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their principles is best for the coun- The career of this distinguished try; there is a good deal to be said on statesman corroborates our remarks both sides, and individually they are as to the qualifications necessary to

respectable" men ; but I gain the prizes of ambition. Burke's have the chance of getting twice as mind was of the meditative cast, and much from B as from A, and it is a he was far too honest to make use of duty I owe to my family and to my- coups d'etat to further his advanceself, to stand by her Majesty's Go- ment, while, great man though he was, vernment, to whom God be gracious, he had not the majesty of Chatham to and send a speedy appreciation of enable him to rise without them. The my merits, else I may feel it my consequence was, that his career as duty to turn a patriot.

a statesman, so far as his personal But to return to our three states- advancement was concerned, was a

failure. It is a common mistake among Brougham gives a discriminating, those who have not read Burke's and of course an incongruous characworks, to call him a mere theorist, ter of Fox. With such capacities to but he was the most cautious and rise in his higher nature, and such practical of statesmen, thoroughly facility of sinking in his lower nature, aware of the intense action and re

no one presents so puzzling a problem action in human affairs, and therefore as Fox, if we attempt a moral estinever attempting to carry principles mate of his character. He seems, to their extreme consequences. He while we contemplate him, to undergo knew that constitutions


and a perpetual metempeychosis. At one could not be spun out of logic; and time he is Cato, and again he is Me80 he laboured rather to ameliorate phistopheles. We see him now as than to change-to modify than to Socrates, scattering maxims of wissubvert. In fact, the political ideas dom and morality; the morrow he is he propounded were not unlike those the ruined gambler, not unfrequently of the “Idée Napoleonienne," only in a state of intoxication. Then anoexpressed in richer language, and ther change comes over him : he goes modified by their adaptation to a to the House, and declaims in majestic constitutional system of government. terms on the rights of mankind, and He had the same preference as the his audience feel themselves elevated two Napoleons for a perfect machine, in moral tone as they listen to him; with as few clogs or useless wheels as but next day there is a subscription to may be ; but Burke's machine be

pay his gambling debts, which he achoved to go by wind, by water, or by cepts without hesitation.

A great steam, and sometimes to stand still ; patriot, he yet seemed to wish for the whereas the engine of the Bona- triumph of Napoleon over his country, partes was constructed with a view and he thwarted Pitt in his attempt to perpetual motion under the in- to check the aggrandisement of Russia. fluence of steam only, and that al- Continually declaiming in favour of ways at high pressure.

liberty, and denouncing the ministry BroughamthinksBurkeexaggerated as embarked in a conspiracy against the mischiefs to be apprehended from the constitution, he retired with his the French revolution. He might, he party from the House of Commons, says, have foreseen the possibility of a where it was his duty to watch over

new, orderly, and profitable govern- that very constitution, and defend it ment” rising out of the ruins of the from all attacks. Republic. " Allthis we now see clear- Pitt wasa much simpler character; ly enough,” he says, “having survived cold, able, statuesque, draping himself Mr. Burke forty years." We who in a proud self-respect which rendered have survived another eighteen years him incapable of any meanness, or of since Brougham made this remark, anything tending to abate the dignity have seen this “ new, orderly, and pro- of his public life; he was a statesman fitable government” disappear from inodelled on the schoolboy notions of the face of the earth, and another go- the patriotof Greece or Rome : equally vernment, very orderly, though some- as perfect, uncorruptible, and uncomwhat like a despotism, occupyits place. promising, and as little capable of Burke has not yet been proved to have sympathising with the infirmities and

weaknesses of ordinary men,

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We may say of Pitt that we admire and respect but do not love him, though no one now can hate him. Of Fox again we must say that we respect him not at all, but we admire the versatility of his capacious intellect, and find it impossible not to love his genial, erring, and we must add unprincipled nature. The former had most of the qualities which conduce to political power, but wanted conciliation; with which, however, he could dispense, inheriting as he did much of the natural right to command, so largely possessed by his father. Fox had what Pitt wanted ; no one made friends so easily, but he had one defect which was fatal to his success as an ambitious man-he could not be trusted.

Brougham's sketch of Lord Melville is too racy to be omitted, though the Scotch statesman is hardly entitled to rank with those whose portraits we have been examining. The secret of his power, says Brougham, was

nation, all were seen Auttering about like birds in an eclipse or a thunderstorm ; no man could tell whom he might trust-nay, worse still, no man could tell of whom he could ask any. thing. It was hard to say, not who were in office, but who were likely to remain in office. Our countrymen were in dismay and destruc. tion. It miglit truly be said they knew not which way to look or whither to turn. But such a crisis was too sharp to last, it passed away, and then was to be seen a proof of Mr. Dundas's power amongst us, which transcended all expectation and almost surpassed belief, if, indeed, it is not rather to be viewed as an eridence of the acute foresight, the political second sight of the Scottish nation. The trusty band in both houses actually were found adhering to him against the existing government--nay, he held the proxies of inany Scottish peers in open opposition ! Well might his colleague exclaim to the hapless Addington, in such unheard of troubles, “Doctor, the Thanes fly from us." When the very Scotch peers wavered, and when the Grampian hills might next be expected to more abont, it was time to think that the end of all things was at hand, and the return of Pitt and security and patronage and Dundas speedily ensued, to bless old Scotland, and reward her providence or her fidelity, her at. tachment at once to her patron and to herself.

If we had space, we would extract Brougham's sketch of Lord Eldon, a man in all respects equipped with those qualities essential to political


No doubt owing, partly to the unhesitating and unqualified determination which regulated liis conduct of devoting his whole patronage to the support of his party, and to the extent of that patronage, from his being so long mi. nister of India, as well as having the whole Scotch preferment at his absolute disposal ; bat it was also in part owing to the engaging qualities of the man—a steady, determined friend, who only stood the faster by those who wanted him the more ; nay, who even in their errors or their faults would not give up his adherents. An agrecable companion, from the joyous hilarity of his manners, roid of all affectation, all pride, all pretension ; a kind and affectionate man in “ the relations of private life.”

That such a man should, for so many years, liave disposed of the votes of nearly all the Scotch commoners and peers, was the less to be wondered at when it is kept in view that at that time there was no doubt of the ministry's stability; the political sky was clear and settled to the very verge of the liorizon ; there was nothing to disturb the bearts of anxious mortals. The wory and pensive Scot felt sure of his election, if he had but kept by the true faith, and his path lay straight before him. “The path of righteous devotion, leading unto a blessed preferment.” But suddenly the government changed and Pitt went out.

The Judge, so prone to doubt that he could hardly bring his mind to decide, was, in all that practically concerned his party or himself, as ready to take a line and to follow it with determination of purpose as the least ingenious of ordinary statesmen. He, whose fears very much resembled his conscientious scruples, of which no man spoke more or felt less; he was about as often the slave of them as the Indian is of his deformed little gods, of which he makes much and then breaks them to pieces or casts them into the fire. Who, be the act mild or harsh, moderate or violent, sanctioned by the law and constitution or an open out. rage upon both, was heard, indeed, to wail and to groan much of painful necessity-often vowed to God-spoke largely of consciencecomplained bitterly of a hard lot; but the paramount sense of duty overcame all other feel. inys; and with wailing and with tears, beat. ing his breast and only rot tearing his hair, he did, in the twinkling of an eye, the act which unexpectedly discomfited his adversaries and secured his own power for ever.

It was, in truth, a crisis to try men's souls. For a while all was uncertainty and conster.

We have given ample specimens of the style of Lord Brougham, chiefly on

account of the merit of the extracts ters; and to have made this accident and their suitability to our object, but anything else than a mere clothing to also because his style is eminently the substance, would have been inconsuggestive of the man.

It is quite a

gruous. But by not being led astray natural style, the offspring of his own in this way by literary ambition, it sagacious, direct, and powerful mind. has so happened he has achieved aliDeficient in ornament, and even indi- terary success. His style is a firstcating a want of imagination, it is by class style of its kind, the style of the no means bald, being impregnated man of business and ambition, the fit throughout by close cogent reasoning, organ for those who attempt to compel which often, in its concentration, rises fortune to their service, who feel that to Demosthenic eloquence. The soli- they have a right to be heard and tary object it aims at is to make an obeyed. As a master, therefore, of a impression, to carry theobject in hand, real genuine style, fitted for peculiar to hit the nail right on the head. That purposes, we prophecy that Lord done, there is no finishing or polish- Brougham will be popularas an author, ing, the argument is clenched, and it long after the works of those who, at is no slight logical force which will un- present, enjoy a greater literary refasten it. Buthis merits as an authorare putation shall have been laid aside as not to be estimated by particular pas- unnatural and affected. sages, but by the method of treatment For a similar reason we expect that of his subject as a whole. He might, the reputation of Lord Brougham, as had he so chosen, have given more a statesman, will increase with time, finish and ornament to his sentences, and that posterity will assign him a but he might thereby have sacrificed higher rank among his contemporaries force to elegance--he might have se- than that which he at present occupies ; cured the admiration of the critic and for we hold him to be a real genuine failed to convince the reader. In our man, acting and speaking from the humbleopinion, we think he was right dictates of a strong, plain, practical to avoid such risks. Brougham was mind, without fear, without adulation, substantially a man of action, and only and, as the greatest of all merits in the by accident, as it were, a man of let- present day, without affectation.


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ABOUT five miles from the city of House of Correction, to be thero educated and Tours, in the far-famed valley of the detained for such a number of years as shall Loire, there stands a structure of mo- be determined by the judgment, but which dern date and of unobtrusive aspect,

shall in no case exceed the period at which he towards which many a tourist, impell

shall have completed his twentieth year. ed by mere curiosity, and many an enlightened philanthropist, actuated by

Various attempts were made to a loftier motive, have of late been seen

carry the provisions of this Article into to direct their footsteps :—we allude

effect; but with no other result than to the well-known school of Mettray,

this-that, as regarded the principal established for the reception and treat

place of confinement for young per. ment of male juvenile delinquents.

sons in the metropolitan department, It is our design in this article to

out of every hundred discharged prigive a brief account of the origin and

soners no fewerthan seventy-five were progress of this institution, and of its again in the hands of justice in three results; to notice such establishments

months! This was a startling discoof the same kind as have been found

very. At length, in 1837, the Goed in this kingdom, in other parts of

vernment appointed a commission to the continent of Europe, and in Ame

make a personal examination of the rica ; to set forth the peculiar charac

transatlantic system of prison diseipter and necessities of those for whom

line ; and Frederic Auguste De Metz, such institutions are believed to be

a judge of the court of Appeal at Paris, adapted ; and to state such objections a gentleman well qualified for the task as have, from time to time, and more

assigned to him, was despatched to especially of late, been urged against

the United States. But though he them.

witnessed there a mode of dealing In 1810 the following enactment

with convicts in general which apbecame a part of the Penal Code of peared to be attended with unparalFrance, of which it constitutes the

leled success, he felt that the grand 66th Article :

problem of effecting a sensible dimin

ution in the floating mass of criminWhen a person accused shall be under six. ality had yet to be solved, and that teen years of age, if he be deemed to have

the solution could be looked for only acted sans discemie nent," he shall be acquitted;

in the mode of treating juvenile but he shall, accordin; to circuinstances, be

offenders. It was by mere accident either restored to his family, or taken to a that, about this time, his attention was

It is remarkable that though this plea is indulgently urged by the State in helialf of the young offender, the young offer.der hiinself rører alleges it as an excuse. Besides, if want of discernment has exempted him from the discomforts of a prison, why should it not also stvo him from the penalties he is made to undergo at Mettruy, for the mure venial offence

violauing the regulations of that institution?


directed to the Rauhe Haus, near proachable, after a lapse in many cases Hamburg, a private establishment for of ten years ; 58 only were half rethe education of vicious children, of formed ; and only 103, or less than which we will speak more particular- one-ninth, (about 11 per cent.) have ly presently, conducted on the princi- relapsed into crime.

There were, at ple of giving to its inmates that which the date of the last report, 550 inmates. they had never before enjoyed-the The institution receives a trifling subbenignant influence and comforts of sidy of 40,000 francs from Governhome; a purpose which it was sought ment; the other funds needful for its to effect by breaking up the total support are supplied partly by the number into families of twelve, under liberality of the original founder and a superintendent discharging the his friends; partly by the labour, duties and actuated by the feelings of chiefly agricultural, of the establisha parent, with a distinct institution ment. Munificent contributions have of brothers in training, who were en- been made by the cities of Orleans, gaged in constant assistance and su- Limoges, Tours, Poitiers, and Paris : pervision. Here M. De Metz believed and among the individual contributors, that he had discovered an exemplifi- honourable and grateful mention is cation of the practical operation of the made of M. le Comte Leon d'Ourches, principle embodied in the Article of who, by a generous and opportune the Penal Code already cited. He donation of 160,000 francs, has enaccordingly resolved to apply the titled himself to be regarded as the principle to young persons of that third founder of the colony. The first class to which the Article refers. An thing that strikes the visitor, as he old school-fellow of his, M. le Vicomte approaches this institution, is the total de Brétignèrs de Courteilles, a retired absence of boundary walls, or of any soldier, a man of acute intellect and material contrivances for preventing of singular benevolence, joined him in the escape of the inmates, who are free the project, and devoted a consider- to come and free to go ; the only key able estate, and the remainder of his is, as is expressed in a well known life, to the prosecution of it. Hence French idiom, “the key of the open originated the Reformatory School of fields." Let it be understood, howMettray.

ever, that though the young people In 1839 they commenced their un- have always the opportunity to dedertaking; and in five months they camp, any attempt to do so is regarded succeeded in constructing five dwell- as a grave offence, from the commisings, which in ten months were ready sion of which it is considered as a point for the reception of 120 children. of honour to abstain. From the first Five other dwellings, a chapel, a place moment of his arrival the young “cofor punishment, several granges, and lonist" is treated as one who can be a complete farming establishment, trusted not to make the attempt. The have been successively arlded. With system is such, that the absence of an a view to make their ground sure as individual is immediately observed ; they advanced, M. De Metz and his and the missing party is forthwith coadjutor commenced with a staff of pursued. The attempts at evasion are assistants twice as numerous as the extremely rare, and we have heard of first consignment of children. The only one that has been successful. We first nine "colonists,” (a convenient may add, that there is the same liberty enphemism !) were received on the as regards communications from with 22nd January, 1840; and during the out; the visits of relatives and corresearlier years the whole number was pondence with them is both permitted employed in levelling the yards and and encouraged ; unless the moral fitting up their habitations; an occu- character of such relatives renders it pation which was found to have a expedient to inhibit all intercourse powerful tendency to create in them with them. Each family of forty, an attachment to the place of their which has its own separate dwelling, new abode. The latest account we is governed by two young men spehave been able to procure brings down' cially educated and trained for the the narrative of the proceedings at purpose, assisted by two boys elected Mettray to January, 1854. It had quarterly, by ballot, by their comrades, then educated and liberated 953 boys, with the denomination of “elder broof whom 774 have remained irre- thers.” This plan is adopted for the

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