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were not perfect or perfectly useful. The working out of the evolution theory as applied to animal minds, the study of the first beginnings of nerve action, and the analysis of instinct, all due largely to Darwin's prominent disciple, Romanes, together with the immensely fuller knowledge of molecular physics, of protoplasm, and of brain function, acquired in the years since Darwin wrote, have sufficed to place these questions on a much more secure basis. But the collection of facts made by him, and the suggestive remarks he everywhere makes, render his book of permanent value. His sympathy is obvious. in such passages as this: "Every one has heard of the dog suffering under vivisection who licked the hand of the operator; this man, unless he had a heart of stone, must: have felt remorse to the last hour of his life;" the "terrible" superstitions of the past, such as human sacrifices, trial by ordeal, &c., show us, he says, "what an indefinite debt of gratitude we owe to the improvement of our reason, to science, and our accumulated knowledge." We see the fruit of Darwin's repeated visits to the Zoological Gardens, especially in his study of the habits and mental powers of monkeys. We gain a definition from him of imagination, by which faculty man "unites, independently of the will, former images and ideas, and thus creates brilliant and novel results. The value of the products of our imagination depends of course on the number, accuracy, and clearness of our impressions; on our judgment and taste in selecting or rejecting the involuntary combinations, and to a certain. extent on our power of voluntarily combining them." As to religion, he says, "There is no evidence that man
was aboriginally endowed with the ennobling belief in the existence of an omnipotent God." On the contrary, evidence proves that there are and have been numerous races without gods and without words to express the idea. The question, he says, is "wholly distinct from that higher one, whether there exists a Creator and Ruler of the universe; and this has been answered in the affirmative by the highest intellects that have ever lived." The fact of races existing without a belief in a god is shown to be compatible with the origin of religious ideas from attempts to explain external phenomena and man's own existence, by attributing to other objects and agencies a similar spirit to that which his consciousness testifies to in himself,
Man's social qualities, as well as those of animals, Darwin regards as having been developed for the general good of the community, which he defines as "the means by which the greatest possible number of individuals can be reared in full vigour and health, --with all their faculties perfect, under the conditions to which they are exposed." This may be regarded as a more satisfactory expression of the idea underlying the phrase, "the greatest happiness of the greatest number." Sympathy for animals he notes as one of the later acquisitions of mankind, and remarks that he found the very idea of humanity a novelty to the Gauchos of the Pampas. "The highest stage in moral culture at which we can arrive is when we recognise that we ought to control our thoughts. . . . Whatever makes any bad action familiar to the mind, renders its performance so much the easier"-a significant expression for those
who would compare the teachings of Darwinism with those of Christianity. Finally, he concludes that the difference in mind between man and the higher animals is one of degree, not of kind. "At what age does the new-born infant possess the power of abstraction, or become self-conscious and reflect on its own existence? We cannot answer; nor can we answer in regard to the ascending organic scale." Yet that man's mental and moral faculties may have been gradually evolved "ought not to be denied, when we daily see their development in every infant; and when we may trace a perfect gradation from the mind of an utter idiot, lower than that of the lowest animal, to the mind of a Newton."
The action of natural selection on the variations known to occur in man, is next shown to be sufficient to account. for his rise from a lowly condition. Perhaps it is in discussing the development of the intellectual and moral faculties that Darwin is least successful; more knowledge of psychology than he possessed is demanded for this discussion. He gives up the problem of the first advance of savages towards civilisation as "at present. much too difficult to be solved." He, however, vigorously contests the idea that man was at first civilised and afterwards degenerated; and expresses the opinion that the "highest form of religion-the grand idea of God hating sin and loving righteousness-was unknown during primeval times." Finally, after discussing the steps in the genealogy of man, he comes to the conclusion that from the old-world monkeys, at a remote period, proceeded man, "the wonder and glory of the universe." The early progenitors of man he believes to
have been covered with hair, both sexes having had beards; their ears were pointed and capable of movement; their bodies were provided with a tail, and the foot was probably prehensile. Our primitive ancestors lived chiefly in trees in some warm forest-clad land, and the males were provided with formidable weapons in the shape of great canine teeth.
"Thus," says Darwin, "we have given to man a pedigree of prodigious length, but not, it may be said, of noble quality. The world, it has been often remarked, appears as if it had long been preparing for the advent of man; and this, in one sense, is strictly true, for he owes his birth to a long line of progenitors. If any single link in this chain had never existed, man would not have been exactly what he now is. Unless we wilfully close our eyes, we may, with our present knowledge, approximately recognize our parentage; nor need we feel ashamed of it. The most humble organism is something much higher than the inorganic dust under our feet; and no one with an unbiassed mind can study any living creature, however humble, without being struck with enthusiasm at its marvellous structure and properties."
In considering the formation and perpetuation of the races of mankind, Darwin was again and again baffled. He could not decide that any of the physical differences between the races are of direct and special service to him, thus giving opportunity to natural selection to work. Hence he was led to study in detail the effects of sexual selection, especially as applicable to man. The greater part of "The Descent of Man" is occupied with tracing out what may be called the history of courtship in man
and animals. The great variety of interesting subjects dealt with cannot be detailed here. We must only notice a few points about mankind which are of special import
Darwin concludes that man's predominance over woman in size, strength, courage, pugnacity, and even energy was acquired in primeval times, and that these advantages have been subsequently augmented chiefly through the contests between men for women. Even man's intellectual vigour and inventiveness are probably due to natural selection, combined with inherited effects of habit, for the most able men will have succeeded best in defending and providing for their wives and offspring. Beards, beardlessness, voice, beauty are all related to sexual charm, and have been selectively developed. Early man, less licentious, not practising infanticide, was in several respects better calculated to carry out sexual selection than he is now; and thus we find the various races of men fully differentiated at the earliest date of historic records.
Incidentally Darwin gives us his views on the mental differences between man and woman. Woman is more tender and less selfish than man, whose ambition "passes too easily into selfishness,” which latter qualities "seem to be his natural and unfortunate birthright." Woman's powers of intuition, of rapid perception, and perhaps of imitation, are more strongly marked than in man. Yet the chief pre-eminence of man he considers to consist in attaining greater success in any given line than woman, by reason of greater energy, patience, &c. "In order that woman should reach the same standard as man, she