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Observer, Nov. 1, 71.

Society'. And thus is the priest-banned Book sold and circulated in the City of the Popes, bringing light, salvation and joy to the hearts of the people, who for centuries have sat in darkness and the region of the shadow of death."

The foregoing was handed for insertion in the E.O. by one of Gavazzi's delighted hearers. The following is from the Freeman ;—

"The unsatisfactory condition of Protestantism in Italy has been owing to various causes, but in a great measure to the effects of Plymouthism. The tenets of the latter found a ready response in the minds of converts just emancipated from the artificial system of Romanism. The no-system, nogovernment, no-organization of Plymouthism is exactly the opposite extreme of the sacerdotal and administrative system of the Papacy. The tendency to go into extremes was, as usual, operative, and the Christian converts were gathered in separate centres without any cohesion either amongst each other or themselves. After much good evangelistic work was done in this fashion, and some progress made in edification from the Word of God, the elements became discordant, the disadvantage of unruliness became manifest, and a general weakness was the result. We are truly rejoiced to learn that the experience of this evil has led to the adoption of active measures for its repression. In June last, thirty-three independent gatherings or churches formed themselves into a Union at a general assembly held at Milan, so as to promote the true ends of a Christian Church, and secure the fulfilment of thorough evangelical work. They agreed on a simple confession of faith, in order to manifest their principles, and to declare their sympathy with others. We may wish that they had united with the Vaudois church, but they have thought otherwise; both may go on in harmony and unite in effort, as they do in creed and in scope.. In essentials they are one. We need hardly say that this is not only a noble work, but an interesting example, and we may well follow it with our prayers and sympathy. We append the manifesto, and have only to add that the congregations referred to consist wholly of Italians who have been converted from the errors of Rome, and have embraced the leading doctrines of the Reformation, and to state the further gratifying fact that Gavazzi has thrown the whole of his enormous energy into the work of simple evangelization, and is, with Ferretti, of Pistoia, Lagomarsino, in Rome, De-Michelis, in Pisa (the secretary), a leader in the movement. We append the Declaration of Faith, issued by authority of the united churches:

DECLARATION OF PRINCIPLES.

1. God, the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, has manifested his will in Revelation, which is the Bible, the alone perfect and immutable rule of faith and conduct.

2. God created man perfect in his own image and likeness, but Adam, disobeying the Word of God, sinned, and thus by one man sin has entered into the world, and death by sin. On this account, human nature in Adam and by Adam has become corrupt and sinful; and we are all born in Adam with the inclination to do evil, and the inability of doing well what God has commanded; wherefore, naturally, we are all sinners under condemnation.

3. God does not desire the death of the sinner, but that he should come to the know. ledge of the truth and be saved.

4. Salvation comes from the eternal and gratuitous love of the Father-it is obtained through the expiatory sacrifice, resurrection, and intercession of the Son ;-it is com municated by the Holy Spirit, who regenerates the sinner, unites him to Christ by faith, comes and dwells in him, produces peace in his heart, giving him the assurance of the entire remission of his sins, making him free, guiding and consoling him by means of the Word which He Himself has given, sealing and guarding him until the day of the glorious appearing of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ,

Observer, Nov. 1, '71.

5. The Christian, redeemed with a great price, ought to glorify God in his soul, body, and spirit, which belong to God, walking in holiness, without which no man can see the Lord. In order to this he finds strength in communion with Him who says to him, My grace is sufficient for thee.'

6. Believers, regenerated in Christ, form the Church, which cannot perish nor apostatize, being the body of the Lord Jesus.

7. In addition to the universal priesthood of believers, God Himself has established in the Church various special ministries for the perfecting of the saints and the edifying of the body of Christ, which ministries ought to be recognised by the Church itself.

8. The Lord Jesus Christ will come from heaven and transform our body of humiliation into a glorious body. In that day the dead in Christ shall rise first, and the living who are found faithful shall be transformed, and thus together shall we be caught up into the clouds to meet the Lord in the air, to be for ever with the Lord: and, after His Kingdom, all the rest shall rise to be judged in judgment.

These articles are held to suffice as a testimony of a Christianity purely evangelical, without pretending that there are no other doctrines in the Bible to be believed. It is also clearly asserted that this 'Declaration of Principles' does not pretend to infalli bility. The Word of God is alone infallible and immutable. Nor is it looked upon as the cause or title to salvation, but simply as the outward bond of unity in the faith and the banner of the Church."

QUERY ON "EDIFYING THE CHURCH."

Is THE word church, in New Testament usage, applicable both to the congregation of disciples met to worship God, and to the house in which they are met?'

In the October number of the E. O. there is an article on "Edifying the Church." In that article, on page 343, near the bottom, occur these words: " Kupiakov, in Greek, denotes the house of a lord (Kuptos). In Christian usage it would denote a house of the Lord Jesus; that is, a house devoted to Him or consecrated to His worship. Such is most likely both the origin and meaning of church. It denotes a house in which the worship of Christ is conducted." Again, on p. 344-" Church signifies the house it (the congregation) meets in to worship." Yet in the next paragraph, on the word " edify," it is affirmed as follows:- "In the New Testament, where it (edify) is used figuratively, it means to build up, instruct, and enlighten the church or congregation."

Now, if church be derived from a Greek word meaning a house of a lord, and if church be also the congregation that is built up, instructed and enlightened, it seems quite justifiable to apply the term church alike to the stone and lime building and to the congregation of believing men and women. If the word be thus appropriate in a two-fold sense, the querist is free to confess that he has been at fault in heretofore confining its application to the congregation, and disputing the right to use it of the house in which the congregation assembles. In his conviction, that church refers exclusively to the believers, he has been confirmed by referring to κυριακον, from which it is supposed to be derived. He can only find κυρια KOV, twice in the New Testament, in 1 Cor. xi. 20 and Rev. i. 10. In the one passage the supper is called Kuρiaкov-the Lord's; in the other, the day is called kupiake-the Lord's, But there is nothing about house; and hence there is nothing about church being the name for the house in which the Lord's people meet. Nay, more: Kupiakov does not even point out the Lord's supper without the additional word deurvov-supper; nor does KupLake denote the Lord's day except by the substantive uepa-day, which accompanies it. No more would κuρiakov denote the Lord's house without another word indicative of house.

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Observer, Nov. 1, '71.

EKKλEσia," as the writer of "Edifying the Church" rightly observes, "is the term used in the New Testament to denote the church, whether the term be used in its large sense, to signify the whole family of God, or in its narrow sense, to signify some particular local church." So that from EKKλeσiα we have no authority to apply church to the meeting-room. But if no sanction from εκκλεσια, and none from κυριακοv, is it right to give any countenance to denominate the meeting-room or chapel a church? If " EKKλeσia is the term used in the New Testament to denote the church" "the whole family of God," or some particular local church;" and if κυριακον in the New Testament never denotes either church or buildingare we at liberty to speak of the room as the church? Is it holding fast the form of sound words which have been left to us by the apostles?

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I fail to see the scripturality of naming the house a church, and equally fail to see what service that application of church renders in teaching us anything as to the edifying of the congregation. If the writer of "Edifying the Church," or any contributor, can give further information on this matter, I am sure it will be of interest to many readers of the E. 0. who plead for an unqualified return to Christianity as taught by the apostles of Christ.

O. B.

SCRIPTURE PROOF OF OPEN COMMUNION.

THE other day I had conversation with the leader of one of the open communion parties. He upbraided us for not receiving unimmersed believers to the Lord's table.

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I replied that we meet upon New Testament principles; and that we find that the immersed broke bread, but that we have no account of any unimmersed persons doing so,-that it is simply because we cannot find any warrant in the Word that we do not provide a table for the unbaptized, and not at all from any choice we have in the matter,-that, if any one can point out any warrant in the New Testament, we will agree to it at once This he undertook to do, and accordingly read Matthew xviii. 1-8. As I have failed to see any connexion between the passage and the sub ject, I decided to send it for the benefit of the readers of the E. O., and if any of them can point out what I have failed to see, I shall be glad. In the meantime I protest against the presumption of any one, whether of high or low standing, using God's precious Word as though it were an India-rubber ball, to be compressed into any shape that he may think proper. I trust that the usage of God's Word in this way, by others, may lead us to study it the more.

REMARKS.

J. G.

We may as well seek authority for inviting the unbaptized to the Lord's table in Mat. i. 1-8, as in Mat. xviii. 1-8. The verses in question show that the humility of the little child is an essential trait of the true and advanced follower of Jesus, and that it is a grievous thing to trespass against His true followers. The chapter has no reference to baptism, none to the Lord's table; and a teacher who has traversed the country, preaching far and wide for, perhaps, half a century, abides by a practice for which he can give no Scripture warrant, evidently because he likes it and finds it convenient, and then, when called upon for New Testament precept or example, cites a few verses which serve his purpose about as well as would the first Psalm, the first of Genesis,

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or even the

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Observer, Nov. 1, '71.

Family Room.

MARTYRDOM BY DROWNING.

AMONG the many methods of tor- | After all means had thus failed to

ture adopted in the sixteenth century was that of drowning. A number of Dissenters met in secret at Rotterdam, in 1554, "to speak to each other for mutual edification and establishment in the truth of the holy Gospel which they had received; likewise, with one mouth and lowly hearts to pray to the great God of heaven and earth for the forgiveness of their sins, and the gift of the Holy Spirit, and also with one accord to praise and thank His most adorable name." They were betrayed, apprehended, tortured, and then put to death: the men, by the sword; the women were "thrown into a boat, and thrust under the ice till death followed." One of them was "a young female only fourteen years old." She composed a hymn, beginning

"To the wide world Immanuel came, His Father's Kingdom left," &c. Richst Heynes was martryed in 1547. When the officers were sent to her house, her husband escaped. "But her they severely treated and cruelly bound, without any pity or compassion, although near her confinement. Notwithstanding all this they led her away, regardles of the tears and screams of her little children, to the prison of Leeuwarden, where, after three week's imprisonment, she was delivered of a son. They afterwards inflicted great torments on this lamb of Christ, and tortured her to such a degree that she could not raise her hands to her head.

Thus was she treated in the inhuman rack, chiefly because she would not give evidence against her brethren. For these wolves were in nowise satisfied, but still thirsted for more innocent blood. But the faithful God who is a refuge in time of need, and a shield for all those who trust in Him, guarded her mouth, so that no one suffered through her.

separate her from Christ, she was condemned at the place above-named, and like a brute beast was put into a sack, and plunged under water until life was extinct.'

In the year 1551, Jeronimus Segerson and another were burned at Antwerp. Segerson's letters, written while in prison, breathe a spirit of exalted piety and manly endurance. "I had rather," said he, "be tortured ten times every day, and then finally be roasted on a gridiron, than renounce the faith I have confessed."

Lysken, Segerson's wife, was drowned. The narrative of her examination and death is so interesting that we transcribe the greater portion of it. "Lysken, our sister, having long lain in bonds, has at last finished the period of her pilgrimage, remaining perfectly steadfast in the Word of the Lord even to the end; the Lord be for ever praised. She very boldly and undisguisedly confessed her faith at the tribunal, before the magistrates and the multitudes. The first asked her concerning baptism- She said, I acknowledge but one baptism, even that which was used by Christ and His disciples, and left to us.' What do you hold concerning infant-baptism?' asked the sheriff. To which Lysken answered, 'Nothing but a mere infant's baptism, and a human institution.' On this the bench stood up, and consulted together, while Lysken, in the mean time, confessed and explained clearly to the people the ground of her belief. Then they pronounced sentence upon her. Lysken spoke in the following manner to the bench: Ye are now judges; but the time will come when you will wish that ye had been keepers of sheep, for there is a Judge and Lord who is above all; He shall

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in His own time judge you. But we have not to wrestle against flesh and blood, but against the principalities, powers, and rulers of the darkness of this world.' The bench said, 'Take her away from the tribunal.'

"The people then ran earnestly to see her, and Lysken spoke piously to them. Know that I do not suffer for robbery, or murder, or any kind of wickedness, but solely for the incorruptible word of God.'”

She was then re-conducted to the prison, where two monks visited her, and endeavoured, but in vain, to turn her from the faith. Next morning she suffered.

"On Saturday morning we rose early, some before day, some with

Observer, Nov. 1, '71

the daylight, to see the nuptials
which we thought would then be
celebrated; but the crafty murderers
outran us. We had slept too long,
for they had finished their murderous
work between three and four o'clock.
They had taken that sheep to the
Scheldt, and had put her into a sack,
and drowned her before the people
arrived, so that few persons saw it.
Some, however, saw it.
'courageously to death, and spoke
bravely: Father, into thy hands I
commend my spirit.' Thus she was
delivered up, and it came to pass, to
the honour of the Lord, that by the
grace of God many were moved
thereby.

THE SPIRITS OF WINE AND OF WAR.

The Spirit of WAR-we see him afar!

His glance is all potent to wither and mar.
Pale Terror, his trumpeter, hastens before,

And the red flag he waves is dripping with gore.

He speaks through the cannon; he urges the blows
Received and returned by infuriate foes.

He laughs at the whir of the dread mitrailleuse ;
His music is discord of hell broken loose.

In the field of thick slaughter he raises his throne,
And gloats as he numbers each word and each groan ;
He spares not the hearth of the mourner forlorn,
And the sorrows of man he laughs at with scorn.

The Spirit of WINE- -we see him around!
He walks to and fro on our dear native ground.
No sword he unbares, but his touch as it glows
Is the spell which he craftily, cruelly throws.

He boasts not his slain, yet his victims fall fast
As the leaves of the wood at autumn's chill blast.
His march is not compassed with thunder and fire,
But love, joy and hope at his presence expire.

He brings to his aid the pleasures of sense,
The sanction of law and learning's pretence;
He heralds his course with the toast and the song,
And the smiles of fair women his conquests prolong.

More fatal than War to body and soul
Is the Spirit of Wine, defying control;
And for ever we'll join this foe to assail,
Until, by the help of our God we prevail!

DAWSON BURNS.

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