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tion of the Mexican lands as “Pike's Peak or bust” followed the days of ’49 and California.

With your permission I shall carry the statistical investigation a step, further and make inquiry concerning the migration from the state of Ohio. To the average Ohioan, such an inquiry would seem to be of no avail; for what true native of Ohio can conceive of a man migrating voluntarily from its prosperous and happy limits to drag out an attenuated existence in any other state of the Union ? Unbelievable as it is, nevertheless, in 1900 there were 178,000 natives of the real mother of presidents who had for one reason or another removed to Indiana and 137,000 so short-sighted as to have removed to Illinois. Then followed Kansas, Michigan and Iowa in order.

In contrast with these states lying mostly in a western direction from Ohio, Mississippi could boast of only 1,500 Buckeyes within her limits whilst Texas has nearly ten times as many. Distant Oregon had taken nearly six times as many residents away from Ohio as had Louisiana. This so-called "due westward” movement is owed, as you will readily have surmised, to climatic reasons. A northern climate will attract northerners and a southern climate will similarly affect south

Similar climates mean similar occupations, similar food crops, similar agricultural working conditions and similar clothing and manner of living. The Ohioan migrating to Iowa finds all these things much the same in his new home as they were in the home he has left behind; but if he removes to Mississippi or to Maine, he finds all known customs and practices largely overthrown and must learn new ways of living and of working. This means loss of time and loss of wealth. One can only guess at the amount of money that has been lost by adventurous farmers, who have been successful in raising corn and hogs in Ohio, going to develop orchards and raise citrus fruit in Florida or in California.

erners.

Thus I have tried to show how the states lying to the west have been recruited by fresh swarm after swarm of people who left the eastern home hive and “struck out for the tall timber” of a western state or territory with a freedom of movement which could not in the least be comprehended in a European country. This movement of the people continued in its great task of covering the continent from East to West until the front line had about reached the Great Plains, as the western prairies of what is now Kansas and Nebraska and the Dakotas were called. Then came a sudden turn of the tide, a deflection of the stream which had set in westwardly for so many years.

Gold was discovered in California. In 1840, no enumeration of that state was made for the region was part of Mexico. In 1850, there were nearly 100,000 people within the bounds of modern California and that number had increased more than four times over in the next ten years.

This started a counter movement from west to east which in time affected Idaho, Nevada and Arizona. This is shown by the fact that in 1900 there were 7,195 residents of Nevada who were natives of California and only 60 who had come from Ohio. But this back fire died out in the arid regions between the Sierra Nevada and the Rocky Mountains. Now there are 88 Ohioans living in Kansas to every one Californian.

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Nor has there ever been any other marked return movement. The course of empire has never pursued its way from west to east, save for those who were dissatisfied with the West and returned to some eastern state and also naturally for those who were given in marriage. Ohio sent 16,762 citizens to dwell in the state of Washington. That state reciprocated by sending 253 Washingtonians to live in the Buckeye state. It would, consequently, require the migration eastward of 16,509 Washingtonians to balance the books with Ohio. Ohio has given to Minnesota eighteen times as many people as she has received from the northwestern state.

Nor is there a difference in the proportions of exchange of citizens in the southern states. Texas has been a pronounced offender in taking away many citizens and returning but few. From Tennessee she drew 130,000 inhabitants and repaid that state with 4,000. From distant Massachusetts she attracted 1,524 people and gave in return one-fourth as many. She took away 25,000 people from Illinois and repaid for them with 3,000. In Ohio there are 1,075 Texans residing; in Texas 10,588 Ohioans resident.

In this interchange of people, some see the real birth of the unity of the Nation; the failure of secession; the force which has helped to overcome the decentralizing tendencies of various race contributions; and the perpetuity of the church, the schools, newspapers and all the higher attributes of our civilization. one, after even such a brief and inadequate consideration of inter-state migration, have a new conception of that clause in our beloved Constitution which reads, "The citizens of each state shall be entitled to all privileges and immunities of citizens in the several states."

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REMARKS ON ADDRESS OF DR. SPARKS

BY DR. T. C. MENDENHALL Mr. President and Members of the Society:

I had a story to tell this afternoon but in view of the late hour I have begged the Chairman to let me off. As he insists on not doing so I will put off my story for a future day and speak very briefly of a thought that has been in my mind while listening to the extremely interesting paper of Dr. Sparks and the very impressive address of General Keifer.

Dr. Sparks has emphasized and illustrated the irresistible march of civilization towards the west, a sometimes temporarily halted, but never completely arrested movement, which crossed the continent of Europe, then the Atlantic Ocean, and in our own time has reached our western border, the shores of the Pacific.

The thought which came to me grew out of a personal incident which threatened to prevent my hearing these two most interesting addresses because of an expected visit (now postponed for a day) from Dr. R. Fujisawa, retired professor of the Imperial University of Japan, in which institution he was my pupil more than forty years ago. He has just completed a course of lectures at the International Political Institute which has been in session at Williams College, Williamstown, Massachusetts.

As many of you know, the Institute is of recent foundation, holding its meetings annually for a few weeks, for the study of important international questions. Distinguished men are called from foreign countries to give courses of lectures, each upon some phase of the political institutions of his own land which may just now be of special interest.

Dr. Fujisawa very kindly sent me typewritten copies of his lectures as given from day to day and the leading note which he has sounded rang in my ears this afternoon as I heard, it repeated in the notable addresses to which we have listened.

I recalled the fact that when I first saw him he was a typical youth of high rank in a nation which at that time was. practically unknown among the people of the, so-called, civilized world. He belonged to the "sword-bearing" caste of a people ruled by what we would consider the most autocratic government known to man.

But a few years earlier this mighty westerly movement of democratic civilization had crossed the broadest of the oceans and planted its seed in this land, which for centuries had neither given to nor received from the other nations of the earth.

In spite of this complete isolation, however, evolutionary forces had been at work and in many respects intellectual advances had been made, parallel and equal to those of Europe and America, so that it was something more than the civilization of the fifteenth century which met that of the nineteenth when the guns of Commodore Perry brought the latter to the gates of the Land of the Rising Sun.

A half century has elapsed; the enthusiastic student of forty-five years ago has won international distinction, first as a mathematician and physicist and later as a philosopher and publicist. His country, then almost unknown to the world, including a population barely one-fortieth of that of the whole earth, has come to be ranked as one of the five or six great nations. All history records no other such transformation.

It is the puzzle of the ages.

And now comes Fujisawa, carrying his message eastward instead of westward and the essence of it is democracy!

It seems an inversion of the proper order that we should receive lessons in democracy from a nation which still accepts and reveres its hereditary monarch, while at the same time it assumes to be the most democratic on earth.

But why not? If democracy means that the people shall have “that form of government which they most want”, a new standard is established which may well receive our most thoughtful consideration, and we may seriously inquire whether, after all, as measured by that standard our government is a democracy.

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