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The publishers beg to announce the commencement of an early Number of



notify that he will not undertake to return, or to be accountable
for, any manuscripts forwarded to him for perusal.

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On the 15th of last month it was announced in London by magnetic telegraph, that the mail steamer Canada had arrived in the Mersey from New York, bringing a number of passengers, amongst whom was Mr. John Fiennes Crampton, late Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary of Her Majesty with the United States of America.

In the journal which made this announcement appeared two despatches, which explained the cause of Mír. Crampton's absence from the scene of his mission, and his presence ou British ground. Both were written by Mr. Marcy, the American secretary of state---one to Mr. Dallas, the American minister in London ; the other to Mr. Crampton himself.

The latter was as follows:



that purpose. I consequently encloso here. with the passport given in such cases.

I avail myself of this opportunity to renew to you, sir, the assurance of my respectful consideration.

W. L. MARCY. John F. Crampton, Esq., &c. We learn, then, from these despatches, and from the arrival of Mr. Crampton in England, that the minister of Her Britannic Majesty with the United States has been dismissed from that country,

unfit for the position he held," and unworthy of that confidence and consideration which the representative of a friendly power ought to command with the government to which he is accredited.

It may not be thought amiss, on the occurrence of so strange and startling an event, to enter upon a brief summary of the circumstances which have led to this result. The public mind, we are aware, has been for some time much occupied with the question; and the public journals have entered, over and over again, into the details, presenting the matter under every conceivable aspect: still, notwithstanding all this or rather, because a constant and perplexing iteration of details may possibly have interfered with and prevented a just view of the whole question, we are disposed to hope that we may supply a want at this moment felt by some of our readers, by giving, though at the risk of repetition, from authentic sources, and as plainly as we can, an historical resumé of the double controversy which has of late been engaging the attention and taxing the

Department of State, Washington,

May 28th, 1856. SIR,—The President of the United States has directed me to announce to you the des termination to discontinue farther intercourse with you as hier Majesty's representative to the government of the United States. The reasons which have compelled him to take this step at this tiine have been communicated to your government.

I avail myself of this occasion to add that due attention will be cheerfully given to any communications addressed to this department from her Majesty's government affecting the relations between Great Britain and the United States, which may be forwarded to this government through any other channel.

Should it be your pleasure to retire froin the United States, the President directs ine to furnish you with the usual facilities for

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world's gaze.

diplomatic intelligence of the two go- poration of new states into the vernments.

American Union, a western sea-board It is scarcely necessary to say that was obtained; and when a dependency of the twofold difficulty in question, of Great Britain, almost equal to a one part relates to our possessions continent, and lying beyond the barand rights in Central America, and rier of the western world, had disthe other to the attempt made during closed a sudden store of wealth and the late war to procure recruits from invited the enterprize and cupidity of amongst the inhabitants of the United Englishmen to its shores, what had States. Upon each of these questions been until then deemed a worthless a “ Blue Book” has been published. pass between the northern and southThe controversies, which raged for ern empires of America rose at once some time simultaneously, are thus into importance, as forming the kept separate, though their separa- line of communication between the tion in the parliamentary documents civilization of the two great divi. does not so completely isolate them sions of the British family and the from each other, as not to render a distant treasures of the Pacific. Cencomparison valuable for the purpose tral America, for the first time, of illustrating the characters of the became the centre of American inparties and the real objects they had terests. Every eye was turned upon în view. We propose to take up the her; she began to be the focus of the Central American question first, both because it arose considerably earlier As a highway, use was made of her than the other, and because the lat- at once.

In default of other means ter will be dealt with more naturally of transit, men scrambled over her in connection with the concluding por- mountains, and forded or swam her tion of the present paper.

lakes and rivers, in order to get tho Up to the period at which the dis- shortest way across from sea to sea. covery of gold in California took This spontaneous selection of a route place, those vast regions of America pointed out its importance. The inwhich lie between Mexico on the terests of the world seemed to denorth, and New Granada on the mand that it should be opened up. south, had been little valued and Such was the state of things which very imperfectly explored. The an- originated the CLAYTOX-BULWER tiquarian researches of Mr. Stephens, TREATY. indeed, had invested portions of themi The history of this treaty is shortly with a mysterious interest; but the as follows. In the year 1849 a prointerest which utility alone can pro- posal was discussed between the miduce had not been felt--it was not nisters of the two governments, Great any one's business to explore them. Britain and America, for guaranteeThis whole region had been originally ing the safety of a company of capicolonized by Spain; and remained talists, to whom a charter should be under the dominion of that country granted by the republic of Nicarauntil the year 1821, when the pro- gua for the execution and mainvinces of which it was composed tenance of a ship-canal across a certhrew off the Spanish yoke, and con- tain portion of Central America, stituted themselves into a republic, principally if not altogether lying which they named Central America. within the territory of that state. In a few years this republic fell to This canal was to pass from the pieces, and was reformeri into separate Caribbean Sea at San Juan del Norte states, which took their divisions in westward, following the course of the main from the boundaries of the the river San Juan until it reached old provinces. These republics are Lake Nicaragua, whence it was to (beginning from the north) Guatemala, pass into Lake Managua, having its Honduras, San Salvador, Nicaragua, outlet either at the port of Realejo and Costa Rica. From an early period or at the Bay of Fonseca on the England had formed settlements on Pacific. This vast undertaking had t'ie eastern shores of this region - already been taken up by a company undispated, whatever had been the of capitalists, and was deemed of original title to them--hy the repub- sufficient importance to the inlics they bordered on.

terests of both nations to call for As soon, however, as by the incor- their formal protection, to guarantee

which was accordingly, as we have in writing to Lord Pa Imerston on the said, the object of the proposed 18th of February, 1850 :-“Both of convention. Sir Henry Lytton Bul- us (Mr. Clayton and myself) deemed wer was at that time the British that at the present time the treaty in Minister at Washington, with Mr. question did all that was necessary Crampton attached to the Legation ; by settling a basis on which the canal and Mr. Clayton was the Secretary could be constructed and protected." of State of the United States. Nu- England having at last intimnated merous communications took place, her willingness to satisfy America on both between these parties and be- the points she had raised, namely, tween Mr. Abbott Lawrence, the as to the Mosquito protectorate and American Minister in London, and the occupancy of Greytown, the proLord Palmerston, then Minister for ject of a convention was drawn up. Foreign Affairs. The points under This, after much discussion and some discussion principally related to a modification, was finally embodied in claim by the British of a protectorate formal Articles, which were signed by over the territory of the king---or, as Sir Henry Bulwer on the part of he is sometimes termed, Chief of the England, and by Mr. Clayton on that Mosquito Indians, and to the occupa- of America, on the 19th day of April, tion by the English, under a title de- 1850, both parties being fully emrived from that nation, or tribe, of powered by their respective governthe town of San Juan del Norte, by ments for the purpose. them called Greytown, which com- Of this convention it will be nemanded the eastern mouth of the cessary to quote one sentence, form. proposed canal. A glance at a good ing part of Article I. It runs thus:map (such as that prefixed to the 1st The Governments of Great Britain and the volume of Squiers' “Nicaragua") will United States hereby declare that neither the shew that the maintenance of either one nor the other will ever obtain or maintain the one or the other claim by Eng for itself any exclusive control over the said land might possibly have been fairly Ship-Canal; agreeing that neither will ever considered by America as giving her

erector maintain any fortifications commanding undue power over one of the outlets of the same, or in the vicinity thereof, or occupy, the contemplated canal ; for even the

or fortify, or colonize, or assume or exercise Mosquito protectorate would, accor

any dominion over Nicaragua, Costa Rica, the ding to her most recent pretensions, America.

Mosquito Coast, or any part of Central have embraced the north shore of the San Juan for a considerable part of its

It seems to have struck Lord Palcourse. These points were assumed

merston at the last moment, just as to be all that were likely to be in dis

he was sending out the ratification of pute--at least they were all that con

the Treaty, that someambiguity might cerned the subject matter of the treaty;

possibly lurk under the words. They and as there was no intention or inti

might be wrested so as to include the mation of including in it any matter

British Honduras, and be interpreted not immediately bearing upon its

retrospectively, so as to involve a reavowed object, nothing else was

linquishment by England of that setbrought under discussion. Incident- tlement and its dependencies. Acally, indeed, Mr. Lawrence informed cordingly, on the 8th of June, he diLord Palmerston that his govern

rected Sir Henry Bulwer to make a ment considered “that no great mari

formal declaration, on the exchange time nation ought to desire or be per

of ratifications, to the effect that her mitted to have an exclusive foothold Majesty's government did not underon the Isthmus ;" but this remark

stand the engagements of the convenproduced no comment, and led to no

tion as applying to her Majesty's further discussion ; and it may fairly

settlement at Honduras, or to its debe assumed that the intention of all pendencies. Sir Henry Bulwer did parties was understood to be to deal 80; which drew from Mr. Clayton, in the proposed convention with the on the 4th of July, the following canal question, and with the canal

letter : question only. That this was the Department of State, Washington, meaning of both the negociators be

July 4, 1950. fore the treaty was ratiticd, is shesrul Sir, by the words Sir Henry Bulwer uses I have received the declaration you were


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