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Cook, JAMES. (Pp. 94, 174.) An English navigator; born October 27th, 1728, in Yorkshire; killed by the Sandwich Islanders February 14th, 1779. As master of the sloop Mercury he assisted in the taking of Quebec by Wolfe, in 1759. His first voyage to the southern hemisphere was in the employ of the Government, beginning in 1768. He visited Tahiti and New Zealand, and explored the east coast of Australia, as Dampier had done the west. He returned to England
command of the On this voyage
in 1771, and was sent out the following year, in Resolution, in search of the Antarctic continent. he discovered New Caledonia, and returned to England in 1775. Captain Cook's third voyage was undertaken in 1776, for the sake of a reward offered by Parliament to the discoverer of a northern passage from the Pacific to the Atlantic. He discovered the Sandwich Islands in January, 1778, afterward explored Behring Strait, and on sailing homeward stopped again at the islands. The natives of
Hawaii showed themselves unfriendly, and a quarrel having arisen during a landing, they fell upon Cook and his men, and the great captain was slain. The Journal of Captain Cook's second voyage (the one referred to by Mr. Darwin) was published in London in 1777; the Journal of the last voyage, in 1781.
Cowley, Captain. (Page 77.) An English navigator, who, as did also Captain William Dampier, accompanied Captain John Cooke in a voyage round the world in 1683-84. In the year first named Cowley happened to be in Virginia, and was prevailed upon by Cooke to go as sailing-master of his ship Revenge, on a trading voyage to Hayti. Cooke, however, was really a buccaneer, and the story was only a pretence. They sailed, then, August 23d, 1683, for the South Seas, by way of the African coast (where they captured a new and better-armed ship, to which they transferred themselves and the name of their old ship), Brazil, the Falkland Islands, Tierra del Fuego, the island of Juan Fernandez, the Lobos Islands west of Peru, Panama, and the Galapagos (i. e., Turtle) Islands, which were sighted May 31st, 1684. A month later Cooke died, and, in September, Cowley left the Revenge to sail the Nicholas, another pirate ship, with which they had kept company after rounding Cape Horn. His course now lay to the Asiatic coast and archipelago. At Timor, in December, 1685, Cowley quitted the Nicholas and went to Batavia, where, in the following March, he embarked for Holland, and reached London October 12th, 1686. This account of him will be found in Robert Kerr's "General History and Collection of Voyages and Travels" (Edinburgh, 1814).
Dampier, WILLIAM. (Page 77.) An English navigator; born 1652, in Somersetshire; the year of his death is unknown, but it was later than 1711. He had a most adventurous life on sea and on land in both hemispheres. In July, 1682, after a season of buccaneering, he arrived in Virginia, and in the following year fell in with Captain John Cooke, a native of St. Kitts, in the West Indies, and joined him (with less compunction than did Captain Cowley) in his piratical expedition. He remained by the Revenge when Cowley left it, and
cruised about the Pacific, both on the American coast and in the East Indies, till May 4th, 1688, when, wearying of his wretched mode of life, he abandoned it at the Nicobar Islands and arrived at Atcheen,
in Sumatra, in June. He afterward went to Tonquin, and returned to Atcheen in April, 1689. On January 25th, 1691, he set sail for England, and reached London September 16th, after an absence of twelve and a half years. He told his marvellous story in a book
called a "New Voyage Round the World," published in London in 1697. Being then taken into the English service, and put in command of the Roebuck, he sailed in 1699, on behalf of the Government, to the Southern Ocean, exploring the coasts of Australia and New Guinea, and discovering many unknown lands. On his homeward voyage he was shipwrecked on Ascension Island in February, 1701, but reached London the same year and again told his story in a book. He made at least two more voyages-with Captain William Funnell, 1703-05, and with Captains Woods Rogers and Stephen Courtney, 1708-11-for the plundering of Spanish ships in the South Sea. On the latter voyage Alexander Selkirk (the original Robinson Crusoe) was found on the island of Juan Fernandez and taken on board as one of the mates.
Falconer, RICHARD. (Page 46.) An English navigator; author of a work describing his "Voyages, Dangerous Adventures, and Imminent Escapes" (London, 1724).
Fitz Roy, ROBERT. (Pp. 102, 105, 151, 174, 183, 188, 191, 198, 204.) An English navigator and meteorologist; born July 5th, 1805; died April 30th, 1865. He entered the navy in 1819, and in 1828 was associated with Captain King in an exploring expedition to the coasts of Patagonia and Chile. In 1831 he commanded the Beagle in the expedition round the world which Mr. Darwin accompanied as naturalist. The results of both these voyages were published under the title, "Narrative of the Surveying Voyages of H.M.SS. Adventure and Beagle, 1826–1836” (London, 1839). Captain Fitz Roy was afterward Governor of New Zealand. His last years were devoted to meteorological study and observations.
Gould, JOHN. (Page 50.) An English ornithologist; born September 14th, 1804, at Lyme-Regis, in Dorsetshire, England, and still living (1879). His first published work, "A Century of Birds from the Himalaya Mountains," appeared in 1832; his second, "The Birds of Europe," in 1832-37. The next two years were spent in travels in Australia, which led to two other important publications,
"The Mammals of Australia" (1845), and "The Birds of Australia" (1848-1869). He is also the author of a "Hand-book to the Birds of Australia" (1865), and "The Birds of Great Britain" (1862–1873). Mr. Gould contributed the chapter on birds in the zoological report of the voyage of the Beagle.
Head, FRANCIS BOND. (Page 130.) A British officer; born near Rochester, Kent, England, in 1793; died July, 1869. While an army captain he went to South America in 1825, as agent of a mining association, and in 1826 published "Rough Notes taken during some Rapid Journeys across the Pampas and among the Andes," of which Mr. Darwin praises the "spirit and accuracy." In 1836 he was Lieutenant-Governor of Canada.
King, PHILIP PARKER. (Pp. 72, 172.) A British naval commander; born in the island of Norfolk, South Pacific Ocean, in 1793. In 1817-22 he was engaged in completing the survey of the west coast of Australia. In 1826 he commanded the expedition sent out to explore the coasts of South America, his ship being the Adventure. His survey and that of the Beagle were published together. (See Fitz Roy, above.)
Kotzebue, OTTO VON. (Page 203.) Born at Reval, in Russia, of German parents, in 1787; died there in 1846. He accompanied Admiral von Krusenstern in his voyage around the world in 1803–6, and in 1815-18, in the ship Rurick, again made the voyage as chief, accompanied by Chamisso (see above) and others. Out of this caine his "Voyage of Discovery into the South Sea and Behring's Straits, for the purpose of Exploring a Northeast Passage" (London, 1821). He made a third and last voyage in 1823-26, of which he gave an account in his "New Voyage Around the World" (London, 1830).
Pernety, ANTOINE JOSEPH. (Page 80.) Born at Roanne, France, in 1716; died in 1801. He was for some time librarian of Frederic the Great. His "Voyage to the Falkland Islands" was published in 1769.
Rosas, JUAN MANUEL DE. (Pp. 105, 106, 108.) Born in La Plata in 1793. He was brought up a Gaucho on the plains, and became of