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Mediterranean, Minorca was taken by General Stanhope, and Sardinia fell into the hands of Admiral Leake, who then threatened Civita Vecchia, and frightened the Pope into giving up the cause of the Pretender, and acknowledging the Archduke Charles; while on the coast of South America, seventeen Spanish galleons fell into the hands of Commodore Wager.
In the month of October Queen Anne's husband died. At this time a new favourite had supplanted the Duchess of Marlborough, in the person of her grace's cousin, Mrs. Masham, whose influence finally led to the fall of the great duke. Meanwhile, Louis had made overtures for peace, and negotiations followed. These were suddenly broken off by Prince Eugene, and on the 21st June, he and Marlborough invested Tournay, and having taken it, they advanced on Mons. To save this town, Marshals Villars and Boufflers fought the battle of Malplaquet (12th September 1709), the most disastrous of all to the French, who left 30,000 Idead on the field. Louis again sued for peace.
An event occurred at this time, which all historians give in much detail. A hot-headed parson, Dr. Sacheverell, being appointed to preach before the Corporation of London, on the anniversary of the Gunpowder Plot, accused the ministers of designs to overthrow the Church. Ministers foolishly afforded him the glory of an impeachment before the House of Lords, and while the hangman was burning his sermon, the mob were attacking the chapels of dissenters, and inflamed bigots were illuminating their windows in honour of the doctor. The Whig ministers were turned out through the interest of Mrs. Masham. Harley was brought in, and Marlborough's mind, harassed and divided by the opposition of the Tory cabinet at home, lost that high spirit which hitherto bore him on from triumph to triumph.
In Spain, General Stanhope took Minorca, and having gained the battle of Almanza, pursued Philip to Saragossa, and, on 21st September, entered Madrid with the Archduke Charles, but, owing to the hostility of the Spaniards, was obliged to withdraw. Having separated from the Austrian general, Staremberg, he was forced to capitulate with 5000 men at Brahnega. After this, Vendôme
PEACE OF UTRECHT.
gained a great victory at Villa Viciosa over Staremberg, and Philip v. returned to Madrid (1710).
When Marlborough resumed military operations in Flanders (1711), he found the strength of the army reduced. He no longer enjoyed the queen's favour. The Tory government, personally unfriendly, was indisposed to support him, and the coldness of his reception at home weighed on his spirits. Marshal Villars believed himself impregnably entrenched behind the lines of Bouchain, but Marlborough broke through them; thus showing to enemies at home and abroad, that if he was to be humiliated it could not be in the field.
The English Government were now bent on peace, contrary to the wishes of their allies. The Archduke Charles, in whose name the war had been carried on, had, by the death of his brother Joseph, become Emperor of Germany, which was urged as a reason for not pressing his claims to the throne of Spain. Utrecht was named as the place of negotiation, and Marlborough returned home to be charged with misappropriating the public money-a charge which received probability from his notorious avarice. He was dismissed from his employments. His secretary was expelled from the House of Commons, along with Robert Walpole, afterwards the famous minister, who was included in the same charge, in consequence of his taking bribes from contractors. Prince Eugene came
to England, in the vain hope of having the war prolonged; and, during his stay, passed most of his time with his illustrious companion-in-arms, for whom he never failed to evince the most profound admiration. On the prince's return he learned, by the loss of the battle of Denain, how much Marlborough's absence was to be deplored. As Philip v. of Spain agreed to renounce his rights to the French throne, if allowed to retain that of Spain, the Peace of Utrecht was proclaimed 4th May 1713, after a war of twelve years, which, without apparently obtaining any direct object, yet established the balance of the European powers, humbled Louis XIV., the great plague and scourge of Europe, and exalted the reputation of England.
Anne's health beginning to decline, her favourite, Lady Masham,
through whom ministers had been changed, campaigns marred, and negotiations with foreign powers badly managed, began to work on her royal mistress's mind in favour of her brother, the Pretender. Happily, her efforts to have the succession altered were neutralized by another and rival favourite, the Duchess of Somerset, who sustained the House of Hanover. By means of Lady Masham, Harley earl of Oxford was turned out, and Lord Bolingbroke, who had been mainly instrumental in effecting the Peace of Utrecht, and who was in league with the Pretender, became all-powerful. Three days before the death of Anne, and, at the critical moment, the Whig Dukes of Argyle and Somerset took their places at the Council table, had Shrewsbury declared prime minister, with directions to secure the succession as fixed by Parliament, and thus frustrated Bolingbroke and the Pretender. Anne died 1st August 1714, in the 50th year of her age, and the Elector of Hanover was proclaimed king of England by the name and title of George the First.
Anne, although narrow-minded and bigoted, yet must be allowed some credit for the purer manners which distinguished her court from that of her father and uncle, notwithstanding the political intrigues of which it was the scene. The happy improvements introduced by her good sister Mary, William's queen, were maintained. The literature of the period became so refined as even till this day to be regarded as a perfect model of English writing. The names of Pope, Swift, Addison, Prior, Steele, are remembered as household words. Literature was highly honoured, and men of genius rewarded with distinguished offices. Addison became Secretary of State; and Prior, without advantage of birth or family connexion, was charged with political negotiations of the highest importance.
Cotemporary Sovereigns and Events.--France: Louis XIV. Sweden: Charles XII. Russia: Peter the Great. Peter the Great defeats Charles XII. at Pultowa (1709).
Questions.-1. What was the object of the War of Succession? 2. Write a succinct narrative of Marlborough's campaigns between 1702 and 1711. 3. What were the terms of the Peace of Utrecht? 4. What was the character of Anne's Court, and of the literature of her reign?
EXTENSION AND SETTLEMENT OF BRITISH IMPERIAL POWER IN INDIA AND THE NEW WORLD UNDER THE HOUSE OF HANOVER. DURING THIS PERIOD, FROM GEORGE FIRST TO GEORGE THIRD, ENGLAND WON MOST OF HER COLONIES, LAID THE FOUNDATION OF HER INDIAN EMPIRE, AND SECURED HER NAVAL SUPREMACY. [During this Epoch flourished Samuel Johnson, Goldsmith, Hume, Gibbon, Robertson, Cowper, and Burns.]
1. George I.
The House of Brunswick.
THE OLD PRETENDER AND HIS DEFEAT-FOREIGN POLICY-THE MISSISSIPPI AND SOUTH SEA BUBBLES.
Elizabeth m. Frederic v. elector-palatine.
Sophia m. Ernest Augustus, elector of Hanover, descendant of the Guelphs.
George 1. m. Sophia of Brunswick.
GEORGE (fifty-four years of age) did not leave Hanover for England till seven weeks after Anne's death. When he did at length arrive along with
his son, Prince George, his plain, undignified appearance, and careless dress, did not much attract his loyal subjects, and seemed to accord too well with his phlegmatic temperament. During the interval that elapsed between Anne's death and his accession,
the government had been carried on by a Regency previously settled. The king, in his new ministry, included Marlborough, and placed the great duke at the head of the army. Robert Walpole was appointed one of the ministers of state.
A manifesto from the Pretender excited great ferment, because it plainly intimated that the last ministry of Queen Anne had promised him the succession. The House of Commons, after hearing the king's assurance through the Chancellor (for George could not speak English), that he would make the "Constitution in Church and State" the motto of his government, proceeded to take steps for bringing the partisans of the Pretender to punishment. The Earl of Oxford was committed to the Tower. The Duke of Ormond fled, and Bolingbroke was impeached. These acts, however, did not arrest the proceedings of the Pretender's friends, for on the 9th September 1715, the Earl of Mar raised his standard at Braemar, and was soon supported by the Marquis Tullibardine. Lord Kenmure was busy in the south-west of Scotland, being joined by Earls Nithsdale and Winton, while Forster, with the Earl of Derwentwater and Lord Widdrington, were rousing the people at Morpeth. But neither the Earl of Mar, who commanded the Scottish insurgents, nor Forster, who headed the movement in the north of England, possessed the smallest military capacity. The English insurgents having marched to Preston in Lancashire, without receiving the accession to their numbers which they expected, did not defend the town as they might have done, and the English generals, Carpenter and Wills, made captives Lords Derwentwater, Widdrington, Nithsdale, Winton, Carnwath, Kenmure, Nairn, and Charles Murray, with several other persons of distinction.
On the same November day, Mar was sacrificing his gallant Highlanders at Sheriffmuir. He had 10,000 men, but the cavalry were useless from ignorance of tactics; while the Duke of Argyle, the commander of the Royal forces, had but 3500-these, however, including three good cavalry regiments. The curious feature of the battle that followed was, that while Argyle was