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the Labadist colonists. Here again the foliage of bushes and rushes is so thick that you cannot define the foundation of the once busy mill. We found, however, a millstone through which a considerable tree was growing. The miller's house shared a similar ruin, and as we left we thought of Goldsmith's Deserted Village :

No more thy glassy brook reflects the day
But choked with sedges works its weary way ;
Along thy glades a solitary guest

The hollow-sounding bittern guards its nest. We then visited St. Augustine's Church, built in 1703, but here too has been devastation. The original building, constructed solidly of brick, has entirely disappeared, the bricks taken away to build chimneys, and in its place a pine board structure, which does little credit to the architect, and what is worse, through the neglect of vestries the records and documents for a century have been entirely lost.

MARYLAND'S PART IN THE EXPEDITION AGAINST

CARTHAGENA.

CLAYTON C. HALL.

The expedition against Carthagena, a stronghold of Spain on the north coast of South America, is mentioned in most of the histories which tell of England, or of the American Colonies, during the eighteenth century, but the reference is usually brief as to one of the minor incidents of the wars between European powers which followed one another at brief intervals during that century. To the student, however, of American history, or of the colonial policy of England, this expedition cannot fail to be of special and significant interest, in that it was the first occasion upon which American troops served outside the North American Continent in a war waged by the British Crown against one of the European Continental powers,

In several histories mention is made of the presence of American troops in the expedition against Carthagena; but generally no accurate indication is given as to the Colonies from which they came, their number, or the part they played in the military operations.

Smollett, best known as a writer of fiction, was also a graduate in medicine, and served in this expedition as assistant to one of the ship surgeons. In his “ Account of the Expedition against Carthagena" there is to be found the narrative of an actual participant in the adventure, many of the incidents of which were also woven into the story of Roderick Random. While in the latter work it is impossible to distinguish with certainty between statements of historical fact and the fancy of the novelist, it is believed that much that is set down in the novel was derived from the personal experience and observation of the writer. Smollett's narratives have at least the merit of being written by one who was present upon the scene and who, a witness of the actual occurrences, wrote at first hand.

For the part taken by the Province of Maryland, reference must be made to the archives of this State. Much of the account is to be found only in manuscript records, contained in somewhat bulky volumes, which are wholly without index. It is therefore quite possible that even after careful examination some matters of interest may have been overlooked.

As to the circumstances under which the expedition was undertaken :-War was declared against Spain, by the King of England, on October 19, 1739, and according to the usage of the times it was proclaimed by heralds at the places appointed for this formality. For this war, which was forced upon Sir Robert Walpole's administration, much against his will and judgment, by the jingoes of that time, England was ill prepared. It was, however, determined, in order to assail the Spanish power in its colonial possessions in the New World, to send two expeditions, one under Commodore Anson to proceed by way of Cape Horn, and attack the coasts of Peru; and the other, the command of which was given to Admiral Vernon, to wage war upon the Spanish Colonies in the West Indies. So hard pressed was England for troops, that to help fit out the first of these expeditions, Chelsea Hospital had to be drawn upon for 500 invalids—out pensioners-old soldiers already worn out in service, a large number of whom,-Lord Mahon says all who had strength and limbs to walk out of Portsmouth,—deserted before they could be got on board the ships, while of the remainder, numbering 259, who embarked, every one perished from hardship or disease before the fleet, after having been scattered by the storms encountered in weathering Cape Horn, arrived at the rendezvous at the Island of Juan Fernandez,

For the expedition destined for the West Indies, requisition was made upon the more southern of the English Colonies of America for one regiment of troops. The New England Colonies were not called upon at this time, though they were for a subsequent campaign. Smollett says that the suggestion for raising troops in America came from Governor Spotswood of Virginia, to whom the command of the regiment was to be given.

In Bancroft's History (Vol. III, p. 440) it is stated that the Colonies north of Carolina were summoned to contribute four battalions to the armament, and that no Colony refused its quota. Even Pennsylvania, the historian adds, voted a contribution of money, and thus enabled its Governor to enlist troops for the occasion.

In Graham's History (Vol. III, p. 212) it is said that an application was made to Virginia and North Carolina for a levy of troops, and that both Colonies eagerly obeyed the summons, so that a considerable force, to which North Carolina contributed 400 men, was embodied and embarked in Admiral Vernon's Squadron.

In Burke's History of Virginia, it is mentioned merely that the Colonies voluntarily furnished their quotas under the command of the Governor of Virginia.

Maryland's contribution to the expedition seems to have been generally overlooked or ignored by the historians of that period, and in Scharf's History of Maryland the expedition itself is not so much as mentioned.

Maryland, however, was not overlooked when the demand for troops was made, and the ready response on the part of the Province was not lacking.

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The fact of the declaration of war against Spain was communicated directly to Samuel Ogle, Governor of Maryland, in a letter dated October 29, 1739, from the Duke of Newcastle, one of his Majesty's principal Secretaries of State, with which a copy of the declaration of war was sent. This letter was laid before the Council by Governor Ogle on April 11, 1740, together with a second letter from the Duke of Newcastle, dated January 5, 1739/40, informing the Governor of the proposed attack upon the Spanish Settlements in the West Indies, and notifying him of the King's desire that he should raise for this expedition as many men as possible in his Government. It was also stated that the American troops would be under the immediate command of Col. Spotswood, Governor of Virginia. In order to encourage enlistments, it was declared to be the King's intention for the new levies to be supplied with arms and proper clothing, and taken into his Majesty's pay, and that they should come in for their share of booty, and be returned to their respective homes when the service for which they were to be enlisted was over. These terms of enlistment and service are entered in full upon the Council records.

A proclamation was immediately issued making public the communication from the Crown, and calling in urgent terms upon his Majesty's faithful and loyal subjects within this Province cheerfully to enlist to serve in this glorious enterprise. And the General Assembly was forthwith convened to provide the necessary funds for carrying into effect measures for enlisting recruits. On April 30, 1740, a bill was passed by the Lower House appropriating the sum of £2636 :16:3 current money, to be paid out of the office of the Commissioners or Trustees for emitting bills of credit, for the encouragement of voluntary enlistments. The bill, however, contained many provisions and omissions that were ohjected to by the Upper House, between which and the popular branch of the Legislature much jealousy and antagonism existed, and many weeks elapsed before a bill was framed upon which the two Houses could agree.

Meanwhile, according to the fashion of the time, much correspondence ensued between the two Houses through their respective conferees, all of which is spread at length upon the journals, each House charging the other with being much more ready with professions of loyalty and zeal than with a disposition to prove their sincerity by their acts.

It was not until June 2nd that a bill was finally passed. In this the appropriation was fixed at £2562: 10, and provision was made for replacing the amount by taxes levied for the purpose, a provision upon which the Upper House had insisted. The number of enlistments contemplated was five hundred.

Other points urged by the Upper House were in relation to exemptions that should be given to enlisted men from public charges and arrest for debt. In one of its communications the Upper House, from which, sitting as the Governor's Council, the proclamation already referred to had emanated, said, “You must be sufficiently apprised of the dispositions of our inhabitants, that very few people who are clear of debt, and live with any tolerable ease here, will be induced by any motive even of honor and riches to be influenced by this expedition in the station of common soldiers.” "

The appeal to “loyal subjects” to embark in this “glorious enterprise,” had evidently been found insufficient.

The matter of exemptions was finally compromised, allowing seven years' exemption to a returned soldier from public charges and work upon the roads, and as to debt, it was provided that an enlisted man was not to be exempt from arrest for this cause unless all the debts proved against him by a specified date should be less than the amount of the bounty ; and to avoid the temptation to desertion, no bounty should be paid until the soldier was secured," by which was apparently meant mustered in and placed under military discipline.

The exemption of soldiers from arrest for debt does not seem to have been altogether popular. Among the proceedings of the Council on May 6, 1740, it is noted that Robert Conant, Sheriff of Anne Arundel County, having proceeded to arrest an enlisted man for debt, the delinquent debtor declined to be arrested on the ground that he was his Majesty's soldier. The Sheriff, as the record tells, in an impudent and arrogant manner, cursed his Majesty, King George, in these words, “God damn King George

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