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to speak, the three greatest empires on the Globe, each larger and more powerful than any of the greatest of antiquity; that power has not been given them to waste in fruitless quarrels. Great Britain and America have stretched across the new world, as Great Britain and Russia have across the old; their interests are all centered in the Pacific; let them there meet and join hands. The shortest route from California to China lies along the coasts already occupied by them; they owe it to the world to open it without delay; nor would we stop here, contented with connecting the Atlantic and the Pacific by a westward route; as it is in the power of Great Britain and the United States to do that, so is it in the power of Great Britain and Russia to open an eastern route. Our own nation possesses the extreme points of such a communication at Van Dieman's Land and Ireland. The gold of California has opened the route by land to the north-west coast of America, the gold of Australia will open that to the most southern shores of the Indian ocean. We have lately occupied the mouth of Irawaddy, through which a great circle drawn from England to Van Dieman's Land passes; Russia has power over the great northern plain; we have already penetrated into Cachmere, and shortly the bounds of the two empires will meet in Asia. Let but the diplomatists of the three nations eschew such policy as that of Mr. Squier, and unite for the benefit of themselves and the world, and the present generation, already a witness to progress almost miraculous, may cast into the shade all that has as yet been done; we now communicate by electric telegraph direct with the Mediterranean, in how many years more shall we have the same facility of communication with our Australian provinces? But to return to America.
The line of connexion between the east and the west side of the Rocky Mountains must depend on the character of the passes through that chain and the relative advantages afforded by them.
Whitney naturally selected the
*This route may however shortly be closed by the secession of the Mormons from the Union.
Island, and indeed is not wanting throughout the route proposed, being found in Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Canada, the Michigan territory, and the valley of the Saskatchwan. Where God has pointed out the way, he has provided the means: all His works are perfect.
Of distance and cost of transit, it may be sufficient to say, that Mr. O'Gorman, in the very elaborate summary appended to his translation of Garay's work, calculates a saving to the United States over Europe of 2500 miles to the northwest coast; Mr. Squier of 4500 to the Sandwich Islands; and in proportion to India and China, in time, say twenty-five days. This confirms Mr. Whitney's calculations, and justifies his assertion that the trade, of Europe at least, will never pass through the isthmus. A route that would exclude the commerce of Europe can never be the true one. By Mr. Whitney's estimate, the distances from Europe across the continent show an advantage over the Cape route of nearly 2000 miles. To Hobart Town there would be a loss of 955; but Mr. Whitney has shown that the natural exchanges of Australia are with the Indian Archipelago, and not with America or Europe, to the productions of which hers assimilate.
time, however, even there the land route would have the advantage, and the rapidity of transit would more than compensate for the increased distance; by it, the outward journey to China might be made in thirty days, or returning with heavy goods in sixty. The corresponding voyage round the Cape of Good Hope, the shortest route except this, taking the lowest estimate would be, respectively, 80 and 120 days. The advantages in cost. of transit are equally remarkable. Adopting Mr. Whitney's calculations, which have now been long before the public without being, so far as we know, confuted, and of
which we see no reason to doubt the general accuracy; the cost of a ton freight from Canton to Liverpool may be given as 47. by the ordinary route; we have noticed lately as much as 71. given to clipper vessels to insure speed in the passage. By the overland route, so to speak, it would not on Mr. Whitney's plan exceed 41., thus making the saving effected in time clear gain, besides the reduction of the insurance consequent on that, and the decreased risk of the sea voyage, to say nothing of the increased demand which must follow the settlement of the centre of North America.
Of all countries, our own is most interested in this matter. The United States have means of expansion without leaving their own immediate territories; we have none but in colonial possessions. Mr. Whitney, to illustrate his position, places America in the midst of the map of the world, and terms it her centre. Mr. Squier and his party would call it the axis of the civilized world. But let any one elevate an artificial globe to the latitude of London, or examine Hughes's map of the world on the plane of the meridian of London, and he will see that Great Britain is in the centre of by far the greater part of the habitable land in the globe, and that even South America seems to bend towards her to solicit her attentions. The title of Mr. Richards's work is not altogether erroneous, nor Mr. Bull's complacent meditations without reason. Between the east and the west she may yet hold the balance, but it must be by opening the communications between them herself, maintaining her colonial relations, and spreading her children and her institutions over the face of the globe. May she accept her mission and realize her destinies, lest it be said of her, as of Babylon of old-Mene Tekel Peres.- God hath numbered thy kingdom and divided it. Thou art weighed in the balance, and found wanting.'
MEMOIRS, LETTERS, PAPERS, AND HISTORIES OF THE EARLIER YEARS OF THE REIGN OF GEORGE III.*
E are not means so rich
in diaries, sketches, and memoires pour servir à l'histoire, as our neighbours, the French. It is not that families, archives, or the country are without such papers and materials. But friends and relatives are more chary of giving such materials to the world than the more vivacious and more communicative French. The English, however, during the last century have somewhat relaxed their reserve and taciturnity. Many private memoirs and papers have seen the light in the nineteenth century which would still have been kept in the muniment room in the sixteenth and seventeenth. We have had for instance the Walpole and Waldegrave Correspondence, the Hardwicke and Yorke Papers, the Chatham Correspondence, and, within a month or two, the Grenville and the Rockingham Correspondence. These are all valuable contributions to history, and serve to explain, to illustrate, and to clear up some questions hitherto vexed and undetermined.
The Grenville correspondence extends over a period of more than thirty years, commencing in 1742; but the most interesting and important part of it is that which comprises the seven concluding years of the reign of George II., and the first ten years of that of George III. It consists principally of letters to and from Richard Grenville, Earl of Temple, and his next brother, the Right Hon. George Grenville, the eldest surviving sons of Richard Grenville, Esq., of Wotton, by his marriage with Hester Temple, sister and co-heir of Sir
Richard Temple, Viscount Cobham of Stowe, to whose peerage she succeeded by special remainder at his death, in September, 1749. A few weeks afterwards she was advanced to the title of Countess of Temple, and died in October 1752.
Richard Grenville, the eldest son, was born in 1711. Educated at Eton, he was sent at the age of eighteen, under the care of a private tutor, M. de Lizy, to travel in Switzerland, Italy, and France. He remained upon the continent four years. In the general election in 1734, he was chosen, through the influence of his uncle Lord Cobham to represent Buckingham; and in subsequent parliaments he sat as one of the knights of the shire for the county of Buckingham. In 1752, upon the death of his mother, he succeeded to the Earldom of Temple, and inherited the large estates of Stowe and Wotton. Lord Temple became First Lord of the Admiralty in the Adminstration formed by Mr. Pitt, in November 1756, and in the following June he was made Lord Privy Seal. During the greater part of Mr. Pitt's administration, Lord Temple took an active, though not very ostensible part, in the affairs of the government. Since the great commoner's marriage with Lady Hester Grenville, the sister of Lord Temple, that noble lord had become the intimate and affectionate friend of Mr. Pitt, and was confidentially trusted by him, during the long and frequent illness which prevented his personal attention to the duties of his office as Secretary of State.
At the accession of George III.,
1. The Grenville Papers, published from the originals at Stowe. By William J. Smith, Esq., formerly Librarian at Stowe. London: John Murray, 1852.
2. Memoirs of the Marquis of Rockingham and his Contemporaries. By George Thomas, Earl of Albemarle. London: Bentley, 1852.
3. History of England from the Peace of Utrecht. By Lord Mahon. Vols. IV., V., and VI. London: John Murray, 1852.
VOL. XLV. NO. CCLXIX.
Lord Temple continued to be Privy Seal until Mr. Pitt went out of office in October, 1761, when he resigned simultaneously with his brother-inlaw on the question of the war with Spain. From that period commenced the unhappy estrangement from his brother, George Grenville, who remained in his office as Treasurer of the Navy, and adhered to the policy and influence of Lord Bute. On Lord Bute's appointment as First Lord of the Treasury, upon the removal of the Duke of Newcastle, Lord Temple became one of the most active and zealous leaders of opposition; and in consequence of his open encouragement and patronage of John Wilkes, he was dismissed from the Lord Lieutenancy of the county of Bucks in 1763. To the administration subsequently formed by his brother George, he continued in opposition till May, 1765. In this year the brothers were reconciled, and ever afterwards remained on the most affectionate terms.
Lord Temple had a serious difference in 1766 with Mr. Pitt, when the great commoner assigned to himself the office of Lord Privy Seal and became the Earl of Chatham. This difference subsequently grew into the most bitter personal and political animosity. They were, however, reconciled in 1768, and from that period were agreed in all political questions, excepting only that regarding the taxation of America, on which Lord Temple invariably supported the policy of George Grenville and the Stamp Act.
George Grenville, the second brother of Lord Temple, was born in 1712. Educated at Eton and Christ Church, Oxford, he entered upon the study of the law, and was called to the bar; but at the desire of his uncle, Lord Cobham, he relinquished that pursuit and devoted himself to polities. He represented the borough of Buckingham in successive Parliaments from 1741 until his death in 1770. During his career, George Grenville filled many public employments. He was Lord of the Admiralty, Lord of the Treasury,
Treasurer of the Navy, Secretary
of State. First Lord of the Admiralty. First Lord of the Treasury, and Chancellor of the Exchequer.
The diary and papers of such men as these are undoubtedly valuable. They throw new light on several transactions imperfectly understood, and show the anxious personal interest which George III. evinced in all the affairs of his Government; yet we rise from them with the impression that Lord Temple was a somewhat ponderous and pompous person, and that his brother George, though a man of great parliamentary experience, and able in the business of the house, and of great authority there from his knowledge and gravity of character, was nevertheless not a statesman of the very highest intellect, and was without a particle of genius. To his undissipated and unwearied attention,' to use the language of Burke-to his constant attendance in the house-to his taking public business not as a duty he was to fulfil, but as a pleasure he was to enjoy to his being highly connected, and having had a good start in life are chiefly owing his great authority and his wonderful official success. Lord Temple and Mr. George Grenville's papers were deposited at Stowe. A considerable portion of them had been brought from Wotton by the Marquis of Buckingham, and were arranged in portfolios with those of Lord Temple. The late Duke of Buckingham took some of the Grenville papers from Wotton House to Stowe; and Mr. Smith, formerly librarian at Stowe, and the editor of these volumes, discovered the remainder, about seventeen years ago, in one of the bed-rooms at Buckingham House, Pall-mall. The first letter of the slightest interest is one from Mr. Pitt to George Grenville, dated from Cliefden, in Buckinghamshire, in September, 1742, then the residence of Frederick Prince of Wales, to whose household the writer had been for some time attached. Pitt recom mends the air of Lisbon to his friend instead of that of Aix, which he says was not the properest for Grenville's complaint. letter of interest is one from William Murray (afterwards Lord Mansfield), also to George Grenville, dated Lincoln's Inn, November 3, 1742. Murray was then doing a most prosperous business at the
It is not our purpose to dwell on any of the communications passing between George Grenville and Captain Thomas Grenville, or between George and Richard. These are destitute of all actual interest at the present time. During the years between 1746 and 1752, there are, however, occasional letters of Pitt to George, Richard, and Thomas Grenville, some of which are marked by a gaiety and debonnaire spirit very remarkable, and in one or two of which Molière is quoted pertinently and with effect.
In 1754, when Pitt was member for Aldborough, in Yorkshire, we find him writing to Sir George Lyttleton and the Grenville brothers, stating that he meant to secularise the Solicitor-General (Murray), and to make him Chancellor of the Exchequer. But this proposal of Pitt was by no means agreeable to the subject of it, for Murray, as we know from all the biographers, from Halliday and Welsby down to Lords Brougham and Campbell, the latest among them, resolved to rise by his profession alone. Lord Campbell says, from a high feeling that his destiny called him to reform the jurisprudence of his country, he sincerely and ardently desired to be placed on the bench, and the special object of his ambition was to be Chief Justice of England, with a peerage.
Two years after 1754-namely, in 1756-we find the name of Jenkinson, the first Earl of Liverpool, in this correspondence. This literary adventurer, who had commenced his career in London as a writer in the Monthly Review, about 1750, was recommended by George Grenville as private secretary to Lord Bute. Subsequently he was made, in Grenville's administration, secretary to the Treasury. His numerous letters to George Grenville, in these volumes, show the unreserved and confidential intercourse which existed between them for many years. Jenkinson was an industrious, plodding man, who got up public questions by assiduous cramming, and thus gained a credit and repute for attainment which he owed more to dexterous and well-directed assiduity than to full or even moderate scholarship. Nevertheless, it must be admitted that this pains-taking gentleman had paid considerable attention to the laws of nations and to commercial treaties. Indeed, his treatise entitled, A Discourse on the Conduct of Great Britain in respect to Neutral Nations during the War, is a proof of this. That work was published in 1758; and Mr. Jenkinson having sought through all London for books of authority on the subject, at length applied by letter to George Grenville, requesting, if that gentleman had any of the books himself, or knew of any who had them, that he would be so good as to assist him. We know not how it may have been a century -or, to be literal and exact, ninetyfour years ago, but, speaking in the rough, we should say, that in the library of any of the celebrated Advocates in the College of Doctors' Commons-say of Marriott Wynne, or Ducarel; or twenty years later, of Harris Compton, or Scott (afterwards Lord Stowell)-the books required by Mr. Jenkinson would certainly have been found. We have no doubt every one of them was in the library of Murray, Buller, Yorke, Pratt, Hotham, Adair, and honest Jack Lee,-all common-law lawyers. We ourselves, being simple laymen, possess every one of them at a time when it is less the custom to have libraries than in 1758. Loccenius, Voet, Heineccius, Bynker