Story of Philosophy, Часть 2

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Simon and Schuster, 1961 - Всего страниц: 412
This brilliant and concise account of the lives and ideas of the world's great philosophers—Plato, Aristotle, Bacon, Spinoza, Voltaire, Kant, Schopenhauer, Spencer, Nietzsche, Bergson, Croce, Russell, Santayana, James, and Dewey—is "a delight" (The New York Times) and remains one of the most important books of our time.

Will Durant chronicles the ideas of the great thinkers, the economic and intellectual environments which influenced them, and the personal traits and adventures out of which each philosophy grew. Durant’s insight and wit never cease to dazzle; The Story of Philosophy is an essential book for anyone who wishes to understand the history and development of philosophical ideas in the Western world.

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Содержание

PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION 9
1
Genius
2
3
3
CHAPTER I
5
Socrates
7
The Preparation of Plato
13
The Ethical Problem
16
The Political Problem
18
The Critique of Pure Reason 1 Transcendental Esthetic
203
Transcendental Analytic
205
Transcendental Dialectic
206
The Critique of Practical Reason
209
On Religion and Reason
211
On Politics and Eternal Peace
213
Criticism and Estimate
216
A Note on Hegel
221

The Psychological Problem
20
The Psychological Solution
21
The Political Solution
28
The Ethical Solution
32
Criticism
34
CHAPTER II
41
The Work of Aristotle
44
The Foundation of Logic
47
The Organization of Science
51
Aristotle as a Naturalist
53
The Foundation of Biology
54
Metaphysics and the Nature of God
56
Psychology and the Nature of Art
58
Ethics and the Nature of Happiness
60
CHAPTER III
75
The Political Career of Francis Bacon
83
The Great Reconstruction
92
Criticism
106
CHAPTER IV
113
The Treatise on Religion and the State
125
Religion
126
The Political Treatise
144
CHAPTER V
152
Letters on the English
157
The Romances
159
Potsdam and Frederick
164
The Essay on Morals
167
Candide
170
The Encyclopedia and the Philosophic Dictionary
175
Ecrasez lInfame
178
Voltaire and Rousseau
184
Dénouement
189
CHAPTER VI
192
From Voltaire to Kant
193
From Locke to Kant
194
From Rousseau to Kant
196
Kant Himself
198
192
246
The Wisdom of Death
256
Criticism VIII
259
CHAPTER VIII
265
The Development of Spencer
268
First Principles 1 The Unknowable
274
Evolution
276
The Evolution of Life
279
The Evolution of Mind
281
The Evolution of Society
283
The Evolution of Morals
289
Criticism
294
First Principles
295
Biology and Psychology
296
Sociology and Ethics
297
Conclusion
299
CHAPTER IX
301
Youth
302
Nietzsche and Wagner
305
The Song of Zarathustra
310
236 240 244 249 249
314
CHAPTER X
336
Benedetto Croce
350
Bertrand Russell
357
CHAPTER XI
365
252
379
Conclusion
396
Bibliography
403
193
405
289
406
198
407
201
408
302
409
221
410
The Man III The World as Idea 227
411
233
412
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Will Durant was born in North Adams, Massachusetts on November 5, 1885. He received an undergraduate degree at St. Peter's College in New Jersey and a Ph.D. in philosophy from Columbia University. His first book, Philosophy and the Social Problem, was published in 1917. His other works include The Story of Philosophy, The Mansions of Philosophy, and the ten-volume The Story of Civilization. By the time the seventh volume was published in 1961, his wife Ariel Durant was listed as a coauthor for her diligent assistance on the project. In 1968 they received the Pulitzer Prize for Rousseau and Revolution. The husband and wife team also wrote A Dual Autobiography in 1977. He died on November 7, 1981.

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