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Gregory, William, "The Historical Collections of a Citizen of
London." 1189-1469 (Camden Soc. N.S., No. 18).
Hall, E., "Chronicle containing the History of England from
Henry IV to Henry VIII" Ellis, Sir H.

1809.

Halsted, Miss C. A. "Life of Margaret Beaufort, Countess of Richmond and Derby," 1839.

Holinshed, Raphael," Chronicles of England, Scotland, &c." 1577. Ellis, Sir H. 1807-8.

Hutton, William, F.A.S.S., "The Battle of Bosworth Field:" with additions, by J. Nichols, 1813.

Ingulphus, "Chronicle of the Abbey of Croyland, &c." Riley. Bohn's Library, 1854.

Laws, E., F.S.A., "Little England beyond Wales." 1883.

Laws, F., F.S.A., and Edwards, Miss E. H., "Church Book of St. Mary the Virgin, Tenby," 1907.

Legge, A. O., F.C.H.S., "The Unpopular King," 1885.

Lewis Glyn Cothi, "The Poetical Works of" (Oxford, 1837).
Lingard, John, D.D.; and other recognised historians.

Lodge, Richard, "The Close of the Middle Ages," 1272-1494.

Lysons, D. and S., "Magna Britannia," 1806-1822.

More, Sir Thomas, "History of Richard III," c. 1513, Lumby, J. R. 1883.

Nichols, J., F.S.A., "Collection of Royal Wills, William I to Henry VIII," 1780.

Nicolas, Sir N. Harris, "Synopsis of the Peerage," 1857. "Notitia Historica," 1824.

Oman, C., Prof., "The Political History of England," vol. iv. 1377-1485.

Owen, George of Henllys, "Description of Pembrokeshire.'

by Dr. Henry Owen, F.S.A.

Owen and Blakeway, "History of Shrewsbury," 1825.

"Paston Letters," 1422-1509. J. Gairdner, 1872.

Polydore Vergil, "Polydori Vergilii Urbinatis Anglica Historiæ Libri xxvii. Papal Collector. Native of Urbino. Wrote at the request of Henry VIII."

Ramsay, Sir J. H., "Lancaster and York," 1892.
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Rymer's "Fœdera." Hardy, Sir T. D., 1873.

Shakespeare," Richard III." "Henry VI, Part iii.”

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A magazine supported by members of St. John's

College, Cambridge. Vols. iv and ix.

Walpole, H. "Historic doubts on Richard III." 1768.

Warkworth, John. "Chronicle of the first thirteen years of the

reign (1461-1473) of Edward IV." Camden Soc. 10, 1839. Lancastrian. Master of Peterhouse in 1472.

Warrin, Jehan de. "Recueil des Chroniques, &c. Mdlle. Dupont." Société de l'Histoire de France.

Worcester, William of, (William Botoner), "Annales Rerum Anglicarum," 1324-1468.

It may be well to quote the estimate given by Spedding, Leslie Ellis, and Heath of certain of the early authorities, in their edition of Bacon's "Life of Henry VII." They enumerate:

1. "Fabyan, who furnished only a naked and imperfect Chronicle of London News" (1460-1485). Cotton MS., Vitellius, A.

xvi, is the original basis of part of Fabyan's work.

2. Polydore Vergil "who supplied a narrative continuous indeed and aspiring to be historical, but superficial, careless, and full of errors."

3. Holt and Holinshed, "who did little more than translate and 4.) embellish Polydore."

5. Stow," whose independent and original researches have only contributed a few additional facts and dates."

6. Speed, whose history "retained almost all the errors &c."

Other early authorities are Grafton (1569) who, like Holinshed, copies Polydore, "Ingulphus" the Croyland Historian, the anonymous writer of the MS. printed in the Cambrian Register for 1795, Philip de Comines (1445-1509), Sir Thomas More (Latin and English) 1476()-1535, Hall, Rous, Sir Francis Bacon, &c.

6TH SER.

VOL. XVI.

16

HOLT

BY PROFESSOR F. HAVERFIELD, LITT.D., LL.D., F.B.A.

THE following paragraphs, briefly describing Mr. Arthur Acton's important excavations at Holt (Denbighshire), were printed last summer in my annual publication, "Roman Britain in 1914," with the consent and active aid of Mr. Acton himself. As no summary of Mr. Acton's results has yet been published elsewhere except in the Report of the (now suspended) "Ancient Mon. Commission, Denbighshire," and as circumstances make it unlikely that any full account can be ready for publication at any early date, it has been thought that a reprint of my summary, with a few slight changes, might interest Welsh readers, since Holt, though one of the most eastern villages in Wales, lies actually on the Welsh bank of the Dee and therefore within the Principality. Archæologically, no doubt, it would go best with Chester, with which in Roman days it seems to have been administratively and practically connected. But our modern custom of grouping our national antiquities by modern boundaries has its conveniences, if it is not misunderstood, and one Holt inscription cited below (Fig. 11, p. 233) shows that the place in the Roman age may have had some sort of connection also with the fort at Carnarvon, although some 56 miles away.

Holt is an agreeable and ancient village on the left, or Denbighshire, bank of the Dee, five miles east of Wrexham and eight miles south of Chester; a bridge connects it with the better known Cheshire village of Farndon. Though it does not in itself look more ancient than most English villages, it has been long known as a Roman site. Roman inscribed tiles were

1 Published for the British Academy by H. Milford, Oxford University Press, London, 1915, pp. 15-21.

found there fully 300 years ago, and in 1905 the late Mr. A. N. Palmer of Wrexham identified the place of the discoveries as being in two fields, Wall Lock and Hilly Field, just outside and west of the village (Fig. 1). Here, since 1906, Mr. Acton has, at his own cost, carefully and systematically carried out The site is not yet even exhausted. But enough has been unearthed to yield a definite picture, and, for the reasons given above, it may be well to summarise very briefly Mr. Acton's most noteworthy results. I have to thank him for supplying

excavations.

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1. Barracks (?); 2. Dwelling and Bath-house (fig. 3); 3, 5. Kilns; 4. Drying gheds; 6. Workrooms (?); 7. Clay-pits.

and

me with much information and with material for valuable illustrations, used in my Academy paper here by permission reproduced.

Holt combines the advantages of excellent clay for pottery and tile making, good building stone (the Bunter red sandstone), and an easy waterway along the Dee to and from Chester. Here the Twentieth

66

2 See Palmer in Arch. Camb., 1906, pp. 225 foll. and Watkin's

'Cheshire," p. 305.

3 A Bronze-age burial (Fig. 2, D) suggests that this clay may have been worked long before the Romans.

Legion, which garrisoned Chester, set up in the latter part of the first century, tile and pottery works for its own use and presumably also for the use of other neighbouring Roman garrisons. Traces of these works were noted early in the seventeenth century, though they were not then properly understood.*

The discoveries show a group of structures and other remains, in all nearly a quarter of a mile in length, scattered along a bank which stands slightly above the Dee and the often flooded low alluvial meadows beside

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A, A. Rubbish-pits; B. Latrines (?); c. Water-pipe; D. Bronze-age

burial; DR. Drain.

it (Fig. 1). At the west end of this area (Fig. 1, No. 1, and Fig. 2) was a large rectangular enclosure of about 62 yds. by 123 yds. (rather over 1 acres), girt with a strong wall 7 ft. thick. Within it were five various rows of rooms 15 ft. square, with drains; some complicated masonry, possibly latrines (Fig. 2, filled the east end. This enclosure has not yet been wholly explored; it may have served for workmen's barracks, for the contents of two rubbish-pits in it (Fig. 2, A)-bones of edible animals, cherry-stones,

References are given by Watkin, "Cheshire," p. 305 and by Palmer, Arch. Camb., 1906, pp. 225, foll.

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