.

(a, In spirit, immediately after change.

PUPA. b, Dry. Full-fed Dec. 12, 1877. Imago, Jan. 23, 1878 42 days.


Pupation takes place three days after the larva is full-fed. The pupa is of a beautiful bright green, the venation of the wings, etc., being of a darker shade. The insect remains in this state for six weeks.

(a, d, Feb., 1879.

b, d, Full-fed, Jan.; Imago, Feb. 7, 1879. IMAGO.c,, Feb., 1879.

d,, Full-fed, Dec. 30, 1878; Imago, Feb. 8, 1879 40 days.


These exquisite butterflies begin to make their appearance at the end of January, but do not appear in large quantities till the middle of February; the earlier specimens

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