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PETITION OF CECIL, LORD BALTIMORE.

[This was evidently presented in March 1637/8, and preceded the Order in

Council printed in Md. Arch., III, 71).

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To the Kings most excellent Matie, the Humble Peticon of Cecill, Lord Baltimore Most humbly Sheweth

That whereas yok Subiect being desirous to plant a Colony of English in some part of Virginia, did humbly desire to have a part of that Territory granted to him, wch was referred to the consideracon of some of the Lords of the Councell, who upon hearing of the old Virginia Company and yot Peticon' at severall times, thought fitt to advise yo? Matle to grant to yo* peticon" that patent of Maryland wch now he enjoyeth : After the passing whereof the said Company having procured a peticon from Virginia against the said patent subscribed by William Clayborne and many others, p'sented the same to yoMatle in May 1633, who was pleased to referr the consideracon thereof to the Board, and their Lodps did thereupon then heare both partyes interested at large : And being desirous before they gave their judgmt in the cause, that there might be a mutuall accommodacon of the Controversy, did appoint that both pties should meete and make proposicons and answers to each other, and present them in writing to the Board, wch was accordingly done, Whereupon their Lops having heard and maturely considered the Allegacons on either part, and particularly the ptenses of Clayborne did then thinke fitt by an order of 3rd July, 1633, to leave your peticon' to the right of his patent, and the other party to the course of law, Whereupon yo' peticon' hath proceeded in sending to that country divers Colonyes of yo" Matles subts at his great charges, who have planted themselves in severall parts thereof to the great hazard of their psons, and to the benefit and security of yoMtles Subts in Virginia, as is confessed by the Governor and Councell there.

Yet, notwthstanding the said William Clayborne being not contented with the said order, because he must know he had no

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Legall right to his uniust p'tenscs, not long after did conspire wth the Indians to destroy two of yo' peticon" Brothers with divers Gentlemen and others of yor Maties Subts and by many oth' unlawfulle wayes to overthrow his plantacons ; Whereof he fayling (but continuing his malice to yo" peticon") whilst he is a prisoner at the Board upon a complaint of the Governor of Virginia for his contemptuous and mutinous carriage towards the Gov'ment there and rebellious depture thence, hath lately upon false premises exhibited in his peticon to yo" Matłe obtayned a reference for granting of some part of yo' peticoners country to him, and for examining here some p'tended wrongs menconed in his peticon.

May it therefore please yok most Excellent Matie, seeing that yo' peticon" patent and right hath passed so many tryalls, and that in confidence thereof, and of yo' Matles justice and favo" he hath expended a great part of his estate in planting that Country;

That yo? Matle wilbe pleased, in confirmation of the said order of the Board to leave yo peticon" to his right and the said Clayborne to the course of law; that thereby yor Mate may be free from the clamo" of such pretenders, and yoSubiect encouraged to proceed in the plantacon as he intended; And to that end that you wilbe pleased to revoke the Reference made for the said Clayborne, and to give order that no grant shall pass to him or to any other of any part of yo' peticon" Country ; And that you will likewise be pleased, touching the examination of the iniuryes p'tended to be done by yo' peticon"s Agents in those parts, seeing they are alledged to be done in Virginia, that yo' Matie will be pleased to direct yo' Loyall Pet' to the Governor and Councell there to examine the said complaint and to rectify their opinions to yo" Matie that thereupon you may proceed according to Justice; for yo? Peticon' is confident that upon a true examinacon of the fact where it was comitted it will appear that the said Clayborne and his servants are guilty of Piracy and Murder.

And yo” Peticoner, as in duty bound, etc.

WILLIAM CLOBERRY TO SIR JOHN COKE, KNT.

Right Honble

The many wrongs and oppressions wch wee suffer from the Lord Baltimores people in Maryland who have lately, wth armed men comeing in the night, surprized our plantations, removed our servants, and wholy ruinated what wee had there, enforceth us to renew of complaints to his sacred Matie. In which way, being unable through sicknes to wait on you my selfe, I am bold to implore y' assistance for me and my partners therein, assuring y? Hon' that wee shall not omitt to be really thankfull.

The Earl of Sterling wilbe pleased to ioyne his mediation wth your Hon" in moveing his Matie for our releife. I humbly take my leave, and remain Your Hon's most humbly to be commanded

William Cloberry London, the 28th day of June, 1638

To the Right Hon ble Sir John Coke, Kn'. Principall Secretary of State, be these.

MARYLAND AT THE END OF THE

SEVENTEENTH CENTURY.

HENRY F. THOMPSON.

The Revolution in England which placed William and Mary on the throne, was followed by the “Protestant Revolution” in Maryland, with a like result, for the government of Lord Baltimore was swept away, and Maryland became a Royal Province whose Governor, Council and other officers were appointed by the Crown, so that Charles Lord Baltimore was still a large landholder but no longer a Count Palatine.

And so, at the end of the Seventeenth Century, Maryland had been under the Crown for nearly ten years, during which time, all

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the Reports and letters from the Province were sent to the “Lords Commissioners for Trade and Foreign Plantations,” or as that body was generally called the “ Board of Trade," who had charge of the affairs of the Colonies.

The papers of the “Board of Trade” are preserved in the Public Record Office in London, as well as many other documents relating to the Colonies, and there are also many letters and reports to be found among the mss. at Fulham Palace the residence of the Bishop of London, for in consequence of the establishment of the Church of England in Maryland, the connection between Church and State was very close, and many things relating to both, are to be found among the letters and reports to the Bishop of London in whose Diocese the Colonies were included.

The statements, which are embodied in this paper, are derived from documents to be found in the two repositories which have been named, and refer to the state of the Province some sixty-five years after the landing of Leonard Calvert and the small band of Colonists who accompanied him.

In those years the Colony had “increased and multiplied ” so that the population had reached the respectable number of 30,000 and the settlements had spread over both sides of the Chesapeake Bay and the many rivers that flow into it. There were but few habitations far from the water, except in that part of the Province which lay south of the present line of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad to Washington, where nearly all the land was taken up and more or less inhabited.

Roads were few and those little better than tracks or paths through the woods, which heading the rivers, crossed them where they were shallow, or leading from river to river, where ferries were established for the convenience of travellers, or others who might wish to cross the rivers. Very often near to these ferries were established houses where the way-farer might find food and drink, and a bed, should he wish to stop over night. The rooms were few, and many beds were put into the same room, so that there were many noisy people crowded together and these places were not always “havens of rest,” however weary the traveller might be. The most common bighway was the water, which furnished at nearly all times an easy means of communication for those who wished to go from one part of the Province to another, whether their object was pleasure, or whether they wished to send their tobacco to the vessels, which lay in the rivers until their cargoes were completed, and several vessels were ready to sail for England.

The inhabitants of the Western Shore were more numerous than those on the Eastern Shore, and about three-fifths of the population were west of the Chesapeake Bay, while if we divide the Province by a line rnnning east and west through the Patapsco and Chester rivers, we find four-fifths of the population are south of that line.

Of the population, there were about three thousand Quakers, a smaller number of Roman Catholics, about three thousand negroes, and nearly all the rest were of the Church of England.

The greater part of the negroes came from Africa, although some had been born in Maryland and some came from Barbadoes and a few from Virginia.

In a letter dated the 20 August, 1698, Governor Nicholson speaks of the number of negroes which were being brought into the Province and says:

There hath been imported this summer about four hundred and seventy odd negroes viz. 396 in one ship directly from Guiny, 50 from Virginy, 20 from Pennsylvania, which came thither from Barbadoes : a few others from other places . . their common practice is on Saturday nights and Sundays, and on 2 or 3 days in Christmas, Easter & Whitsuntide is to go and see one another tho' at 30 or 40 miles distance I have, several times both in Virginy and here met negros, both single and 6 or 7 in Company in the night time. The major part of the negros speak English, and most people have some of them as their domestic servants & the better sort have 6 or 7 in those circumstances, and may be not above one English. And they send the Negro men and boys about the Country where they have business : and they commonly wait on them to all publick places, so that by these means they know not only the public but private roads of the country and circumstances thereof."

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