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the Betts Street Hospital to get the linen and worked long into the night after I had gone to sleep. During the “siege," as it was called, we boys "played soldier” in the backyards, as the street was forbidden ground. In ten days, however, all was over, and the city relapsed into its peaceful status. The Confederate forces saw such a determined preparation meet them that their offensive was abandoned. So school-life was resumed to the disgust of the militant youngsters, and we again became that popular figure of Shakespeare:

The whining school-boy, with his satchel,
And shining morning face, creeping like a snail
Unwillingly to school.

Yet there was enough going on in Cincinnati to vary the monotony of school life, and, thanks to my mother, I saw at least a part of everything of importance. She had her share of feminine curiosity, and was always on hand to see things, and, as I was her only child, when not at school was always under her eye. Hence I became her willing companion on the little journeys narrated herein. I remember going with her this summer to Sixth Street Market place to see General Sohn Morgan's men who were captured in Southeastern Ohio. They were brought down the river and were on their way to Camp Chase - a military prison at Columbus, Ohio. They numbered about a thousand, and were resting in and about the market house awaiting orders to start on their journey. And a ragged, tired and down-hearted looking crowd they were. What struck me most was the fact that they were all so young; I saw some who were mere boys, and, it seemed to me, not much older than myself. I gave one of them an apple; for which he thanked me kindly. They were well treated by the citizens and were served with plenty of food and hot coffee.

For a boy I had thus far seen different phases of war life, but in September following I witnessed an event that left the most striking impression on my mind of all those I had seen. This was the funeral procession of General William H. Lytle, who had been killed at the battle of Chickamauga, and was brought to Cincinnati for burial. General Lytle was one of its most distinguished citizens, and belonged to one of its oldest families. Although he was but thirty-seven years old, he had served as a Captain in the Mexican War, and was promoted to General in the Civil War, having entered as a colonel

. He was a lawyer of distinction and a poet of note. His best known poem is the famous "Address of Antony to Cleopatra" commencing:

I am dying, Egypt, dying.

During my later school-days it was a favorite subject for recitation. General Lytle was sincerely beloved by Cincinnati, and its people did not conceal their mourning. They showed by a popular display of sorrow. So again from our second story window from which I saw so many political and military processions, I viewed the one that escorted his remains to Spring Grove Cemetery. I have seen many pageants in my life, civic, religious and political, but never one of such solemnity and dignity; none that so deeply affected me. Notwithstanding that it was but the customary military funeral, the war time, the heroic dead, my age and the tensity of all that I was in communion with made it most impressive; and again, I was witnessing for the first time in my life a dramatic tribute to unconquerable Death with a great popular hero as the victim. The sad purpose of the event and its somber surroundings were sufficient to make it a spectacle calculated to awe the mind of a boy. The slow and subdued minor notes of the dead march, the measured tread of a thousand soldiers with their arms reversed, and the silent and uncovered bystanders clothed the solemn scene in the habiliments of woe. But the most pathetic feature was the General's white war-horse with his master's boots hanging reversed in the stirrups, walking slowly, led by a groom, behind the artillery caisson on which rested the casket, covered by an American flag. Those who witnessed all this felt its sobering and inspiring effects, and we children never spoke of it except with awe.

This incomplete autobiography is in Mr. Ryan's best literary style. Great indeed is the loss of the Ohio State Archäological Society in the passing of one of its members who wrote so well.





A Defense of the High School. 1883. 11 pp.
Why Americans Should Aid Ireland.

1886. 13 PP.
On the Convict Labor System. 1884. 6 pp.
Nullification in Ohio. 1888.
Constitutional Reform. 1890. 30 pp.
Home Rule in Ohio. 1890. 16 pp.
Taxation. 1892. 32 pp.
The Cuban Question in American Diplomacy. 1897. 7 pp.
Brief on Indian Lands. n. d. 17 PP.
The Miami and Erie Canal. 1901: 15 PP.
Combination of Corporations. 1902. 14 PP.
The First Constitutional Convention. 1902. 16 pp.
The Canals in Relation to the Farmers. 1887. 22 pp.
Influence of Socialism on the Ohio Constitution. 7 pp. (In

North American Review, November, 1912.)
Ohio Constitution. 2 pp. (In North American Review,

February, 1913.)
The State Library and Its Founder. 9 pp.

(In Ohio Archæological and Historical Publications, Vol. 28, pp. 98-107.)

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The two ends of my topic seem widely separated, both in space and in time; thousands of miles in space and hundreds of years in time.

The object of this paper is to bridge this gap; to give some information about the one, and to show how its story may be of tremendous significance to the other.

First, then, the Town of Tallmadge. I use the word “town” in that larger, finer sense in which it is generally used in New England; redolent of the "town meeting”, the best example of a pure democracy. It is geographically equivalent to the more common term “township”.

But in New England and originally in that part of the state of Ohio in which is the Town of Tallmadge, it implies a more intimate association of all the people of the district. In accord with this idea, the geographical center of these small political units, where will be found, almost invariably, the postoffice, church, general store, etc., is not differentiated from other parts by a separate name, but is known simply as "the center". In Portage County we speak of Randolph and Randolph Center; of Atwater and Atwater Center, and there is undeniably a more unified or "community” sentiment throughout the twenty-five square miles of the "town” than is usual in similar areas designated as "townships”, in which the

* Address at annual meeting of the Ohio State Archaeological and Historical Society, September 19, 1923.

principal village is often not near the geographical center and generally bears an entirely different name. Thus, although throughout the Western Reserve the name “township" is used as the proper legal designation, the distinction is still recognized in the general use of the township name alone, as meaning the twenty-five square miles of territory, and not the village which may be within its borders.

So when I speak of the “Town of Tallmadge" I mean the twenty-five square miles of territory to which the name “Tallmadge" belongs.

In this company even a brief résumé of the incidents leading to the creation of the Town of Tallmadge may be considered an entirely unjustifiable and even unpardonable assumption of ignorance regarding national and state history, but on the chance that some may have forgotten what all once knew, I remind you that in the year of our Lord, 1662, when Kings and Emperors were generous in giving away what they never possessed, Charles II of England granted to his Connecticut Colony all the land between the 41st and 42nd degrees of north latitude, from the western boundary of the state to the Pacific ocean; a princely gift of about 185,000 square miles, or four and a half times the area of the state of Ohio.

There were excepted such parts as had been already occupied by properly authorized settlers; but the aggressive Connecticut colony undertook to assert its rights under this charter and became involved in disputes with colonial authorities of both New York and Pennsylvania. The Revolutionary War put an end to this quarrel and at its conclusion the state of Connecticut ceded to Congress all claims under this charter for ter

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