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LONDOX, SATURDAY, JANUARY 2, 1897.
of Baliol, and being under the necessity of con-
tinuing the French war with two armies, a
southern in Gascony and a northern in Flanders,
This demand was, in view at once of the gravity
increasing wealth of the Church, a moderate
But the Primate Winchelsey and the
the king, but to the Pope alone.
To this end Winchelsey produced the celebrated
the revenue of their benefices without the permis-
In Convocation this
latter they ingenuously offered to submit the point
King Edward, thas involved both at home and
proceeded to outlaw the whole clergy, saying, in
effect, that if they would not obey the law they
should take no benefit of the law. The Chief
Justice, at Westminster, publicly announced in the
plainest terms the position taken by the king.
All this happened at the end of 1296 and the
The writ of summons, dated - 26 January, mons. If the king proposed to call a Parliament
standing, as the clergy soon fell away from Win-
pendently of the validity of the writ of summons
These circumstances are well known. King difficalty.
thew) the Apostle, viz., 24 February, 1296/7, at Drury Lane, and also the extracts from the which was a Sunday that year. The Parliament Ami des Lois and the Rédacteur in reference to a duly met on that date, and though little is French invasion of England, are all very interestknown of its deliberations, the Earls of Norfolk ing; but to readers of to-day the advertisements and Hereford then refused to lead the campaign will offer the greatest amount of attraction. George in Gascony, on the ground that the king was Washington, Pitt, and Fox are not nearly so much not going thither in person ; and it was on this part and parcel of the old world as lotteries and occasion that the supposed punning allusion to patent cures for king's evil. Bigot's name occurred. King Edward himself The advertisements number sixty-five, and tbe was still at Salisbury on 7 Marob, when the most remarkable one of all heads the first column. Archbishop Winchelsey bad audience there to Io large type we have the announcement of an discuss the situation, and on this occasion, it extraordinary large reptile”, which may be Beoms, a modus vivendi was arranged.
inspected “with the greatest pleasure" at 422, Reasonable consideration of these plain facts Oxford Street. The bite of this “largest and leads to the opinion that there was a Parliament most beautiful rattlesnake " ever imported into at Salisbury in response to the writ of summons this country “is attended with immediate disin question; that those who were omitted from solution,” but the owner of this pleasant companion the summons were outlaws, and bad conse- does not offer practical demonstrations of its power. quently no right to receive writs ;, that this There are four lottery advertisements, the special Parliament discussed the Bull and the general claims of each of whic are urged with all the flowery situation ; that King Edward, having taken eloquence of the quack and the cheap-jack. Patent counsel and heard the views of the lords tem- medicine advertisements take a very important poral, subsequently came to an informal under place in the paper, and the income from these must standing, for the existence of wbich there is have been considerable. They range from Dr. good evidence, with the prime mover in the James's analeptic pill to nostrums for scald beads, matter, Archbishop Winchelsey; and that the and wind up with Dr. Solander's “Sanative Engsupposed Parliament at Salisbury of 21 Septem-lish Tea,” for “ nervous, bilious, consumptive, and ber, 1297, at which date the king was in relaxed constitutions," in packets at 28. 9d., and in Flanders, is a myth arising from a mistake very canisters at 10s. 6d. each. The fact that it was in easily to be made.
use " by several most noble and elevated of the The great probability that this writ produced nobility” was to be taken as an indisputable proof a Parliament has an important bearing on the of its efficacy, but a fow abridged testimonials from regularity of the writ itself ; especially so since smaller fry, such as a corn-chandler, an apothecary, those were present who would have been glad to &c., are given. Mr. Moberly Bell's face would be take exception to the legality of the summons an interesting study if some of these advertisements if they could have done so; and, duly regarded were now brought to him for insertion in the in all its bearings and its peculiar circumstances, Times. the validity of this writ of 26 January, 25 Edw. I.,
From a literary point of view, the most interestnotwithstanding the opinions of the eminent autho, ing advertisement in the paper relates to “An rities named, seems to be more easily defended Asylum of Genius (where complete justice will be than opposed.
done to Literary works, and money occasionally advanced to the authors themselves, to advertise
them)," which was just opened at 137, Fleet Street. THE TIMES, 9 NOVEMBER, 1796. Here we have one of the earliest appeals to the The facsimile reprint of the Times of the above vanity of the amateur scribbler. Among the pubdate is in many respects exceedingly interesting. lications of this philanthropic institution were 'A It is of the 3,736th number, and it appeared simul. Cat o' Nine Tails,' by the Nine Muses, at the low taneously with the 30,043rd number. A greater price of fourpence, and 'A Guide Spiritual and contrast between the four-page sheet of 1796 and Temporal,' which contained “a variety of matter the sixteen-page issue of 1896 it would be impos- that comes home to men's hearts," and which may sible to instance. Of course the great interest of have been had for one shilling. the issue of 9 November, 1796, lies in the Auctioneers' advertisements, for which the newsannouncement of Washington's resignation of the papers of the day keenly competed, occupy nearly Presidency of the United States a piece of the whole of one page, Messrs. Skinner, Dyke & information which then occupied seven weeks in Skinner holding most of their sales at Garraway's transmission, whereas now nows travels the same Coffee House, the great mart of the day, their distance in about seven minutes. The intimation offices being in Aldersgate Street, whilst Mr. that "Mr. Fox will dine at Guildhall as well as Christie's sales were chiefly conducted at his great Mr. Pitt"; that Mr. Kemble and Mrs. Siddons room in Pall Mall, No. 125, adjoining the bouse in were playing the leading roles in 'Richard III.' which Gainsborough set up his stadio when he
arrived in London from Bath in 1774. The ad us try the largest first. Cassell's 'Encyclopædic' vertisements of Skinner, Dyke & Skinner, and says, “ British, of or pertaining to Britain." James Christie are for the most part of country Well, that is no use, because we have no definition estates, of little general interest now; but at this of Britain, which, like British, is the point ; period both firms were about equally well known bosides, Haydn told us Britain was merged into as anctioneers of pictures and objects of art. England.
Bat quite the most interesting reflection which Well, now Ogilvie's 'Imperial Dictionary,' 1882. will be forced upon one in connexion with this It simply copies Cassell's, or vice versâ. Now then, facsimile is the exceedingly easy duties of the Nuttall (an edition of about 1880) : “British, editor of a daily newspaper in 1796 as compared pertaining to Britain, or Great Britain, or its with those a century later. A pair of scissors, a pot inhabitants"; but in another edition, 1893, the of paste and one of beer were apparently the chief Rev. James Wood, the editor, seems to have had weapons of the editor of 1796, supplemented by an bis suspicions, for he has left out the words occasional paragraph or two written all out of his * Britain or," unless this was simply done without own bead. In this particular issue of the Times reflection, to make it shorter. there are fifty-two lines of the editor's own com So that an Irishman, a Frenchman, a German, position—the sum total of its original matter. or Chinese, if he is "an inhabitant,” is a Britisher, There were in 1796 do early newspaper trains to which of course cannot be, for a man born in catch, no leader-writers to supervise, no sporting England must be an Englisher, one born in intelligence to overlook, no slaving from 8 P.M. Wales a Welsber, &c. antil 4 4.2. What a Golden Age for editors of Let us try Percy Smith's most useful. Glossary daily newspapers !
W. ROBERTS. of Terms and Phrases,' 1889. No. Like Nuttall, Carlton Villa, Klea Avenue, Clapham Common,
it gives “British gum," and “ British seas," and “ Britisb ship,
one owned by a British subject,"
but no definition. BRITISH
Well, Dr. Brower's ‘Phrase and Fable 'hardly I am writing about Everard Digby, the author ever fails one. He gives some interesting informaof 'De Arte Natandi,' the first book published in tion about the British lion, but not what I want, Eogland on swimming in the year 1587, and I though under "Britain” we get near it, for be wanted to say (of course with pride) that he was says Great Britain consists of Britannia prima an Englishman pare and simple, and not a (England), Britannia secunda (Wales), and North Britisber. That is, be lived before the union of Britain (Scotland). The natives of these countries, England and Scotland, when James I. came to the I apprehend, are all Britishers when they act throne. At least that is my notion of a Britisher.* in concert ; but I want a book that tells me
I have a bad babit now of looking out for the exactly. One more chance : Wharton's "Law accepted (or rather dictionary) meaning of words Lexicon.' No. It defines "bridge,” and “brief," to see if I am right-a bad habit, because, as and "British Columbia," but plain " British " you will be seen by the following observations, it are supposed to know. almost invariably leads one into endless searches,
Having exbausted my books, it is clear that I that take up time. So let us see what the authori- must wait until I can go to a library. In the mean ties say about Britisb, and, as I have a bad memory time I may remark that I never use the word for dates, wbat was the date of this so-called union. British if English will do. If I am abroad I
Ah! Haydn's Dictionary of Dates' is sure to call overything English-whether Scotch, Welsh, give me both under "British.” No. All sorts of or Irish — if I am proud of it ; but if bad" I assign British institutions and British Museum, Under it to the country it belongs to if possible, or “Britain” we are told the kingdom merged into repudiate it as not English. Sometimes the result that of England 874; but that is a British or is curious, as in talking of one of the magnificent Britain that I am not concerning myself with ships which you know are built in Scotland and DON. Under “England we get the date of hail, say, from Glasgow. An Englishman abroad James VI.'s accession to the English throne, 1603 ; is proud of her, so, in reply to what country, she bat so explanation of British. institutions called British are not British at all, belongs to, “la belle Havraise” is informed she is
You cannot go into details, and say, but purely
English, unless the fact of Scotsmen well, probably she is built in Scotland by Irishmen coming to England, remaining permanently there, and much of the materials and inventions are from and joining these institutions makes them British. England. What would a Scotsman answer? Would
Ah! I see it is the English dictionary I must be reply British (" Breeteesh"), or Anglais, or go to ; but it is Sunday, and I have very few. Let
At Marseilles there is a tradesman who has Though written some months ago, this note may be taken in some sort as a reply to that entitled 'Great
“British butcher" painted over his shop. This Britain or England' (gib S. x. 455).
always puzzled me, even before I looked up this
question, because I thought a man must be either nothing of the kind is to be found ;* but under an Englishman or a Scotsman, unless spoken of “Great Britain” we are told it is divided into collectively, such as in the navy or army, when, of three parts—England, Scotland, and Wales. course, English, Scotch, and Welsh are properly The Gazetteer of the British Isles,' edited by spoken of as British. He was, perhaps, acquainted John Bartholomew, Edin. (1893 ?), gives no with Scotch prejudices, and thought to catch definition of British, Britain, nor British Isles. Scots as well as English.
I need not search further, as they are all about The French do not take to the word “British,"* the same ; but, lastly, let us see what an American probably because they have “ Anglais," which says, Lippincott's Gazetteer of the World, formerly, I believe, included all English-speaking Philadelphia, 1880, under "British Empire,” refers people ; but of late years Americans have travelled to Great Britain, where it says: Great Britain or in such numbers that it does not now include Britain is England, Wales, and Scotland, but the them.
“British Isles are the United Kingdom of Great I have referred above to the “80-called union." Britain and Ireland.” This is not large enough, What kind of a union is it when each country has however; it should have added the isles of Guernsey, separate laws ? For legal matters Scotland is as Jersey, Alderney, and Sark, for incidentally I may much a foreign country as France ; for you cannot say that the legislature found it necessary to serve an English process in Scotland or France define British Islands, and in all Acts of Parliawithout leave of a judge. It is much better than ment passed after 31 Dec., 1889, those words mean it was some years ago, when a Scotsman could the United Kingdom, the Channel Islands, and come to England, run up large bills, return to the Isle of Man (Stroud's 'Judicial Dictionary, Scotland, and flip his fingers at his creditors. It is 1890). It would thus appear that the editor of the same with Ireland; and yet, though we never Nuttall was not right in leaving out “Britain or." conquered Scotland, we always pretend we did The whole thing seems to show that they none Ireland. It is not much of a conquest of a country of them know much about, or at all ovents are not when it still keeps its own laws. Of course, the thoroughly certain about the matter. above instance is only supposition--"make believe," suppose à man born in Ireland, or, better still, as the children say—no one would suspect either instead of supposing I will give an actual case, Scotsmen or Irisbmen of doing such a dishonest that of a valiant soldier who served his country thing.
faithfully for twenty years—John Leaby, taken An English judgment solemnly pronounced by from his own account in his 'Art of Swimming,' the most powerful lord we bave is mere waste- 1875. He is a Corker, having been born in the paper in Scotland or Ireland, until it has gone county of Cork, where at the age of seventeen he through the required legal process to make it worth enlisted in our army (“our” neatly avoids English anytbing in those two countries respectively. and British), and is brought to England, where he
The Union I have been referring to is that of is forthwith attached to a Scotch regiment, 78th the accession of James I.; but I need not say that Highlanders, and for the rest of his military career this was only a union of the two crowns, the poses before the datives of India as a Scotsman "real" (?) union was not until the Act of 5 Anne, (I presume in Scots dress). He comes back to c. 8, 1 May, 1707; the latter is as much a sham England, where he remains, an Irishman still (?), as the former, so far as the law is concerned. though if he met any of those Indian natives they
Probably one must not expect any explanation of would, of course, look upon him as a Scotsman in & word from gazetteers--at all events, if you did England. In 1868 he joined the Eton College you would not get it ; still it is worth while seeing Rifle Corps, when we find, from his book above what they have to say.
referred to, he had left off the Highland dress, I bave the tenth edition, 1797, of R. Brooke's as he is represented teaching the college boys General Gazetteer '; it does not give British at swimming, in layman's costume.t all.
In a subsequent new edition, 1869, wo are informed in the preface that the “first edition
* I thought I must have made some mistake, so I was issued to British readers” in 1762. Under referred to an experienced literary friend, who con. “ British America " we are told that “this extensive firmed me, with the observation that “there was hardly territory will be found under ten heads, under the a page of any of our þooks of reference that could be head of “British Empire.” Under that heading glass houses must not throw stones, and prefer to let
relied on." I have thought this, but felt that people in
some one else say it. * Nor do the English; they use the word more † I use the word “costume" in its ordinary sense generally of late years, in consequence of a kind of bero; it does not mean none, as it does at our swimming boycotting threat from the Scotch-at least, so I bave entertainments, where it means not a costume, but a beon informed. There was a long discussion in the tight-fitting body and double drawers, made according to Times some years ago, and the Scotch writers told us the laws of the Amateur Swimming Association. I am that if we did not use the term British they would leave quite prepared to find, in a few years' time, that the word off building our ships.
will be solely applied in this latter meaning. The swim.