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call in question the truth of the axioms themselves; ;. though it must be acknowledged, that many have doubted the truth of the systems which have been built upon them.

The Fifth and last of these falfe, mifchievous, and abfurd propofitions, which Mr. J. has for the benefit of mankind undertaken to refute, left the refutation which arises from a simple statement of them fhould fail to produce univerfal conviction, is this: "That no Government ought to subsist any longer than it continues to be of equal advantage "to the governed as to the governors." Mr. J-s's reafon and understanding feem to fuffer as rude a fhock from this maxim as from any of the former." If this propofition is adopted, and by

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advantage, wealth and power are to be under"ftood, there is an end of all government at once; "for the greatest share of these must be poffeffed by "the governors: on this principle, therefore, the "governed would have a perpetual right of re

fifting, and every Government ought to be dif"folved at the moment of its commencement." Here then Mr. Locke and his friends are reduced to a most perplexing and perilous dilemma; either they muft fubmit to the difgrace of retracting one of their favourite and fundamental maxims; or, they must acknowledge that the theory they adopt leads to an abfolute fubverfion of all Government, and authorizes and establishes, to ufe Mr. Js's own words, a system of anarchy." Now, if I can by any "fetch of wit," contrive to extricate Mr. M 3 Locke

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Locke and fo many other great men from this def perate and forlorn fituation, I fhall undoubtedly acquire immortal honour, and erect for myself a monument more durable than brafs; even the attempt will be praife, and of the very failure it may be faid, “ Magnis excidit aufis." I will venture then to fuppofe, that when Mr. Locke, or any other writer profeffing his principles, afferted, that no government ought to fubfift any longer than it continues to be of equal advantage to the governed as to the governors, their meaning might poffibly be, not that the governed ought to poffefs wealth and power equal to the governors, but that thofe wife and beneficial purposes for which Government was inftituted, ought to be extended no lefs to the governed than to the governors; that governors fhould act upon this just and equitable principle, that it is as truly incum bent upon them to provide for the eafe, happiness, and fecurity of the meanest class of ruftics as of the highest rank of nobles; that if any individual entrusted with the powers of Government were fo wanting in common sense or common decency as to profess "the enormous faith of millions made "for one," if he could poffibly be fo ignorant of, or fo far forget the nature of his office, and the obligations arifing from it, as to fuppofe that his own perfonal aggrandizement, or the gratification of his ambition, his pride, or his revenge, were the objects for the fake of which his fellow-mortals, born his equals, entrusted him with power; or if he

he demonftrated by his conduct that he regarded his fubjects as abject wretches, not poffeffed of any natural rights, nor entitled to claim legal protection as the reward of legal obedience, then that government ought no longer to fubfift; the compact is broken, and the obligations arifing from it are diffolved; the people have a right to resume the powers of Government, and to chufe new Governors, who fhall be better difpofed or better qualified to fulfil the important duties of their respective stations.

This I humbly apprehend to be the best interpretation which can be put upon the falfe, dangerous, and deftructive maxim which Mr. J. has taken fuch laudable pains to confute; and though Mr. J. may infift, that when thus fairly stated it confutes itself, I must take the liberty to allege in behalf of Mr. Locke, that our present happy Constitution and Government are founded upon this very maxim. maxim. The Government under whofe protection and patronage Mr. Locke wrote, was established upon the ruins of a former government, which was not fuffered any longer to fubfift, because the mutual obligations arifing from the compact between the governors and the governed, had fuftained the moft grofs and flagrant violation; and though the new government was fo imprudent as to make choice of a vindicator whose first principles and fundamental maxims are " false, abfurd, and impracticable;" yet in one respect both M 4 parties

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parties may be deemed eminently happy, that, notwithstanding these maxims and these principles lie fo extremely open to confutation, they have never yet been, and, without the most distant pretence to inspiration, I will venture to prophefy that they never will be, actually confuted.

ESSAY IX.

On GOVERNMENT and CIVIL LIBERTY,

PART II.

IN the former part of this Effay I have en

deavoured to vindicate Mr. Locke's principles of Government from the formidable charges brought against them by Mr. J. and as in my judgment that vindication was conducted with all the ability as well as gravity which the ftrength of the attack feemed to require, I hope I may now venture to confider thofe principles as being perfectly re-established; and I trust that the friends of Mr. Locke will the more readily excuse the liberty which I am now about to take with them, on account of the very seasonable aid and affiftance with which, in a moment of fuch imminent danger, I was fo fortunate as to fuftain the credit and reputation of that great philofopher. I fay, to excufe the liberty I am about to take; for my prefent defign is, to point out and guard against certain unwarrantable and dangerous inferences and deductions which have, and frequently with the pureft

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