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BATTLE OF WATERLOO.
The duke, aware
French could with the utmost difficulty repel. that his opportunity had not yet come, rode through the ranks exposing himself to imminent danger in order to restrain the ardour of the men, and encourage them to remain quiescent under fire. Napoleon, who, throughout the day, had stationed himself on a little hillock near La Belle Alliance, with a large table, on which were placed plans and maps, towards evening got on his white Persian charger, ordered his old guard, his last resource, to form into two columns under Ney, and, as they passed, raised his arm and pointed to the allies. They advanced with a cry of Vive l'Empereur, descended into the valley covered by the thunder of artillery, vigorously answered by the British guns. The duke, who had already, by his personal daring and skill, saved one part of his centre, now galloped to the right to head his men against the advancing Imperial Guard. Maitland's brigade of guards had been ordered to lie down, to avoid the French artillery, having Adam's brigade on their right. Accordingly, when the first line of the Imperial Guard gained the crest of the hill, they saw only a few officers, one of whom was the duke. They had advanced to within fifty yards, when at the word "Up, Guards, and at them !" the Guards started up four deep, and, after pouring volley after volley, charged, broke, and scattered the advancing enemy. The second column of the Imperial Guard, brought up against Adam's brigade, were driven back in a similar manner. The duke now saw the time was come for his being the assailant, before Napoleon should have time to rally his beaten columns. He accordingly launched Vivian's hussars against the French cavalry, near La Belle Alliance, and the latter being obliged to fly, a general advance was ordered at about eight o'clock. The Prussians had by this time beaten the French out of Planchenoit. It was with difficulty Napoleon escaped. By the light of a young moon the Duke and Blucher exchanged congratulations on the spot where Napoleon had directed, throughout the day, his unsuccessful movements. The army under Wellington lost 15,000 in killed and wounded; the Prussians 7000.
With this decisive battle Napoleon may be said to have closed his career, for on the 15th July, he took refuge on board an English ship of war, the Bellerophon, and was conveyed a prisoner to the island of St. Helena. Europe was now promised a long repose: war was everywhere at an end, America and Great Britain having signed a treaty of peace the previous Christmas eve.
By the treaty of Vienna (1815), Prussia obtained a part of Saxony with the Rhenish provinces. Belgium and Holland were made one kingdom under the Prince of Orange. Each German State was declared independent, and the whole connected into a general confederation against future invasion. Norway was annexed to Sweden. Lombardy and Venice were subjected to besides getting back Savoy and Piedmont, obtained Genoa. The boundaries of France were restored to what they had been in 1790, before the commencement of the revolutionary wars. England required no territorial advantages. All she asked was a declaration against the odious slave-trade.
George III. George IV.
On the 3d May 1816 was married the Princess Charlotte of Wales, to Prince Leopold of Saxe Coburg. To the grief of the nation, the princess died before the close of the following year.
In the month of August, Lord Exmouth sailed to Algiers, to chastise the Barbary corsairs. Some Dutch ships of war were allowed to take part in the enterprise, which proved most successful, for, after suffering severely, the Algerines signed a treaty, by which Christian slavery was abolished; all Christian slaves in custody, to the number of 3000, were given up, and the money extorted by the Dey for the redemption of other slaves was returned, with ample apologies for misconduct. In India the Nepaulese were reduced to obedience by Major-General Auchterlony. The roving Pindarecs were driven out of the territories of the East India Company, and soon after the Mahrattas were quelled under the energetic government of the Earl of Moira, subsequently Marquis of Hastings. The island of Ceylon also was entirely conquered and occupied.
PROGRESS OF THE COUNTRY.
During the long French war, England not only had succeeded in extending her colonies, obtaining supremacy on the sea, and establishing firmly her authority in India, but at home had made rapid progress in manufactures, and in all the arts of life. Machinery was extensively applied to the spinning and weaving of cotton, thus enabling England to produce cotton in much greater abundance, and at lower prices than other countries, and thus giving her the command of the world's market. In the 36 years ending 1800, the importation of raw material rose from four to fifty-six millions. Coal was mined much more extensively, owing greatly to the employment of Watt's steam-engine, and steamboats were first used in 1811. Roads had been much improved, and increased in number, while public vehicles afforded increased facilities for transit. Canals for the inland conveyance of goods were extended so rapidly, that within forty years no fewer than 165 Acts of Parliament had been obtained to authorize their being made. On the sea the old spirit of discovery had been maintained. The globe was several times circumnavigated, the coasts of Australia and New Zealand were examined, and the first settlements made in the former country in 1788. Science made rapid progress. Astronomy under the elder Herschel, and chemistry under Priestley and Cavendish, made great progress. Sculpture, painting, and
poetry had their respective ornaments in Flaxman, Reynolds, West, Gainsborough, Cowper, Goldsmith, Burns, and many others. But perhaps the most promising feature of this epoch was the effort made to apply the doctrine of Christian benevolence to the oppressed slave abroad, and the ignorant and poor at home. Education was greatly extended.
Queen Charlotte, wife of George III., died 17th November 1818, after a long union of 58 years. After her death the guardianship of the old deranged king devolved upon his son, the Duke of York. The Duke of Kent died 23d January 1820, leaving his infant daughter, now Queen Victoria, only a few months old, and on the 28th of the same month, he was followed to the grave by
his father George III., who, long blind and deaf, died without pain in the 82d year of his age, after a reign of sixty years. The Regent now became king, by the name and title of George IV.
Cotemporary Sovereigns and Events.-France: Louis XVI. The Republic and Directory. Napoleon Buonaparte First Consul. Napoleon Emperor. Louis XVIII. Russia: Alexander. Louis XVI. beheaded (1793). During George 111.'s reign Voltaire, Rousseau, and Diderot were distinguished in France as men of letters; and Goethe, Herder, Schiller, and others in Germany. Great discoveries were made in electricity by Cavallo, Galvani, and Franklin. Astronomy and Chemistry made great progress, and the steam-engine was improved and applied by Watt and others. Machinery was introduced into manufactures.
Questions.-1. What led to the French Revolution of 1789? 2. Why was England involved in war with France in consequence? 3. Write an account of the Battle of the Nile and the Battle of Copenhagen. 4. What led Napoleon to invade Egypt? 5. What events were happening in India during Napoleon's Egyptian campaign? 6. What were the terms of the Peace of Amiens? 7. Write an account of the Battle of Trafalgar; and of Moore's and Wellesley's campaigns in Portugal and Spain. 8. Give an account of the Peninsular campaign of 1813-14. 9. Write a narrative of the Battle of Waterloo, with the circumstances which more immediately led to it. 10. What were the terms of the Treaty of Vienna? 11. What was the nature of the social progress made during this reign?
REFORMS EMBRACING EVERY BRANCH OF BRITISH INSTITUTIONS
AND OF LAW, PROSECUTED SO STEADILY FROM THE PEACE OF 1815 TO THE PRESENT TIME, THAT THIS DESERVES TO BE
CALLED THE EPOCH OF SOCIAL REFORMS.
[Lord Macaulay, Thomas Carlyle, Tennyson, and many others distinguished in literature and science, adorn this Epoch.]
1. George IV. (eldest Son of George III.)
RIOTS-THISTLEWOOD PLOT-TRIAL OF QUEEN CAROLINE-STATE OF THE CONTINENT-INDIA-STATE OF PARTIES-GREECE-REPEAL OF CORPORATION AND TEST ACTS EMANCIPATION ACT-CRIMINAL LAW IMPROVED.
SOME time previously to the death of the late king, there had been considerable agitation in different parts of the country, excited by a party which demanded Annual Parliaments, Universal Suffrage, and other measures in a way which the Government determined to check. Circular letters were addressed to the Lords-Lieutenant of counties, recommending them to have the yeomanry ready to act in case of need, and a proclamation issued against military training and seditious meetings. At Manchester, blood had been spilt by a violent attack of the yeomanry upon a public meeting of these radical reformers, presided over by Henry