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Observer, Jan. 1, '71.
marked out by Mr. King and, as we consider, accomplished, was that of presenting the leading features of Christianity and marking out, clearly and distinctly, certain elements that are often imposed upon the deluded as appertaining to Christianity, but which are absolutely opposed thereto. Christianity was defined as "That doctrine recorded in the New Testament as taught by Christ and His apostles." It was insisted, that "Popery be allotted to the Pope; Lutheranism to Luther; Protestant State Churches to those who made or control them; and Christianity to Christ and His apostles." Christianity, in this debate, is guarded on both sides-on the one hand from those who accept too little; and on the other, from those who add to it and, consequently, put forth too much. It sets forth that Christ, without the apostles, did not present the whole of the Christian system, that He endorsed their official words and deeds, and that what He and they thus presented is Christianity. It also clearly appears that that vast predicted Ecclesiastical Despotism, which has reared itself under the Christian designation, has nothing to do with Christianity, otherwise than as an impostor has to do with one whose name he falsely and without warrant assumes. With these points guarded Mr. Bradlaugh seems not to admire what he would fain make out to be Mr. King's Heterodox Christianity. He would have everything found in the Old Testament (not in express terms repealed by Christ in the New) as part and parcel of Christianity. The wars of the Israelites, the deception of Jacob, and whatever else in Old Testament history he deems unlovely must, for that very reason, he counted as appertaining to Christianity. His burlesque of the Christian system appears as a most horrible monster. "If that be Christianity" said Mr. King "I will have none of it." But it is shown to be only the fiction of a mind disordered by hatred or gross ignorance. Side issues, not a few, are crowded in by Mr. Bradlaugh, evidently to keep his opponent from dealing with the real question. But enough! The reader must judge for himself.
1. How may the Genealogy of Jesus as given by Matthew be reconciled with that given by Luke ?
Ans. Matthew gives the genealogy of Jesus through Joseph, his reputed father, Luke gives it through Mary, his real mother, for while Matthew expressly says that " Jacob begat Joseph," Luke says, indefinitely of "Joseph who was of Heli," i.e., son-in-law. It is true the ellipsis might naturally enough be simply son,' as well as "son-in-law," but as we find the same ellipsis occurring in the last link of the chain, "Adam, who was of God," where the strict idea of son does not exist, the same freedom may be allowed here also. Matthew, in v. 17, omits three names, either because they were not given in the family register, from which he copied, or from a desire for equal numbers in the three sections of his list. It is a striking circumstance also in favour of the accuracy of both genealogies, that the ancient Jewish and Pagan controversialists never challenged their accuracy, which they would assuredly have done if they had perceived any flagrant inconsistency, as some moderns do. Besides, the word rendered "supposed," in Luke iii. 23, is lit., "was reckoned in law," or "legally
Observer, Jan 1, '71.
reckoned," and the same ellipsis may be understood before several of the additional names. Julius Africanus, A.D. 180-230, published an ingenious theory of Heli and Jacob being half brothers, that Jacob married his brother's (Heli's) widow, and had a son named Joseph, "legally
2. How may Matthew iii. 1-23, reporting Jesus as born in Bethlehem, visited by Magi, and carried into Egypt, and thence to Nazareth, be reconciled with Luke ii. 4-42, which reports His parents as coming from Nazareth to Bethlehem, and when they had performed all things regarding the child's circumcision and presentation in the temple, returning to Galilee, to their city Nazareth?
Ans. Omissions are not contradictions. Matthew appears to have written his history with the special view of pointing out Jesus as the promised and long-expected Messiah and King of the Jews, whereas Luke views him more as the Son of Man, a man among men, having a regard to the Gentiles as well as to the Jews. Hence, there was a reason for Luke mentioning the previous residence of Joseph and Mary in Galilee, which did not exist in the case of Matthew. Besides, supposing that Matthew was really ignorant that the parents of Jesus had come from Galilee, what then? It was not necessary that he should know; it no ways affected the truth of what he did know, and has recorded. Luke, on the other hand, makes no mention of the adoration of the Magi, and of the flight into Egypt. Suppose that he did not know of them. What then. Might they not have happened notwithstanding? Is his narative false because of the omission? Was he bound to write everything he knew or everything that happened to his Hero? The Sacred Books are uniformly, from the beginning of Geneses to the end of Revelation, constructed on a diametrically different principle-viz., that of "salvation" and "adaptation to the various parties for whose use they were indited or compiled. John xxi. 25.
3. How may the report of the Sermon on the Mount, in Matthew vi. 25—viii. 1, be reconciled with that in Luke vi. 12-vii. 1, so brief and varied in many points ?
Ans. Critics are divided as to whether the discourses given by the two Evangelists were spoken on the same occasion or not. Calvin, Grotius, Maldonatus, Tholuck, Meyer, De Wette, Tischendorf, Stier, Wieseler, Robinson, &c., argue for their unity; Erasmus, Lange, Greswell, Birks, Webster, and Wilkinson, for their diversity. But admitting, for the sake of argument, that they are of the same address, what then? Simply that the one gives a longer report than the other, the one might have been delivered in about half-an-hour, and the other in about ten minutes. Now the probability is that the address occupied two or three hours, with occasional interruptions, and questions, and explanations, on all sides; as is the case at the present day in the east with missionary teachings. This would at once account for the variations of the language occasionally met with, e.g., while Luke reports that 'the poor' and the 'hungry' were declared happy or blessed, Matthew explains and enlarges as 'the poor in spirit,' and those hungering after righteousness.' (There is no ground whatever for supposing that Jesus and his apostles did not habitually speak Greek rather than Aramæan.) That Luke often, in passages of his Gospel, reports sentiments similar to those given in Matt. v. 7 is easily explained by remembering that a public teacher like Jesus, perambulating the country, for three years, must have often reiterated His doctrines with more or less verbal diversities, according to the state of mind and feeling in which he found his auditors. How trifling the objection that because Jesus in one place says "Be ye therefore perfect," and in another "Be ye therefore
Observer, Jan, 1, 71.
merciful," the "ideas differ, and both cannot well be equally correct representatives of the original word;" when they may have been spoken at different times, and even if they formed part of the same discourse, they may have been used in different stages of the argument.
Bib. Notes and Queries.
Intelligence of Churhes, &q.
CLECKHEATON.-The friends residing at this place who are connected with the church at Huddersfield, have been gladdened by a visit from Mr. D. King, who, during the past fortnight, has delivered two lectures directed against Secularistic teaching. The former, upon "God and Evil; the criminality and ultimate utility of Siu," took place in Brook Street School Room, on Friday, December 9th, the Rev. G. W. Beardmore in the chair. There was a moderate gathering, which would doubtless have been large but for the extreme severity of the weather on the occasion. The lecture was well received and produced a good impression. At the close Secularists were invited to state objections, but they were wise enough to maintain a becoming silence. The second lecture, entitled "Christianity -What are its Legitimate Effects?" was de ivered in the same place, on Wednesday, December 14th, on which occasion we had a good company, the chair being occupied by W. Anderton, Esq., of Cleckheaton. Mr. King's remarks were well received throughout, producing frequent manifestations of approval, and, at the conclusion, an enthusiastic outburst of well-merited applause. A vote of thanks was afterwards cordially and unanimously given to the lecturer, for his "able argumentative and instructive lectures." May the truths which on this occasion were so convincingly set forth be like bread cast upon the waters, which shall be seen after many days.
LIVERPOOL.-We have just bid adieu to our beloved brother Strang, who has been labouring amongst us for the last three months, and whose labour, we are happy to state, has not been in vain. The church has been edified by his fervent and loving teaching, and also by his noble example of devotion to the cause of the Master. Sinners, too, as many as came to hear, have had Jesus presented to them in a series of discourses delivered with power and ability of no ordinary character. Through his efforts, in co-operation with the work of other earnest brethren, nine persons have been led to put on Christ by baptism, and others with whom he has had conversation give hopeful signs that they too will soon take up the cross and follow Jesus. A good
work has also been done by our brother in the establishment of a mutual improvement class for young brethren, which we trust will be of great service in preparing them for proclaiming the glad ti lings of the love of God. Thus we have been made to rejoice over sinners brought by the Gospel from a state of sin and alienation into harmony with the mind and will of the blessed God, to whom we ascribe all the praise.
BOOTLE (Liverpool).-Would it be any departure from the programme marked out for the Ecclesastical Observer to insert an account of our proceedings in Bootle during the late municipal election. The action has been valuable to us as a lesson, that when a clear duty is laid upon the conscience it should be done without faltering and without fear. During the municipal election of 1869 it was stated that every third man you met at mid-day was drunk, and it was well known that all needful preparations were made for repeating the same orgies this year. Three days before the election two circulars were posted to every elector in the ward in which the chief contest was to take place. The result was even more immediate and decided than we anticipated, for on the day before the election one of the candidates called upon the Chairman of the Alliance movement, and intimated that he had arranged for a meeting of all the candidates, and their chairmen, for conference with him, in half an hour. Of course he was there to meet them, and with the co-operation of W. M. Taylor, M.A., the U.P., Minister of Bootle, arranged with them to put out a placard calling upon the electors to assist in their determination to do away with the giving of strong drink as much as possible. The effect upon this election was very marked, drunkenness being as much the exception as in former years it had been the rule. Probably the success we achieved may act as an encouragement and example to those who are labouring to ameliorate the condition of society by the various means, which the Divine Providence opens up. G. Y. T.
SHEFFIELD.-A few brethren here continue to worship in accordance with Primitive order, but in a private house. On
Observer, Jan. 1, '71.
Lord's-day afternoon they received a visit, lic the books recommended. Lectures have at the time of the Breaking of Bread, from been given in the same theatre by Joseph the Editor of the Ecclesiastical Observer, Barker and David King, and the Secularists who was in the town to deliver a course of now throw up the ground. Mr. Watts Lectures, not in any way arranged for by made a final effort recently by advertizing those brethren. The Lectures were adver- three lectures. The first and second nights tized thus:-Temperance Hall, Sermons and he had scarcely enough hearers to warrant Lectures by David King. On Sunday, his lecturing, and the third night he gave up November 20, 1870, two Sermons will be in despair, without delivering the lecture, preached by David King, Evangelist. Morn- but taking care to abuse the ministers for ing at 10-30-subject, "Christ-the great not allowing their hearers to attend. In demonstration." Evening at Six-subject, the National Reformer, he admits the "The keys of the Kingdom of Heaven." failure, but charges it, not to the account of On Monday, November 21st, subject of the ministers, but to that of the employers, Lecture, Typical evidence." Chairman, who in some unusual way have all the Rev. Canon Sale, D.D. On Tuesday, Nov. people under control, so that they could 22nd, subject, "The ultimate utility of attend his lectures before the exposure of Sin; or why did God suffer evil." Chair- the filthy books, but could not do so after man, Rev. Giles Hester. On Wednesday, they understood what National Reformer November 23rd, subject, Christianity-Secularism is allied to. Mr. King delivered what are its legitimate effects." Chair- two lectures (December 5 and 6), in the man, Rev. R. Stainton. On Thursday, theatre, which were most heartily received, November 24th, subject, "Secularism-its moral basis and immoral results." Chairman, Mr. Batty Langley. The very large hall was not filled as was expected, but the cause was obvious, the weather was unfavourable, and it was the last few days of the School-board contest, when half a dozen meetings were held each night. But still the meetings were most interesting. Some amount of kindly controversy followed, much information was illicited, a vote of thanks to the Lecturer was seconded by a Secularist, and supported by a half dozen speakers, the meeting earnestly testifying desire that Mr. King renew his visit before long.
BLACKBURN.-Bros. Daniel Scott and William McDougall have alternately given large attention to Blackburn during the last six weeks or more; and while rendering some assistance to the eldership in the chief matter of internal order and progress, six persons have also been added to the church, by baptism into Christ, with immediate prospect of further additions. W. McD.
NEW BRINSLEY.-We have recently witnessed the good confession of four who have been added to the church. Thus our beloved brother Evans is seeing the fruit of his labours. Our gatherings greatly enlarge, so that we have not room comfortably to accommodate those who come. We want a chapel very much. C. C.
LEIGH, (Lancashire).-Some months ago the Secularists made a raid into Leigh. Mr. Watts, Mrs. Law, &c., addressed crowded meetings in the theatre. But they have been properly met. Mr. Mills (Independent minister of Leigh) made known the character of the filthy literature put forth by the Bradlaugh and Watts party, by means of the so-called National Reformer, and dared the men to read before the pub
and may be considered a sort of "coming in at the death" of the recent Secularistic attack upon Leigh.
HUDDERSFIELD, (December 1870).-We have been greatly cheered and favoured by a visit from our beloved Brother King. The Lord's-day previous to his first lecture, the Chureh was delighted by receiving three individuals into fellowship, who the preceding Wednesday evening had been baptized into the death of Jesus. We had intended and arranged for four Anti-Secularist Lectures in the Assembly Rooms, Queen Street, viz., Thursday and Friday, December 8th and 9th, and the Monday and Tuesday following, but on account of the pre-letting on the Friday, were debarred for that evening. A considerable number of our membership residing in the neighbourhood of Cleckheaton, we procured the Free Wesleyan school room there fort he Friday and following Wednesday, and Mr. King's able teaching and fearless exposition of truth on those occasions caused no small stir among the people. The three lectures delivered to us in Huddersfield, have been highly instructive and edifying. On each of those occasions we had a member of the Town Council in the chair; all of whom were representative men in the religious denominations of the town. Although invitations were given to put questions to the lecturer each night, one only availed himself of the privilege, but we had pleasure in listening to the testimony of proposers and seconders (Churchmen and others) of votes of thanks to the lecturer, as they acknowledged his fitness, clearness, and intelligence, for the work he had undertaken. On Lord's-day morning, December the 11th, Mr. King addressed the Church, taking for his subject the apostle's exhortation, "Let us have GRACE
whereby we may SERVE God acceptably with reverence and Godly fear." In the afternoon, in George Street Chapel (built by the so called Morrisonians, but disused now and kindly lent for the occasion), an attentive congregation heard him discourse on the "Keys of the Kingdom." In the evening he preached in our own Chapel, to a crowded audience. The remembrance of this visit will be long cherished, in our midst. May God, our Heavenly Father, long spare his life to labour in the midst of the Churches, and may the seed he has sown during his visit here be cultivated by us, and in the final harvest, may we appear with him in glory. Amen. The Huddersfield Examiner give considerable and interesting reports of the lecture.
W. E. K.
CAMDEN TOWN.-During the year 1870 the church meeting in Milton Hall has sustained serious losses by the hand of death. William Carey Harris (the only surviving son of W. D. Harris), after a long and painful affliction, calmly breathed his last on the 29th of April, in the 35th year of his age, leaving not only a dear wife to mourn her loss, but many brethren who remember him with affection. Having given himself to the Lord when very young, he was faithful unto death. Charles Boxall was called into rest in June, after only a short illness. This brother was a smith, and apparently was a strong man, suited to his trade, and, being only in the prime of life, we thought he might live for many years, but he was suddenly stricken down by internal disease and died before the church knew of his illness. He was with us many years, and we have confidence that he had built upon the Rock. Charles Dovey was called away, after only thirty hours' illness, on Lord's day, November 27, in the 63rd year of his age. He was brought among us seven years ago, through the instrumentality of Br. Earl, but had very many years lived in the love of God. While with us he was most regular in his attendance at the Lord's table; in death he knew no fear. Charles Wright was summoned to his reward on July 26, about 38 years of age. He had been in delicate health a long time, though able to attend to his work as a compositor till within a few days of his death. He will long be remembered by many as the author of many beautiful hymns and other pieces of poetry, which appeared in the Sunbeam, published by T. H. Milner.
CHELSEA.-I may also record the decease of the much-loved young brother, Robert
Observer, Jan. 1, 71,
Wilson Black (eldest surviving son of Robert Black, of Knightsbridge, and grandson of the late venerable James Wallis), who departed this life, at Nottingham, September 16, after only two days' illness, in his 15th year. He surrendered obedience to the Saviour in his 13th year, and being amiable, pious, and kind, he was held in much esteem by his fond parents and relations, and also by the church at Chelsea, where he assisted in the Sunday school. He was studious, and of much promise. Many followed his remains to Brompton Cemetery, London, and shed tears of sorrow for their loss and sympathy with the bereaved parents. Thus was cut off in a few hours one who was seemingly strong and destined to long life. But doubtless our Heavenly Father does all things well, and makes all things work together for good to those who love Him. We call to mind the words of Dr. Young-“That life is long which answers life's great end."
Mary Ann McIntyre departed this life December 7, 1870, in her 27th year; being niece of W. and A. Colling, by whom she was brought up, and to whom she had ever been most dutiful. She had firm faith in the Gospel, and lived to God. During her illness she suffered much, and took much delight in the Psalms, and found consolation in some of our beautiful hymns, as "I have a Home above," and " For ever with the Lord." Her end was peace.
George Wrigley fell asleep in Jesus November 21, 1870, aged 30 years, leaving a sister wife to mourn her loss. He was taken after only a few days' illness, but though the call was sudden he was prepared. He was one of those recently added to the Leicester church on the occasion of visits from Br. D. King. His love for the truth and his rejoicing at recent deliverance from errors were manifested by an ever active desire to convey to others what he had found so blessed to his own soul. diligent study of the Bible and constant search for more truth (thankful for any help, but testing all by the sure word) were marked features during the short time he was permitted to remain with us. The church anticipated a faithful and useful labourer, but the Lord has not so purposed. It is ours to cry" Thy will be done." May the Father of all mercies bless the widow and her infant son!
Richard Butler, of Wardington, departed this life, in his 78th year, December 13, 1870. During twenty-five years he has loved and followed the Saviour. E. W.
Christina Broadfoot, of Blackburn (wife of Robert Broadfoot, late of Wolverhamp ton) departed this life December 14, 1870,