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Synopsis of Events between the Battle of Marathon, B.C, 490, and the
DEFEAT OF THE ATHENIANS AT SYRACUSE, B.C. 413....
Synopsis of Events between the Defeat of the Athenians at Syracuse
THE BATTLE OF ARBELA, B.C. 331
Synopsis of Events between the Battle of Arbela and the Battle of the
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Synopsis of Events between the Battle of the Metaurus, B.C. 207, and
Arminius's Victory over the Roman Legions under Varus, A.D. 9... 123
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THE BATTLE OF CHÂLONS, A.D. 451
Synopsis of Events between the Battle of Châlons, A.D. 451, and the
Synopsis of Events between the Battle of Tours, A.D. 732, and the Bat-
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Synopsis of Events between the Battle of Hastings, A.D. 1066, and
THE DEFEAT OF THE SPANISH ARMADA, A.D. 1588
Synopsis of Events between the Defeat of the Spanish Armada, A.D.
THE BATTLE OF BLENHEIM, A.D. 1704
Synopsis of Events between the Battle of Blenheim, A.D. 1704, and the
JOAN OF ARC'S VICTORY OVER THE ENGLISH AT ORLEANS, A.D. 1429 218
Synopsis of Events between Joan of Arc's Victory at Orleans, A.D.
THE BATTLE OF PULTOWA, A.D. 1709 ..
Synopsis of Events between the Battle of Pultowa, A.D. 1709, and the
VICTORY OF THE AMERICANS OVER BURGOYNE AT SARATOGA, A.D. 1777 305
Synopsis of Events between the Defeat of Burgoyne at Saratoga, A.D.
THE BATTLE OF VALMY, A.D. 1792
Synopsis of Events between the Battle of Valmy, A.D. 1792, and the
FIFTEEN DECISIVE BATTLES
OF THE WORLD.
THE BATTLE OF MARATHON.
"Quibus actus uterque Europæ atque Asiæ fatis concurrerit orbis."
Two thousand three hundred and forty years ago, a council of Athenian officers was summoned on the slope of one of the mountains that look over the plain of Marathon, on the eastern coast of Attica. The immediate subject of their meeting was to consider whether they should give battle to an enemy that lay encamped on the shore beneath them; but on the result of their deliberations depended, not merely the fate of two armies, but the whole future progress of human civilization.
There were eleven members of that council of war. Ten were the generals who were then annually elected at Athens, one for each of the local tribes into which the Athenians were divided. Each general led the men of his own tribe, and each was invested with equal military authority. But one of the archons was also associated with them in the general command of the army. This magistrate was termed the polemarch or War-ruler; he had the privilege of leading the right wing of the army in battle, and his vote in a council of war was equal to that of any of the generals.
A noble Athenian named Callimachus was the War-ruler of this year; and as such, stood listening to the earnest discussion of the ten generals. They had, indeed, deep matter for anxiety, though little aware how momentous to mankind were the votes they were about to give, or how the generations to come would read with