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ing came, everything appeared delightful. After Tierra del Fuego the climate felt quite delicious— the atmosphere dry, and the heavens so clear and blue, with the sun shining brightly, that all nature seemed sparkling with life. The view from the anchorage is very pretty. The town is built
at the foot of a range of bills, about sixteen hundred feet high, and rather steep. From its position it consists of one
long straggling street, which runs parallel to the beach, and wherever a ravine comes down the houses are piled up on each side of it. The rounded bills, being only partially protected by a very scanty vegetation, are worn into numberless little gullies, which expose a singularly bright red soil. From this cause, and from the low whitewashed houses with tile
roofs, the view reminded me of Santa Cruz in Teneriffe. In a north-easterly direction there are some fine glimpses of the Andes, but these mountains appear much grander when viewed from the neighboring hills: the great distance at which they are situated can then more readily be perceived. The volcano of Aconcagua is particularly magnificent; its height is no less than twenty-three thousand feet.
QUILLOTA. WHOEVER called Valparaiso the “ Valley of Paradise” must have been thinking of Quillota. Any one who had seen only the country near Valparaiso would never have im. agined that there had been such picturesque spots in Chile.
As soon as we reached the brow of the sierra the valley of Quillota was immediately under our feet: very broad and quite flat, and easily irrigated in all parts. The little square gardens are crowded with orange and olive trees, and every sort of vegetable. On each side huge bare mountains rise, and the contrast renders the patchwork valley the more pleasing.
VALDIVIA is situated about ten miles from the coast, on the low banks of a stream, and is so completely buried in a wood of apple-trees that the streets are merely paths in an orchard. I have never seen any country where apple trees appeared to thrive so well as in this damp part of South America: on the borders of the roads there were many young trees, evidently self-sown. In the island of Chiloe the in. habitants have a marvellously short method of making an orchard. At the lower part of almost every branch small conical brown wrinkled points project; these are always ready to change into roots, as may sometimes be seen where any mud has been accidentally splashed against the tree. A A branch as thick as a man's thigh is chosen in the early spring, and is cut off just beneath a group of these points; all the smaller branches are lopped off, and it is then placed about two feet deep in the ground. During the next summer the stump throws out long shoots, and sometimes even bears fruit. I was shown one which had produced as many as twenty-three apples, but this was thought very unusual. In the third season the stump is changed (as I have myself seen) into a well-wooded tree, loaded with fruit. An old man near Valdivia gave us an account of the several useful things he manufactured from his apples. After making cider, and like- . wise wine, he extracted from the leavings a white and finelyflavored spirit; by another process he procured a sweet treacle, or, as he called it, honey. His children and pigs seemed almost to live, during this season of the year, in his orchard.
CHILE AND PERU.
CHILE, as may be seen in the maps, is a narrow strip of
, land between the Cordillera and the Pacific; and this strip is itself traversed by several mountain- lines, which, near Quil. lota, run parallel to the great range. Between these outer lines and the main Cordillera a succession of level basins, generally opening into each other by narrow passages, extend far to the southward : in these the principal towns are situated, as San Felipe, Santiago, San Fernando. These basins or plains, together with the flat cross-valleys (like that of Quillota) which connect them with the coast, I have no doubt are the bottoms of ancient inlets and deep bays, such as at the present day intersect every part of Tierra del Fuego and the western coast. The resemblance of Chile to the latter country was occasionally shown strikingly when a level fog. bank covered, as with a mantle, all the lower parts of the country; the white vapor curling into the ravines beautifully represented little coves and bays, and here and there a soli. tary hillock peeping up, showed that it had formerly stood there as an islet.
LIMA stands on a plain in a valley formed during the gradual retreat of the sea. It is seven miles from Callao, and five hundred feet higher; but, from the slope being very gradual, the road appears absolutely level, so that when at Lima it is difficult to believe one has ascended even one