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XLI. 1580.

or of associating her with him in the administration. CHAP. Elizabeth, alarmed at the danger which might ensue from the prevalence of this interest in Scotland, sent anew Sir Robert Bowes to Stirling; and accusing d'Aubigney, now created Earl of Lenox, of an attachment to the French, warned James against entertaining such suspicious and dangerous connexions". The king excused himself by Sir Alexander Hume, his ambassador; and Lenox, finding that the queen had openly declared against him, was farther confirmed in his intention of overturning the English interest, and particularly of ruining Morton, who was regarded as the head of it. That nobleman was arrested in council, accused as an accomplice in the late king's murder, committed to prison, brought to trial, and condemned to suffer as a traitor. He confessed that Bothwell had communicated to him the design, had pleaded Mary's consent, and had desired his concurrence; but he denied that he himself had ever expressed any approbation of the crime; and, in excuse for his concealing it, he alleged the danger of revealing the secret, either to Henry, who had no resolution nor constancy, or to Mary, who appeared to be an accomplice in the murder. Sir Thomas Randolph was sent by the queen to intercede in favour of Morton; and that ambassador, not content with discharging this duty of his function, engaged, by his persuasion, the Earls of Argyle, Montrose, Angus, Marre, and Glencarne, to enter into a confederacy for protecting, even by force of arms, the life of the prisoner. The more to overawe that nobleman's enemies, Elizabeth ordered forces to be assembled on the borders of England; but this expedient served only to hasten his sentence and execution". Morton died with that constancy and resolution which had attended him through all the various events of his life; and left a reputation, which was less disputed with regard to abilities than probity and virtue. But this conclusion of the scene happened not till the subsequent year.

Elizabeth was, during this period, extremely anxious Spanish


b Spotswood, p. 309.

a Digges, p. 412. 428. Melvil, p. 130.

e Ibid. p. 314. Crawford, p. 333. Moyse's Memoirs, p. 54.
d Spotswood, p. 312.



Sir Francis

on account of every revolution in Scotland; both because
that country alone, not being separated from England
by sea, and bordering on all the catholic and malecontent
counties, afforded her enemies a safe and easy method of
attacking her; and because she was sensible that Mary,
thinking herself abandoned by the French monarch, had
been engaged by the Guises to have recourse to the
powerful protection of Philip, who, though he had not
yet come to an open rupture with the queen, was every
day, both by the injuries which he committed and suf-
fered, more exasperated against her. That he might
retaliate the assistance which she gave to his rebels in
the Low Countries, he had sent, under the name of the
pope', a body of seven hundred Spaniards and Italians
into Ireland; where the inhabitants, always turbulent,
and discontented with the English government, were
now more alienated by religious prejudices, and were
ready to join every invader. The Spanish general, San
Josepho, built a fort in Kerry; and being there besieged
by the Earl of Ormond, president of Munster, who was
soon after joined by Lord Gray, the deputy, he made a
weak and cowardly defence. After some assaults, feebly
sustained, he surrendered at discretion; and Gray, who
commanded but a small force, finding himself encum-
bered with so many prisoners, put all the Spaniards and
Italians to the sword without mercy, and hanged about
fifteen hundred of the Irish: a cruelty which gave great
displeasure to Elizabeth'.

When the English ambassador made complaints of
this invasion, he was answered by like complaints of the
piracies committed by Francis Drake, a bold seaman,
who had assaulted the Spaniards in the place where they
deemed themselves most secure, in the new world. This
man, sprung from mean parents in the county of Devon,
having acquired considerable riches by depredations made
in the isthmus of Panama, and having there gotten a
sight of the Pacific Ocean, was so stimulated by ambition
and avarice, that he scrupled not to employ his whole
fortune in a new adventure through those seas, so much
unknown at that time to all the European nations". By

f Camden, p. 475. Cox's Hist. of Ireland, p. 368. 8 Camden, p. 478. Stowe, p. 689.

e Digges, p. 359. 370.

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XLI. 1580.

means of Sir Christopher Hatton, then vice-chamberlain, CHAP. a great favourite of the queen's, he obtained her consent and approbation; and he set sail from Plymouth in 1577, with four ships and a pinnace, on board of which were one hundred and sixty-four able sailors". He passed into the South Sea by the Straits of Magellan, and attacking the Spaniards, who expected no enemy in those quarters, he took many rich prizes, and prepared to return with the booty which he had acquired. Apprehensive of being intercepted by the enemy, if he took the same way homewards by which he had reached the Pacific Ocean, he attempted to find a passage by the north of California; and failing in that enterprise, he set sail for the East Indies, and returned safely this year by the Cape of Good Hope. He was the first Englishman who sailed round the globe, and the first commander-in-chief; for Magellan, whose ship executed the same adventure, died in his passage. His name became celebrated on account of so bold and fortunate an attempt; but many, apprehending the resentment of the Spaniards, endeavoured to persuade the queen that it would be more prudent to disavow the enterprise, to punish Drake, and to restore the treasure. But Elizabeth, who admired valour, and was allured by the prospect of sharing in the booty, determined to countenance that gallant sailor: she conferred on him the honour of knighthood, and accepted of a banquet from him at Deptford, on board the ship which had achieved so memorable a voyage. When Philip's ambassador, Mendoza, exclaimed against Drake's piracies, she told him that the Spaniards, by arrogating a right to the whole new world, and excluding thence all other European nations, who should sail thither, even with a view of exercising the most lawful commerce, naturally tempted others to make a violent irruption into those countries'. To pacify, however, the catholic monarch, she caused part of the booty to be restored to Pedro Sebura, a Spaniard, who pretended to be agent for the merchants whom Drake had spoiled. Having learned afterwards, that Philip had seized the money, and had employed part of it against herself in Ireland,

h Camden, p. 478. Hakluyt's Voyages, vol. iii. p. 730. 748. Purchas's Pil-
rim, vol. i. p. 46.
i Camden, p. 480.

CHAP. part of it in the pay of the Prince of Parma's troops, she determined to make no more restitutions.



16th Jan. A Parlia


There was another cause which induced the queen to take this resolution: she was in such want of money, that she was obliged to assemble a Parliament; a measure which, as she herself openly declared, she never embraced, except when constrained by the necessity of her affairs. The Parliament, besides granting her a supply of one subsidy and two fifteenths, enacted some statutes for the security of her government, chiefly against the attempts of the Catholics. Whoever, in any way, reconciled any one to the church of Rome, or was himself reconciled, was declared to be guilty of treason; to say mass was subjected to the penalty of a year's imprisonment, and a fine of two hundred marks; the being present was punishable by a year's imprisonment, and a fine of one hundred marks; a fine of twenty pounds a month was imposed on every one who continued, during that time, absent from church. To utter slanderous or seditious words against the queen was punishable, for the first offence, with the pillory and loss of ears; the second offence was declared felony: the writing or printing of such words was felony even on the first offence'. The puritans prevailed so far as to have farther applications. made for reformation in religion"; and Paul Wentworth, brother to the member of that name who had distinguished himself in the preceding session, moved, that the Commons, from their own authority, should appoint a general fast and prayers; a motion to which the House unwarily assented. For this presumption they were severely reprimanded by a message from the queen, as encroaching on the royal prerogative and supremacy; and they were obliged to submit, and ask forgiveness".

The queen and Parliament were engaged to pass these severe laws against the Catholics by some late discoveries of the treasonable practices of their priests. When the ancient worship was suppressed, and the reformation introduced into the universities, the King of Spain reflected, that as some species of literature was necessary

k 23 Eliz. cap. 1.
m D'Ewes, p. 302.

1 Ibid. cap. 2.

n Ibid. p. 284, 285.



for supporting these doctrines and controversies, the CHAP. Romish communion must decay in England, if no means were found to give erudition to the ecclesiastics; and for this reason he founded a seminary at Douay, where the Catholics sent their children, chiefly such as were intended for the priesthood, in order to receive the rudiments of their education. The Cardinal of Lorraine imitated this example, by erecting a like seminary in his diocese of Rheims; and though Rome was somewhat distant, the pope would not neglect to adorn, by a foundation of the same nature, that capital of orthodoxy. These seminaries, founded with so hostile an intention, sent over every year a colony of priests, who maintained the Catholic superstition in its full height of bigotry; and being educated with a view to the crown of martyrdom, were not deterred, either by danger or fatigue, from maintaining and propagating their principles. They infused into all their votaries an extreme hatred against the queen, whom they treated as an usurper, a schismatic, a heretic, a persecutor of the orthodox, and one solemnly and publicly anathematized by the holy father. Sedition, rebellion, sometimes assassination, were the expedients by which they intended to effect their purposes against her; and the severe restraint, not to say persecution, under which the Catholics laboured, made them the more willingly receive, from their ghostly fathers, such violent doctrines.

These seminaries were all of them under the direction of the jesuits, a new order of regular priests erected in Europe, when the court of Rome perceived that the lazy monks and beggarly friars, who sufficed in times of ignorance, were no longer able to defend the ramparts of the church, assailed on every side, and that the inquisitive spirit of the age required a society more active and more learned to oppose its dangerous progress. These men, as they stood foremost in the contest against the Protestants, drew on them the extreme animosity of that whole sect; and by assuming a superiority over the other more numerous and more ancient orders of their own communion, were even exposed to the envy of their brethren so that it is no wonder, if the blame, to which their principles and conduct might be exposed, has in

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