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to the badge which distinguishes and command. And, lastly, he must these men-it is intellect. They are be honorable, and yet not over scruall men of strong reasoning faculties. pulous-honorable, that his party This is the sine qua non.
Men of may trust in him; not over scrupubrilliant imagination often get the lous, that he may, when the crisis start at first, but unless intellect ob- comes, carry out some coup d'etat tain the mastery they lose their way which will do the work of years, and or loiter behind. Nor is the man of compensate for the shortness of life. fine feelings and generous heart more The morality of a delicate woman likely to succeed; he
conciliate of an amiable man would be fatal to friendship and love, but he will be great success. It is true there are inpushed aside by harder natures, and stances of men who have won their most likely will retire in disgust from spurs with spotless shield--the preur the struggle.
chevaliers of nature—but these are But though superior intellectual the Miltons, the Chathams, the Welpowers are absolutely essential to the lingtons ; men of a different clay man who would win the prizes of from ordinary humanity, spirits of public life, these powers must be of a some other world who have been sent peculiar order. The meditative intel- here through some freak of nature. lect will not do. Its possessor is too But for the common run of ambitious much inclined to stand apart and men prudery is failure, and the Jesuit contemplate the struggling crowd, principle is a necessary element in the and as he advances in life the prizes system of their lives—a principle of ambition lose their attraction, and which, although' utterly without dethought like virtue is to him its own fence in foro conscientiæ, is pretty reward. Neither will the man of sure of an acquittal before the tribusubtile analysing mind be more likely nal of the world, if it has only been to succeed, for he loses time in at- lucky enough to retain Success as its tempting to extricate the infinite
advocate. complexities of human affairs, and It will be said, why then should before he has half finished his labo- men try to rise to the dignities of rious examination the moment of life, if, in order to succeed, they must action is past. It is, therefore, the stain the purity of the ermine of practical intellect which characterises their souls? We answer, far be it the successful man of ambition. An from us to ask any one so to strive. intellect capable of directing all its Let him keep his ermine pure and energy, and of carrying along with white if he can, in the position in life it the energy of other men, towards in which he was born. This is the some definite end--a mind which ex- teaching of St. Paul. But let him not presses itself in action and in busi
complain if he do not attain what he ness, which is actuated by a desire does not strive for. The good things for results rather than for principles, of this life are not promised to the for the concrete rather than the ab- pure. In Utopia it is otherwise-the stract.
good always prosper and the wicked But in addition to this intellectual are unsuccessful—but in this nether basis, certain moral qualifications at world it is as frequently the reverse, first sight apparently incompatible arising from that unfitness of things are indispensable. For first, the am- which must ever co-exist with a state bitious man must be at once patient of probation; and it is a moral teachand restless. He must work perse. ing as dangerous as it is unsound, veringly to attain his end, but he which holds out the rewards of this must not be satisfied with it when at- world as inducements to virtue. tained. Content is fatal to his career Virtue is a road neither to riches nor --he must ever look mainly to the distinction. He who would win the future, and to the moon for his re- world's prizes must use the world's ward. Secondly, he must be obsti- weapons. He must labour, he must nate and he must be pliant-obsti- scheme, and above all he must nate, to keep to his purpose; pliant, dare. to be able to avail himself of the sinu- But it does not necessarily follow osities of life. Thirdly, he must be that the ambitious man is lost in the conciliating and imperative, for he theological sense. “ 'Twas by ambimust use the arts both of persuasion tion that the angels fell," but through ambition men often rise to a nobler as well as the laws of nature ? And nature than they had before. Great does not the higher calculus seem questions of policy, enlarged princi- just on the verge of the two ples of action, give a more elevated worlds of matter and mind, ready to tone to the character, and the latter grasp at both? But a mind like end of the man is often better than Brougham's was not to be led astray the beginning
by such fallacies; a slight experience If we were asked for a type or re- would teach him that the complicapresentative of the ambitious man, tion of human affairs, their intimate combining all the qualities most action and reaction, transcends the essential to success, and who should resources of the subtilest mathebest illustrate the principles which matics. He felt the impress of his we have endeavoured to enunciate, genius therefore, and passed on to we would fix upon Harry Brougham. methods more directly applicable to
No one ever had the “ Scotch” human affairs. Logic and metaphymind more fully developed. No one sics were next studied with characso eminently combined perseverance teristic ardour, but though he threw with impatience-cautious, elaborate on them the light of his original preparation with that rapidity of mind, they could not long detain one action and energy of expression 80 eminently practical. He soon diswhich secure all the advantages of covered that he who would rule mansurprise. Honorable to his party, kind must appeal to their prejudices but the first to suggest to them the and passions as frequently as to their most daring acts of strategy, which, reason; nor could he fail to see that when necessary,
he did not hesitate to the metaphysical notion of a man, as execute; he rose irregularly perhaps, made up of so many separate qualibut rapidly and surely, to the sum- ties and powers, is a most fallacious mit of his ambition ; happy in this, representation of a being so essenthat his moral nature kept pace with tially individual and concrete. These his external fortunes, and that when considerations would direct him to peer of the empire he was in every another branch of study, which, while respect a better man than when tri. it avowedly purported to appeal to bune of the people.
the passions fully as much as to the But it was not alone to nature that reason of man, repudiated altogether Brougham was indebted for his suc- the metaphysical analysis. In the
A special education brought view of this science that of Oratory into the greatest efficiency the for- -man was a living, acting being, midable combination of his natural who must be moved altogether, if at powers, for instinctively and from all. Here, then, was the science of the very outset his studies were di- sciences to the man ambitious of rected by his ambition. Brougham power; and accordingly Brougham was no student of the Belles Lettres. rested content, devoting his meditaPoetry seems never to have had at- tive power to its exhaustive study and tractions; and if he ever perused the his whole life to its active use. novels and romances of his own or of Such was the education of Lord other times, it could not be discovered Brougham,--for his professionaltrainfrom his writings. He studied that ing as a barrister merely helped more he might acquire power; and feeling thoroughly to combine the three that this could best be done by courses of study through which he strengthening his reasoning faculties, had passed. Not that we mean to say he devoted all his attention to those that he utterly neglected other branches of study which seem to have branches of knowledge ; for, with the the most direct tendency to that re- exception of polite literature, there is sult. Hence, he early addicted him- evidence in his writings that he is self to mathematics for there is in nearly a universalist- a cyclopædia this science of sciences something de- of useful knowledge. But all that finite in result. It certainly unlocks is accessory; it hangs on him loosely ; some of the secrets of nature, and whereas his oratory, his metaphysics, we think it may give a similar mas- and his mathematics have been imtery over the moral world. Why bibed into his nature, and form part should human action and motive not of the man. be subject to arithmetical calculation Now it so happens that we have the result of this education in the But Demosthenes was the favourite first volume of these collected Re- orator of Brougham, whom, with only views. The “ Oratorical Articles" the minimum of allowance necessary clearly demonstrate the profound for the difference of auditory, he laand exhaustive study which he boured not unsuccessfully to reprohad made of the art; while in duce; so that whether or not Brougthe same volume the biographical ham could have been original in his sketches of the statesmen of the oratory, he has deliberately foregone Georges afford abundant illustration the attempt, and tied himself down to of our remarks upon the conditions what would be called the most slavish of success necessary to the ambitious and literal copying, if it were not man, and also on their special appli- that the supreme excellence of the cation to Brougham himself. For in model justifies any sacrifice of any sketching lives, in many instances so possible originality. like his own, he becomes a kind of According to Brougham, the study witness in his own case, and is forced of Demosthenes is the best corrective to enunciate opinions and distribute of the loose style of writing and of censure or applause which he cannot oratory current in the present day, help seeing apply to himself.
which“ affords a new instance how We propose, therefore, to restrict wide a departure may be made from our remarks to this volume for the
nature with very little care, and how present, and to content ourselves apt easy writing is to prove hard with a very brief summary of Lord reading."
reading. It is easy to acquire the Brougham's oratorical system, and faculty of fluent speaking ; any one then to pass under review some of will succeed who will give himself the the chief of those statesmen whose trouble of frequently trying it, and portraits Lord Brougham here gives can harden himself against the pain us. And when it is considered that of frequent failures. Complete selfto do so involves something like an possession and perfect fluency can account of the matter of a dozen thus be acquired mechanically, but it Reviews, condensed in the Bramah will be the self-possession of ignopress of Lord Brougham's style, it rance, and the fluency of speaking will be admitted that we have at- about and about a subject. It may be, tempted fully as much as our space can in any manner permit of our ac- That the habit may have taught him somecomplishing
thing of arrangement, and a few of the simThe first remark of Lord Brough- plest methods of producing an impression ; but ham's which attracted our attention
his diction is sure to be much worse than if on perusing his oratorical articles was,
he never made the attempt. Such a speaker that we lose much of the effect of
is never in want of a word, and hardly ever ancient oratory from ignorance of the
has one that is worth having. peculiarities of feeling in the audience to whom it was addressed ; and
Not in this way did Demosthenes that even the fullest information will
acquire his marvellous oratory. not enlist our sympathies. For instance, in one of Cicero's orations
The greatest of all orators never regarded the composition of any sentence worthy of
him to deliver, as a thing of easy execution. After working our feelings up to the high- Practised as he was, and able surely if any est pitch, by the finest painting of vicious man ever was by his own mastery orer lan. excesses, and their miserable effects, the guage, to pour out his ideas with facility, he elawhole is wound up by, what to us appears, a
borated every passage with alınost equal care. pure anti-climax-a disrespect to
Having the same ideas to express, he did not, • Nymph of the Grot.' When, again, he is like our easy and fluent inoderns, clothe them making the father of Verres sum up his in- in different language for the sake of beauty ; iquities, the first acts enumerated are those but reflecting that he had opon the fullest of culpable negligence, the next of official deliberation adopted one form of expression corruption, then follows the connivance at the as the best, and because every other must protection of piracy, then the judicial mur. needs be worse, he used it again without any der of citizens in furtherance of his collusion change, unless further labour and inore trials with the pirates, and after these enormities had enabled him in any particular to improve follows those of inviting matrons to a ban
the workmanship. quet, and appearing in public with a long purple robe.
Might not this in part arise from
the fact that books were few, and re- of things unseen, and which refer to porters had not yet been invented ? the period when time shall be no Would Demosthenes have so repeated more. himself had he lived in the days of Of the French pulpit orators, Broug. Hansard ?
ham gives the preference to MassilLord Erskine was to Brougham the lon as the most Lemosthenic, holding English Demosthenes, whom he would him much superior to Bossuet. W rank, if he had the marshalling of cannot resist the temptation of affordOlympus, among the Dii Majores of ing our readers an opportunity of English oratory-higher than Burke judging for themselves, by a citation or Pitt; and the copious extracts of the passages which are considered from his speeches which he adduces, the master-pieces of each; and we will give some support to an opinion, in also quote a celebrated passage from which, however, we are far from con- Robert Hall, which seems to rank curring. In correctness of composi- him on a par with either of the French tion and felicity of expression, Er- divines. skine may be equal to Burke, and pro- Brougham gives a translation of bably superior to Pitt ; but what he what he considers the correctest of has to say is of the earth earthy, the several readings of the celebrated whereas Burke's thoughts come up passage of Massillon's sermon on the from the abyss, and down from the small number of the elect, which we heaven of heavens, and although he are told made his audience start to may labour occasionally in the expres- their feet :sion of a thought, we feel that it is the thought of one belonging to a superior
I figure to myself that our last hour is race; and in the case of Pitt, there is
come; the heavens are opening over our a majesty of assertion, a homage of heads. Time is no more, and Eternity has self-respect, expressing itself in noble begun. Jesus Christ is about to appear, to thoughts, which indicate a nature cast judge us according to our deserts; and we in a loftier mould than that of Erskine. are here awaiting at his hands the sentence
There can be little difference in of everlasting life or death. I ask you now opinion as to Erskine's merits as a
stricken with terror like yourselves—in no pleader. Brougham thus explains his
wise separating my lot from yours, but plasuccess:
cing myself in the situation in which we all
must one day stand before God our JudgeIn no one sentence is the subject - the
if Christ, I ask you, were at this moment to
come to make the awful partition of the just business on hand--the case - the client-the verdict lost sight of; and the fire of that
and the unjust think you that the greater
number would be saved ? Do you believe oratory, or rather that rhetoric (for it is
that the numbers would be equal ? If the quite under discipline) which was melting
lives of the multitude here present were sifted, the hearts and dazzling: the understandings
would be find among us ten righteous-of his hearers, had not the power to touch
would he find a single one ? for an instant the hard head of the Nisi Prius Lawyer froin which it radiated, or to make him swerve even from the minuter de- The selection from Bossuet is taken tails most befitting his purpose, and the al- from a sermon on the Day of Judgternate admissions and disavowals best
ment; the translation is ours :adapted to pnt his case in the safest position.
The assize is opened--the Judge is seated. From forensic eloquence Brougham Criminal! come plead your case. passes to the consideration of the ora- have little time to prepare yourself! O God, tory of the pulpit. He asks how it how short is the time to unravel an affair so happens that, considering the advan- complicated as that of your reckoning and tages of the preacher over all other
Ah, why address superfluous orators in a sublime range of subjects,
cries ! Ah, why do you bitterly sigh after and in an audience who are compelled
80 many lost years--vainly, uselessly 1 There
is no more time to you. You enter the reto attend, or at least to remain, eloquence in the pulpit is so very rare ;
gion of Eternity. See, there is no more visi
ble sun to commence and finish the days, the and he answers that the reason is that
seasons, the years. It is the Lord himself people feel more strongly appeals who now begins to measure all things by his made to them upon matters before
own infinity. I see you astonished and hor. their eyes, and at the present time, ror-struck at the presence of your Judge ; than topics drawn from the evidence but look : ko at your accusers, those poor
who are raising their voices against your in- save others from the infliction of exorable hardness.
much unnecessary talk. And now for Hall :
We have already indicated the I cannot but imagine the virtuous heroes,
light in which we purpose to regard legislators, and patriots of every age and
the Historical Sketches,' and the use country are bending from their elevated seats we mean to make of them, namely, as to witness this contest, as if they were incapa. illustrating the career of the ambible of enjoying their eternal repose. Enjoy that tious man in general, and as illustrarepose, illustrious immortals I Your mantle ting reflectively the character of fell when you ascended ; and thousands in, Brougham, whom we have selected flamed with your spirit are ready to swear as a type. But in this view the priby Him that sitteth upon the throne and liveth
mary question is—can we trust these for ever and ever, that they will protect free
sketches as giving a true insight into dom in her last asylum, and never desert that
the character and motives of the men cause which you sustained by your labours and cemented with your blood. And thou,
they purport to pourtray? We think sole Ruler among the children of men, to
we may. There is intrinsic evidence whom the shields of the earth belong, gird
in each instance that Lord Brougham on thy sword, thou most Mighty; go forth
wishes to tell the truth, for he neither with our hosts in the day of battle.
exaggerates the virtues of those who
belong to his own party, nor slurs As the only compensation we can over their defects, and he is equally make for these most imperfect re- just to those of the opposite party, marks, we earnestly recommend the with some of whom he had been enreader to peruse the Rhetorical Arti
gaged in actual conflict.
In the secles of Lord Brougham. There is cond place, we can have no doubt of probably no better vademecum of his ability to give a just and discrioratory in our language. The author
minating character, once we are satis.. is a consummate orator himself, the fied of his honesty. A statesman most competent man living to teach himself, who has experienced most of his art, and no better way could be the phases of political life, who has imagined than that which he has se
run the gamut from something very lected, namely, a cursory review of like demagogism, to something beancient and modern eloquence, illus- yond conservatism, Brougham has trated by quotations whose excellence the advantage as a political portrait has been guaranteed by the unanimous painter over most living men. He suffrage of all men of letters. One has a manifest advantage both over important lesson they will at least those who are still in the heat of learn from these articles, for it is the party passion, and over those who one most frequently and most empha- have never mixed in party strife, or tically inculcated by the author, felt the ardent emotions which spring namely, that eloquence is an art from ambition ; for both the impasrather than a gift-an art which re- sioned and the calm view of men and quires the greatest special labour to things present themselves to him--the learn, and which implies the greatest one from memory, the other in the amount of general learning. He,
present, and the one corrects and 'the earnest student,' who will not be clears the other. But without fur deterred by these difficulties, and ther preface let us join that group of who, with adequate preparation, will listeners round Brougham, as he devote himself to the study of the stands below the portrait of Walpole. art of eloquence, will derive the greatest benefit from these articles; On the whole he gives you a fawhile he who is deterred by the la- vourable idea of that celebrated bour which, to his surprise, he will statesman, and one as different as find is necessary in an art which might be from that which we would haply he thought was of the easiest
be compelled to entertain, if we beacquisition-open to all who have the lieved the reports of his political adtwo requisites of brass and volubility versaries, the patriots of the day, after -will also derive benefit if he takes the definition of Samuel Johnson. Of these precepts to heart. He will ancient, honourable, and wealthy faavoid making a fool of himself, and mily, Robert Walpole entered public