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marked out by Mr. King and, as we consider, accomplished, was that of presenting the leading features of Christianity and marking out, clearly and distinctly, certain elements that are often imposed upon the deluded as appertaining to Christianity, but which are absolutely opposed thereto. Christianity was defined as “ That doctrine recorded in the New Testament as taught by Christ and His apostles.” It was insisted, that “Popery be allotted to the Pope; Lutheranism to Luther; Protestant State Churches to those who made or control them; and Christianity to Christ and His apostles.” Christianity, in this debate, is guarded on both sides—on the one hand from those who accept too little ; and on the other, from those who add to it and, consequently, put forth too much. It sets forth that Christ, without the apostles, did not present the whole of the Christian system, that He endorsed their official words and deeds, and that what He and they thus presented is Christianity. It also clearly appears that that vast predicted Ecclesiastical Despotism, which has reared itself under the Christian designation, has nothing to do with Christianity, otherwise than as an impostor has to do with one whose name he falsely and without warrant assumes. With these points guarded Mr. Bradlaugh seems not to admire what he would fain make out to be Mr. King's Heterodox Christianity. He would have everything found in the Old Testament (not in express terms repealed by Christ in the New) as part and parcel of Christianity. The wars of the Israelites, the deception of Jacob, and whatever else in Old Testament history he deems unlovely must, for that very reason, he counted as appertaining to Christianity. His burlesque of the Christian system appears as a most horrible monster. “ If that be Christianity” said Mr. King “I will have none of it." But it is shown to be only the fiction of a mind disordered by hatred or gross ignorance. Side issues, not a few, are crowded in by Mr. Bradlaugh, evidently to keep his opponent from dealing with the real question. But enough! The reader must judge for himself.
Biblical Criticism, Queries, &c.
1. How may the Genealogy of Jesus as given by Matthew be reconciled with that given by Luke ?
Ans. Matthew gives the genealogy of Jesus through Joseph, his reputed father, Luke gives it through Mary, his real mother, for while Matthew expressly says that“ Jacob begat Joseph,” Luke says, indefinitely of “ Joseph who was of Heli,” i.e., son-in-law. It is true the ellipsis might naturally enough be simply "son," as well as "son-in-law," but as we find the same ellipsis occurring in the last link of the chain, “ Adam, who was of God," where the strict idea of son does not exist, the same freedom may be allowed here also. Matthew, in v. 17, omits three names, either because they were not given in the family register, from which he copied, or from a desire for equal numbers in the three sections of his list. It is a striking circumstance also in favour of the accuracy of both genealogies, that the ancient Jewish and Pagan controversialists never challenged their accuracy, which they would assuredly have done if they had perceived any flagrant inconsistency, as some moderns do. Besides, the word rendered
supposed,” in Luke iii. 23, is lit., “was reckoned in law,” or “ legally
rerkoned," and the same ellipsis may be understood before several of the additional names. Julius Africanus, A.D. 180—230, published an ingenious theory of Heli and Jacob being half brothers, that Jacob married his brother's (Heli's) widow, and had a son named Joseph, “ legally reckoned Heli's
2. How may Matthew iii. 1.-23, reporting Jesus as born in Bethlehem, visited by Magi, and carried into Egypt, and thence to Nazareth, be reconciled with Luke ii. 4-42, which reports His parents as coming from Nazareth to Bethlehens, and when they had per. formed all things regarding the child's circumcision and presentation in the temple, returning to Galilee, to their city Nazareth ?
Ans. Omissions are not contradictions. Matthew appears to have written bis history with the special view of pointing out Jesus as the promised and long-expected Messiah and King of the Jews, whereas Luke views him more as the Son of Man, a man among men, having a regard to the Gentiles as well as to the Jews. Hence, there was a reason for Luke mentioning the previous residence of Joseph and Mary in Galilee, which did not exist in the case of Matthew. Besides, supposing that Matthew was really ignorant that the parents of Jesus had come from Galilee, what then? It was not necessary that he should know; it no ways affected the truth of what he did know, and has recorded. Luke, on the other hand, makes no mention of the adoration of the Magi, and of the flight into Egypt. Suppose that he did not know of them. What then. Might they not have happened notwithstanding? Is his narative false because of the omission ? Was he bound to write everything he knew or everything that happened to his Hero? The Sacred Books are uniformly, from the beginning of Geneses to the end of Revelation, constructed on a diametrically different principle-viz., that of "salvation" and " adaptation" to the various parties for whose use they were indited or compiled. See John xxi. 25.
3. How may the report of the Sermon on the Mount, in Matthew vi. 25-viii. 1, bo reconciled with that in Luke vi. 12-vii.1, so brief and varied in many points ?
Ans. Critics are divided as to whether the discourses given by the two Evangelists were spoken on the same occasion or not. Calvin, Grotius, Maldonatus, Tholuck, Meyer, De Wette, Tischendorf, Stier, Wieseler, Robinson, &c., argue for their unity; Erasmus, Lange, Greswell, Birks, Webster, and Wilkinson, for their diversity. But admitting, for the sake of argument, that they are of the same address, what then? Simply that the one gives a longer report than the other, the one might have been delivered in about half-an-hour, and the other in about ten minutes. Now the probability is that the address occupied two or three hours, with occasional interruptions, and questions, and explanations, on all sides; as is the case at the present day in the east with missionary teachings. This would at once account for the variations of the language occasionally met with, e.g., while Luke reports that 'the poor' and the hungry' were declared happy or blessed, Matthew explains and enlarges as the poor in spirit,' and those hungering ‘after righteousness.' (There is no ground whatever for supposing that Jesus and his apostles did not habitually speak Greek rather than Aramwan.) That Luke often, in passages of his Gospel, reports sentiments similar to those given in Matt. v. 7 is easily explained by remembering that a public teacher like Jesus, perambulating the country, for three years, must have often reiterated His doctrines with more or less verbal diversities, according to the state of mind and feeling in which he found his auditors. How trifling the objection that because Jesus in one place says “ Be ye therefore perfect," and in another “ Be ye therefore
Observer, Jan, 1, 71.
merciful,” the “ideas differ, and both cannot well be equally correct representatives of the original word;" when they may have been spoken at different times, and even if they formed part of the same discourse, they may have been used in different stages of the argument.
Bib. Notes and Queries.
Intelligeuce of Churhes, &c.
CLECKHEATON.— The friends residing at , work has also been done by our brother in this place who are connected with the the establishment of a mutual improvement church at Huddersfield, have been gladden class for young brethren, which we trust ed by a visit from Mr. D. King, who, during will be of great service in preparing them the past fortnight, has delivered two lectures for proclaiming the glad ti sings of the love directed against Secularistic teaching. The of Gol. Thus we have been made to former, upon
“God and Evil ; the crimin. rejoice over sinners brought by the Gospel ality and ultimate utility of Siu,” took place from a state of sin and alienation into harin Brook Street School Room, on Friday, mong with the inind and will of the blessed December 9th, the Rev. G. W. Beardmore God, to whom we ascribe all the praise. in the chair. There was a moderate gath
T. CARRUTHERS. ering, which would doubtless have been BOOTLE (Liverpool). — Would it be any large but for the extreme severity of the departure from the programme marked weather on the occasion. The lectu e was out for the Ecclesastical Observer to insert well received and produced a good iinpres- an account of our proceedings in Bootle sion. At the close Secularists were invited during the late municipal election. The to state objections, but they were wise action has been valuable to us as a lesson, enough to maintain a becoming silence. that when a clear duty is laid upon the conThe second lecture, entitled “ Christianity science it should be done without faltering -What are its Legitimate Effects ? and without fear. During the municipal de ivered in the same place, on Wednesday, election of 1869 it was stated that every December 14th, on which occasion we had third man you met at mid-day was drunk, a good company, the chair being occupied and it was well known that all needful by W. Anderton, Esq., of Cleckheaton. preparations were made for repeating the Mr. King's remarks were well received same orgies this year. Three days before throughout, pro lucing frequent manifesta- the election two circulars were tions of approval, and, at the conclusion, an every elector in the ward in which the enthusiastic outburst of well-merited ap- chief contest
take place. The plause. A vote of thanks was afterwards result was even more immediate and decordially and unanimously given to the cided than we anticipated, for on the day lecturer, for his “able argumentative and before the election one of the candidates instructive lectures." May the truths called upon the Chairman of the Alliance which on this occasion were so convincingly movement, and intimated that he had set forth be like bread cast upon the waters, arranged for a meeting of all the candidates, which shall be seen after many days. and their chairmen, for conference with him,
W. KERSHAW. in half an hour. Of course he was there to LIVERPOOL.—We have just bid adieu to meet them, and with the co-operatiou of W: our beloved brother Strang, who has been M. Taylor, M.A., the U.P., Minister of labouring amongst us for the last three Bootle, arranged with them to put out a months, and whose labour, we are happy placard calling upon the electors to assist to state, has not been in vain. The church in their determination to do away with has been edified by his fervent and loving the giving of strong drink as much as posteaching, and also by his noble example of sible. The effect upon this election was very devotion to the cause of the Master. Sinners, marked, drunkenness being as much the too, as many as came to hear, have had exception as in former years it had been Jesus presented to them in a series of the rule. Probably the success we achieved discourses delivered with power and ability may act as an encouragement and example of no ordinary character. Through his to those who are labouring to ameliorate efforts, in co-operation with the work of the condition of society by the various other earnest brethren, nine persons have means, which the Divine Providence opens been led to put on Christ by baptism, and up. others with whom he has had conversation SHEFFIELD.-A few brethren here congive hopeful signs that they too will soon tinue to worship in accordance with Primi. Lake up the cross and follow Jesus. A good tive order, but in a private house. On
G. Y. T.
Lord's-day afternoon they received a visit, | lic the books recommended. Lectures have at the time of the Breaking of Bread, from been given in the same theatre by Joseph the Editor of the Ecclesiastical Observer, Barker and David King, and the Secularists who was in the town to deliver a course of now throw up the ground. Mr. Watts Lectures, not in any way arranged for by made a final effort recently by advertizing those brethren. The Lectures were adver three lectures. The first and second nights tized thus:— Temperance Hall, Sermons and he had scarcely enough hearers to warrant Lectures by David King. On Sunday, his lecturing, and the third night he gave up November 20, 1870, two Sermons will be in despair, without delivering the lecture, preached by David King, Evangelist. Morn. but taking care to abuse the ministers for ing at 10-30-subject, “ Christ-the great not allowing their hearers to attend. In demonstration.” Evening at Six-subject, the National Reformer, he admits the “The keys of the Kingdom of Heaven.” failure, but charges it, not to the account of On Monday, November 21st, subject of the ministers, but to that of the employers, Lecture, “Typical evidence.” Chairman, who in some unusual way have all the Rev. Canon Sale, D.D. On Tuesday, Nov. people under control, so that they could 22nd, subject, “ The ultimate utility of attend his lectures before the exposure of Sin; or why did God suffer evil.”. Chairthe filthy books, but could not do so after man, Rev. Giles Hester. On Wednesday, they under-tood what National Reformer November 23rd, subject, "Christianity- Secularism is allied to. Mr. King delivered what are its legitimate effects.” Chair: two lectures (December 5 and 6), in the man, Rev. R. Štainton. On Thursday, theatre, which were most heartily received, November 24th, subject, “Secularism-its and may be considered a sort of " coming in moral basis and iminural results." Chair: at the death" of the recent Secularistic man, Mr. Batty Langley. The very large attack upon Leigh. hall was not filled as was expected, but the HUDDERSFIELD, (December 1870).-We cause was obvious, the weather was un have been greatly cheered and favoured by favourable, and it was the last few days of a visit from our beloved Brother King. the School-board contest, when half a dozen The Lord's-day previous to his first lecture, meetings were held each night. But still the Chureh was delighted by receiving the meetings were most interesting. Some three individuals into fellowship, who the amount of kindly controversy followed, preceding Wednesday evening had been much information was illicited, a vote of baptized into the death of Jesus. We had thanks to the Lecturer was seconded by a intended and arranged for foar Anti-SecuSecularist, and supported by a half dozen larist Lectures in the Assembly Rooms, speakers, the meeting earnestly testifying Queen Street, viz., Thursday and Friday, desire that Mr. King renew his visit before December 8th and 9th, and the Monday long.
and Tuesday following, but on account of BLACKBURN.-Bros. Daniel Scott and the pre-letting on the Friday, were deWilliam McDougall have alternately giren barred for that evening. A considerable large attention to Blackburn during the number of our membership residing in last six weeks or more ; and while rendering the neighbourhood of Cleckheaton, we prosome assistance to the eldership in the chief cured the Free Wesleyan school room there matter of internal order and progress, six fort he Friday and following Wednesday, persons have also been added to the church, and Mr. King's able teaching and fearless by baptism into Christ, with immediate exposition of truth on those occasions prospect of further additions. W. McD. caused no small stir among the people.
New BBINSLEY.–We have recently wit. The three lectures delivered to us in Hudnessed the good confession of four who dersfield, have been highly instructive and have been added to the church. Thus our edifying. On each of those occasions we beloved brother Evans is seeing the fruit of had a member of the Town Council in the his labours. Our gatherings greatly enlarge, chair ; all of whom were representative so that we have not room comfortably to men in the religious denominations of the accommodate those who come. We want town. Although invitations were given to a chapel very much.
C. C. put questions to the lecturer each night, LEIGH, (Lancashire).-Some months ago one only availed himself of the privilege, the Secularists made a raid into Leigh. Mr. but we had pleasure in listening to the testiWatts, Mrs. Law, &c., addressed crowded mony of proposers and seconders (Churchmeetings in the theatre. But they have men and others) of votes of thanks to the been properly met. Mr. Mills (Indepen- lecturer, as they acknowledged his fitness, dent minister of Leigh) made known the clearness, and intelligence, for the work he character of the filthy literature put forth had undertaken. On Lord's-day morning, by the Bradlaugh and Watts party, by December the 11th, Mr. King addressed means of the so-called National Reformer, the Church, taking for his subject the and dared the men to read before the pub- | apostle's exhortation, “Let us havo GRAOB
Observer, Jan. 1, 71,
whereby we may SERVE God acceptably with | Wilson Black (eldest surviving son of reverence and Godly fear.” In the after- Robert Black, of Knightsbridge, and grandnoon, in George Street Chapel (built by the son of the late venerable James Wallis), 80 called Morrisonians, but disused now and who departed this life, at Nottingham, kindly lent for the occasion), an attentive September 16, after only two days' illness, congregation heard him discourse on the in his 15th year. He surrendered obedience
Keys of the Kingdom.” In the evening to the Saviour in his 13th year, and being he preached in our own Chapel, to a amiable, pious, and kind, he was held in crowded audience. The remembrance of much esteem by his fond parents and rela. this visit will be long cherished, in our tions, and also by the church at Chelsea, midst. May God, our Heavenly Father, where he assisted in the Sunday school. long spare his life to labour in the midst of He was studious, and of much promise. the Churches, and may the seed he has Many followed his remains to Brompton sown during his visit here be cultivated by Cemetery, London, and shed tears of us, and in the final harvest, may we appear sorrow for their loss and sympathy with the with him in glory. Amen. The Hudders- bereaved parents. Thus was cut off in a field Examiner give considerable and in- few hours one who was seemingly strong teresting reports of the lecture.
and destined to long life. But doubtless W. E. K. our Heavenly Father does all things well,
and makes all things work together for
good to those who love Him. We call to Obituary.
mind the words of Dr. Young-" That life
is long which answers life's great end." CAMDEN Town.-During the year 1870
W. L. the church meeting in Milton Hall has sus- Mary Ann McIntyre departed this life tained serious losses by the hand of death. December 7, 1870, in her 27th year ; William Carey Harris (the only surviving being niece of W. and A. Colling, by wbom son of W. D. Harris), after a long and she was brought up, and to whom she had painful affliction, calmly breathed his last ever been most dutiful. She had firm faith on the 29th of April, in the 35th year of his in the Gospel, and lived to God. During age, leaving not only a dear wife to mourn her illness she suffered much, and took her loss, but many brethren who remember much delight in the Psalms, and found conhim with affection. Having given himself solation in some of our beautiful hymns, as to the Lord when very young, he was “I have a Home above,” and “For ever faithful unto death. Charles Boxall was
with the Lord." Her end was peace. called into rest in June, after only a short
W. COLLING. illness. This brother was a smith, and George Wrigley fell asleep in Jesus apparently was a strong man, suited to his November 21, 1870, aged 30 years, leaving trade, and, being only in the prime of life, a sister wife to mourn her loss. He was we thought he might live for many years, taken after only a few days' illness, but but he was suddenly stricken down by though the call was sudden he was prepared. internal disease and died before the church He was one of those recently added to the knew of his illness. He was with us many Leicester church on the occasion of visits years, and we have confidence that he had from Br. D. King. His love for the truth built upon the Rock.
Charles Dovey was and his rejoicing at recent deliverance called away, after only thirty hours' illness, from errors were manifested by an ever on Lord's day, November 27, in the 63rd active desire to convey to others what he year of his age. He was brought among us had found so blessed to his own soul. His seven years ago, through the instrumentality diligent study of the Bible and constant of Br. Earl, but had very many years search for more truth (thankful for any lived in the love of God. While with us he help, but testing all by the sure word) were was most regular in his attendance at the marked features during the short time he Lora's table ; in death he knew no fear. was permitted to remain with us. The church Charles IVright was summoned to his anticipated a faithful and useful labourer, reward on July 26, about 38 years of age. but the Lord has not so purposed. It is He had been in delicate health a long time, ours to cry“ Thy will be done.” May the though able to attend to his work as a Father of all mercies bless the widow and compositor till within a few days of his her infant son ! death. He will long be remembered by Richard Butler, of Wardington, departed many as the author of many beautiful this life, in his 78th year, December 13, hymns and other pieces of poetry, which 1870. During twenty-five years he has appeared in the Sunbeam, published by loved and followed the Saviour. E. W. T. H. Milner.
Christina Broadfoot, of Blackburn (wife CHELSEA.— I may also record the decease of Robert Broadfoot, late of Wolverhampof the much-loved young brother, Robert | ton) departed this life December 14, 1870,