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visit to this village. The comprehensive system of land drainage had not then been commenced in northwestern Ohio. When young Lehr reached Johnstown he found the water so high that he could not walk up the street and so, he said, he got on the fence and managed to proceed to the higher ground on which the first building of the Ada University was afterwards erected.

Here he began teaching in a modest way. He had great faith in the future development of this section of the state and time proved the wisdom of his choice of the location for the school. Under his enthusiastic and energetic management it prospered almost from the first. It grew into recognition not only as one of the popular institutions of its kind in Ohio but in the entire Middie West. Dr. Lehr had himself been a poor boy and with those of meager means who were struggling to acquire the rudiments of an education he was in thorough sympathy. He planned courses of study and the arrangement of terms to meet their needs. He exercised general supervision over boarding and rooming facilities and took especial pride in what he could offer in this productive agricultural region at the lowest rates for the students of his school.

His interest in normal training was confirmed by his contact with Dr. Alfred Holbrook and his plans for so arranging the terms of his school that students could enter at almost any time of the year and, without losing standing in the college, be out the winter term to teach school and thus earn their way he acquired, in a measure, while a student at Mt. Union College when Dr. O. N. Hartshorn was President of that institution. It was also while there doubtless that he was impressed

with the importance of keeping the institution over which he presided close to the patriotic and official agencies of the times. Dr. Hartshorn, soon after Mt. Union College was established, brought that institution to the attention of the state and Nation by inviting to it the distinguished men of his time to deliver addresses. Not only did he invite such men but he so persistently followed up his invitations that he succeeded in having such distinguished men as Salmon P. Chase and others. high in official position deliver addresses at Mt. Union. It is claimed that Dr. Lehr even surpassed the president of his Alma Mater in persuading eminent men to visit Ada. Many will recall how he managed to stage at that place the great political debate between Governor James E. Campbell and William McKinley, then a candidate to succeed Campbell in the governorship of Ohio.

The results of this policy are manifest to anyone who reads the list of distinguished alumni of the Ohio Northern University. It is indeed a rare honor to an educational institution that never received any direct aid from the state that it should give at the same time to the Nation two United States senators. After March 4, Ohio will be represented in the highest legislative body of the United States and the world by two men who were not only students but teachers in the institution founded by Dr. Lehr. Two judges of the Supreme Court of Ohio, R. M. Wanamaker and E. S. Matthias, are graduates from the Ohio Northern.

That institution at different periods has been known by different names. It was first simply a select school. Afterwards it was known as the Northwestern Ohio

Normal School, then as Ohio Normal University and finally as Ohio Northern University."

Among interesting relics given by Dr. Lehr to the institution that he founded, were a flag carried by his grandfather at the battles of the Brandywine, Germantown and Monmouth and the epaulettes worn by his father as Brigadier-General in the Militia of Pennsylvania.

Dr. Lehr belonged to the Grand Army of the Republic and the Masonic order. He was a member of the Christian Church and for many years Superintendent of the Sunday School conducted by that denomina tion in Ada.

October 30, 1866, he was united in marriage with Albina Hoover of Stark County, Ohio. He is survived by his widow and two daughters, Mrs. Sarah L. Kennedy, of Chicago, and Miss Harriet M. Lehr, of Ada.

MEETING OF AMERICAN HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION

The next annual meeting of the American Historical Association will be held in Columbus, Ohio, December 27, 28 and 29, 1923. The Mississippi Valley Association will hold its meeting at the same time and place. It is practically assured that the American Political Science Association will also hold its annual meeting on the above dates in Columbus.

This is an announcement of unusual interest to all Ohio students and teachers of history and an especial effort will be made to assure an attendance worthy of ⚫ the meetings.

Ohio ranks high among the states that have made conspicuous contribution to American history. Ohioans

are justly proud of the record and some tangible evidences at last are encouragingly manifest. It must be admitted that the state has been a little slow to attest the interest of its people in their contribution to the upbuilding of the state and Nation.

In this connection it is eminently proper that some reference should be made to the successful effort of Professor Wilbur H. Siebert to bring these important meetings to our state and capital city. He has for a number of years been Ohio's prominent representative in the American Historical Association. He has contributed a number of important books and monographs on historical subjects. He has been a contributor to the leading historical periodicals in the United States. A number of his papers have appeared in the QUARTERLY of our Society. He is the author of the Underground Railroad, published by the Mcmillan Company and since its appearance regarded as an authority on this subject; also of The Government of Ohio by the same publisher. Recent monographs from his pen are The Exodus of the Loyalists from Penobscot and the Loyalist Settlements at Passamaquoddy; The Loyalists of Pennsylvania; Kentucky's Struggle with its Loyalist Proprietors. Readers of the QUARTERLY will recall his interesting and timely paper in this magazine last April, entitled The Ohio State University in the World War.

Professor Siebert has been very active in the Ohio Valley Historical Society and it is due largely to his initiative and persistent effort that the proceedings and papers of that society are soon to appear in print.

INTER-STATE MIGRATION AND THE MAKING OF THE UNION *

BY DR. EDWIN ERLE SPARKS

President Emeritus of the Pennsylvania State College

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In such words does the good poet, John Greenleaf Whittier, picture the onward march of civilization across the North American continent; the building of a nation while conquering an empire.

I can fancy the poet writing that poem. On the desk before him lay an eagle's quill which some admirer had sent him from the Lake Superior region. It had been made into a pen, and as the poet looked at it, he said, "But yesterday the eagle was monarch of the north-west: to-day comes man, plucks a quill from the eagle, and fashions it into a pen. civilization treads upon the heels of savagery.'

So

* Annual address at meeting of the Ohio State Archæological and Historical Society, September 9, 1922.

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