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1. ABRAHAM LINCOLN, President
2. HANNIBAL HAMLIN, Vice-President.

3. WILLIAM H. SEWARD, Secretary of State
4. SALMON P. CHASE, Secretary of the Treasury

5. EDWIN M. STANTON, Secretary of War.
6. GIDEON WELLES, Secretary of the Navy
7. JOHN P. USHER, Secretary of the Interior
8. MONTGOMERY BLAIR, Postmaster-General
9. EDWARD BATES, Attorney-General

ILLUSTRATIONS.

PRESIDENT AND CABINET.

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10. SIMON CAMERON, ex-Secretary of War.

11. CALEB B. SMITH, ex-Secretary of the Interior.

EMINENT OPPONENTS OF THE SLAVE POWER.

12. JOHN QUINCY ADAMS.

13. BENJAMIN LUNDY

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35. Lieut.-Gen. WINFIELD SCOTT

36. Maj. Gen. JOHN E. WOOL

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CONFEDERATE

HENRY W. HALLECK

GEO. B. MCCLELLAN

IRWIN McDowell.

46 JOHN C. FREMONT

UNION

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112 18. CASSIUS M. CLAY

66 19. JOSHUA R. GIDDINGS

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34. HENRY A. WISE

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CHIEFTAINS.

336 29. JOHN B. FLOYD.

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20. WILLIAM LLOYD GARRISON

21. GERRIT SMITH

22. OWEN LOVEJOY.

23. CHARLES SUMNER

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30. R. BARNWELL RHETT

31. JAMES M. MASON

32. JOHN SLIDELL

33. ISHAM G. HARRIS

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FRONTISPIECE.

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GENERALS.

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448 41. Maj.-Gen. DON CARLOS BUELL. 448
JOSEPH HOOKER
AMBROSE E. BURNSIDE
BENJAMIN F. BUTLER
DAVID HUNTER.

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46. Brig.-Gen. ROBERT ANDERSON

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CONFEDERATE GENERALS.

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UNION NAVAL OFFICERS.

59. Rear-Adm'l ANDREW H. FOOTE 608 | 65. Commodore CHARLES WILKES. 608

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CHARLES H. DAVIS 66

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61.

HENRY W. MORRIS 66

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DAVID G. FARRAGUT
L. M. GOLDSBOROUGH
SAM'L F. DU PONT.
DAVID D. PORTER
69.
JOHN A. DAHLGREN 66 70. 66

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TEXAS AS SHE WAS, AND AS SHE CLAIMED TO BE
VIEW OF HARPER'S FERRY.

VIEW IN THE SHENANDOAH VALLEY.

FORT SUMTER .

THE APPROACHES TO CHARLESTON

54.

55. Maj.-Gen. JNO. C. BRECKINRIDGE"

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56.

SIMON B. BUCKNER

57.

ALBERT SYD. JOHNSTON

58.

STERLING PRICE

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ILLUSTRATIONS-CONTINUED.

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68. Captain JAMES WARD

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NORFOLK, PORTSMOUTH, AND THE NAVY YARD

WEST VIRGINIA

TEN MILES AROUND FORTRESS MONROE

WASHINGTON CITY AND VICINITY

BULL RUN BATTLE-FIELD AND CENTERVILLE

MISSOURI ..

BATTLE-FIELD OF WILSON'S CREEK, NEAR SPRINGFIELD, Mo.
LEXINGTON (MISSOURI) DEFENDED BY MULLIGAN
BATTLE-FIELD OF BELMONT, MISSOURI .

HATTERAS INLET-FORTS HATTERAS AND CLARK
SINKING OF THE PETREL BY THE ST. LAWRENCE
FORT PICKENS-SANTA ROSA ISLAND-PENSACOLA.
HILTON HEAD-REDUCTION OF FORT BEAUREGARD
BATTLE-FIELD OF BALL'S BLUFF-HARRISON ISLAND, ETC.
BATTLE-FIELD OF DRANESVILLE, VIRGINIA

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JOHN L. WORDEN
CHARLES S. BOGGS.

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THE AMERICAN CONFLICT,

I.

OUR COUNTRY.

THE United States of America, | ed two or three hundred miles westwhose independence, won on the ward, to the bases and more fertile battle-fields of the Revolution, was valleys of the eastern slope of the tardily and reluctantly conceded by Alleghanies; and there were three Great Britain on the 30th of Novem- or four settlements quite beyond that ber, 1782, contained at that time a formidable but not impassable barrier, population of a little less than Three mainly in that portion of Virginia Millions, of whom half a million which is now the State of Kentucky. were slaves. This population was But, in the absence of steam, of camainly settled upon and around the nals, and even of tolerable highways, bays, harbors, and inlets, which ir- and with the mouth of the Missisregularly indent the western shore of sippi held and sealed by a jealous the Atlantic Ocean, for a distance and not very friendly foreign power, of about a thousand miles, from the the fertile valleys of the Illinois, the mouth of the Penobscot to that of the Wabash, and even of the Ohio itself, Altamaha. The extent of the settle- were scarcely habitable for civilized ments inland from the coast may have communities. No staple that their averaged a hundred miles, although pioneer population would be likely, there were many points at which the for many years, to produce, could be primitive forest still looked off upon sold on the sea-board for the cost the broad expanse of the ocean. of its transportation, even from the Nominally, and as distinguished site whereon Cincinnati has since from those of other civilized nations, been founded and built, much less the territories of the Confederation from that of Indianapolis or Chicago. stretched westward to the Mississippi, The delicate, costly fabrics of Europe, and northward, as now, to the Great and even of Asia, could be transLakes, giving a total area of a little ferred to the newest and most inland more than eight hundred thousand settlement for a small fraction of the square miles. At several inviting price at which they would there be localities, the "clearings" were push- eagerly bought; but when the few

coins which the settlers had taken | ed, desolating Revolutionary strugwith them in their journey of emi-gle, rich, indeed, in hope, but poor in gration had been exhausted, there worldly goods. Their country had, was nothing left wherewith to pay for seven years, been traversed and for these costly luxuries; and debt, wasted by contending armies, almost embarrassment, bankruptcy, were the from end to end. Cities and villages inevitable results. A people clothed had been laid in ashes. Habitations in skins, living on the products of the had been deserted and left to decay. chase and the spontaneous abund- Farms, stripped of their fences, and ance of nature, might maintain ex- deserted by their owners, had for istence and a rude social organization years produced only weeds. Camp amid the forests and on the prairies fevers, with the hardships and priof the Great Valley; any other must vations of war, had destroyed many have experienced striking alterna- more than the sword; and all alike tions of factitious prosperity and uni- had been subtracted from the most versal distress; seeing its villages and effective and valuable part of a popcommercial depots rise, flourish, and ulation, always, as yet, quite inadedecay, after the manner of Jonah's quate. Cripples and invalids, melangourd, and its rural population con- choly mementoes of the yet recent stantly hunted by debt and disaster struggle, abounded in every village. to new and still newer locations. and township. Habits of industry The Great West of to-day owes its had been unsettled and destroyed by unequaled growth and progress, the anxieties and uncertainties of its population, productiveness, and war. The gold and silver of antewealth, primarily, to the framers of revolutionary days had crossed the the Federal Constitution, by which ocean in exchange for arms and its development was rendered possi- munitions. The Continental paper, ble; but more immediately and pal- which for a time more than supplied pably to the sagacity and statesman- (in volume) its place, had become ship of Jefferson, the purchaser of utterly worthless. In the absence of Louisiana; to the genius of Fitch and a tariff, which the Confederate ConFulton, the projector and achiever, gress lacked power to impose, our respectively, of steam-navigation; to ports, immediately after peace, were De Witt Clinton, the early, unswerv- glutted with foreign luxuries—gewing, and successful champion of artifi- gaws which our people were eager cial inland navigation; and to Henry enough to buy, but for which they Clay, the eminent, eloquent, and effec- soon found themselves utterly unable tive champion of the diversification to pay. They were almost exclusively of our National Industry through the an agricultural people, and their Protection of Home Manufactures. products, save only Tobacco and Indigo, were not wanted by the Old World, and found but a very restricted and inconsiderable market even in the West Indies, whose trade was closely monopolized by the nations to which they respectively belonged.

The difficulties which surrounded the infancy and impeded the growth of the thirteen original or Atlantic States, were less formidable, but kindred, and not less real. Our fathers emerged from their arduous, protract

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