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'any thing that may please God, until they be regenerated and ' renewed by the Spirit of the Lord.-I believe, that this corrup❝tion of nature, otherwise called original sin, is the fountain and ' root of all sins; for the which all the miseries and adversities, 'that we endure, in this present life, as well in body as soul, 'do come unto us; yea, and in the end double death, that is to say, both of body and soul.-These be the fruits and rewards of 'sin. But although the same be due and common to all men 'generally; nevertheless the Lord, through his mercy, hath re< served to himself a certain number, (which are known only to ' himself,) the which he hath drawn from this corrupt heap, and

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hath sanctified and cleansed the same in the blood of his Son 'Jesus Christ: and by means of which he hath made them ' vessels of election and honour, apt unto all good works.-I 'believe, that the Father, in Jesus Christ his Son, through the Holy Ghost, hath elected and chosen those that are his own, ' according to his good will, before the foundations of the world were laid whom he hath predestinated unto eternal life, that 'they might be his children adoptives, over whom he hath, ' without comparison a much greater care, than the best father ' can have over the best children in the world; for he suffereth not that any thing should come to pass, either on high in heaven, or beneath the earth, which shall not be for their great ⚫ good and profit."


'As for reprobation, I have nothing to say of it: for St. Paul saith, "What have we to do with them that are without ?"• God, for Chist's sake, open our eyes, that we may clearly see his truth, and give us hearts meekly to yield to the same.• The Lord increase our faith, and true feeling of our election ' and sure certainty of our salvation, in Jesus Christ; to whom ⚫ with the Father, and the Holy Ghost, for our election, vocation, justification, and glorification, be all honour, glory, praise, thanks, power, rule, and dominion, for ever and ever. Amen.' If such passages were found in any modern author, whom Anticalvinists would vouchsafe to read, they would no doubt find the tenets of Calvinism in them and I feel a strong temp


Hooper, Bishop and Martyr, Vol. v. p. 437, 438, Fathers, &c.

2 Clement's Confession of Faith, Vol. iv. 301, Fathers, &c.


tation to that foolish pride, which is called national, in quoting from my own countrymen, passages (according to my views) so much more scriptural, and satisfactory on the subject than what I meet with even in the writings of the most eminent foreign reformers. And if this proves their sentiments to be any thing other than Calvinism, I am not a Calvinist.

I here close these quotations: though nothing could be more easy, than to add many others, equally decisive, from those holy men of God, who sealed their testimony in the flames, before Elizabeth mounted the throne. I shall only subjoin an article, out of those put forth in king Edward's reign, which indeed has already been adduced, but which it seems proper here to annex. -The grace of Christ, or the Holy Ghost by him given, doth take away the stony heart, and giveth an heart of flesh and although those who have no will to good things, he maketh them 'to will the same; and those that would evil things, he maketh 'them not to will the same; yet, nevertheless he enforceth not the will and therefore no man when he sinneth, can excuse himself as not worthy to be blamed, or condemned, by alledg'ing, that he sinned unwillingly, or by compulsion.'1

1 x. Art. King Edward's Articles.







THIS confession was first framed, at the requisition of the rulers and senate of Basil, by the delegates of the Helvetian (or Swiss) states, which had embraced the evangelical doctrine, in the year 1536 ; the in which Calvin settled at Geneva. very year It was drawn up by Bullenger, Myconius, Grynæus, Capito, and Bucer; in order, if there should be need, to be exhibited to the general council which was then expected. It received the sanction of the divines of Wittemberg, as the letters of Luther himself to the Helvetians testify. But, this confession being too short ' (brevior) it was, for weighty reasons, written over again A.D. 1566, to which the Tigurini,' the Bernenses, the Sangallenses, 'the Rhæti, the Myllhusiani, the Biellenses, and also the Genevese subscribed.'-This was two years after Calvin's death. But, after twenty-eight years' residence at Geneva, where his influence was exceedingly great, as well as in all the adjacent churches; it can hardly be doubted that it would have received his full sanction had his life been continued to that time. It should be noted, that he was succeeded at Geneva by his colleague Theodore Beza.—If, then, we desire to know what Calvin and his nearest associates approved, as proper to be inserted in a public confession of faith, on those doctrines now called Calvinistic; this may, I apprehend, be learned in a good measure from the Helvetian confession. Accordingly I shall translate all those parts of it which directly relate to this subject.

1 Zurich.

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4 It is said also in the preface to Sylloge Confessionum, (Oxon. 1804.) to have been 'approved by the (reformed) churches of England, Scotland, 'France, Belgium, and many in Poland, Hungary, and Germany.'-J. S.

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ARTICLE VI.-Concerning the Providence of God.


By the providence of this wise, eternal, and omnipotent God, we believe that all things in heaven, and in earth, and in all creatures, are preserved and governed. For David testifies and says: "The Lord is high above all nations, and his glory above the heavens. Who is like unto the Lord our God, who dwelleth on high, and humbleth himself to behold the things, which are done in heaven and earth?" He likewise says again "Thou hast seen beforehand (prævidisti) all my ways: because there is not a word in my tongue, which though hast not altogether known, O Lord." Paul also testifies and says, By him we live, and move, and are :" and "Of him, and by him, and to him are all things." ." Most truly, therefore, and according to the scripture, Augustine pronounced in the book concerning the agony of Christ The Lord said, "Are not two sparrows sold for one farthing? Yet not one of them falleth to the ground, without the will of your Father." But thus speaking, he purposed to shew, that whatever men think the meanest is governed by the omnipotence of God. For thus the Truth speaketh; "that the birds of the heavens are fed, and the lilies of the field are clothed by him ; and he saith "that even our hairs are all numbered."'* We therefore condemn the Epicureans, who deny the providence of God, and all those who blasphemously say, that God is employed about the grand concerns of heaven, (versari circa cardines cali; or, exists in the heavens,') and does not see, nor regard our affairs. For even David himself, the royal prophet, condemned these when he said, "How long, O Lord, how long, shall the impious, exult? saying God doth not see, neither doth the God of Jacob understand.-Understand, ye stupid among the people, and ye fools, when will ye at length be wise? He who formed the ear, cannot he hear? or he who framed the eye, how cannot he see?" But at the same time, we do not despise as useless the means (media middle, or intermediate, things,) by which divine Providence worketh: but we teach, that we ought to be as far attentive to them (accommodandos esse) as they are commended (or enjoined commendentur,) in the word of God. Whence we disapprove the rash sentences

Ps. cxiii. 4-6. 2 Ps. cxxxix. 2-4. 4 Matt. vi. 26–30. x. 29–31.

3 Acts xvii. 28. Rom. xi. 36. 5 Ps. xciv. 6-9.

of those who say; If all things are conducted by the providence of God, certainly our endeavours and our pursuits (studia) are in vain. It will be sufficient if we leave all things to the government of divine providence; nor is there any reason why we should be solicitous about any thing, or what we do.' For, though Paul acknowledged that he sailed under the providence of God, who had said to him, "Thou must bear witness to me at Rome;" who moreover had promised to him and said, "There shall be no loss of any life, neither shall a hair fall from your head;" nevertheless when the sailors were meditating flight, the same Paul said to the centurion, and to the soldiers, "Unless these remain in the ship, ye cannot be saved." For God, who hath destined its own end to each affair hath appointed both the beginning, and the means (media) by which it is brought to that end. The heathens ascribe things to blind and uncertain chance. St. James is not willing it should be said, "To-day, or to-morrow, we will journey into such a city, and we will carry on business: for that ye ought to say, If the Lord shall will and we shall live, we will do this or that.”2 And Augustine saith: All these things, which to vain men seem to be done at random, in the nature of things, do not accomplish any thing except his will, because they are not done except by his command. Thus it seemed to come to pass by fortune, that Saul seeking his fathers asses came to the prophet Samuel: but the Lord had before said to the prophet, "To morrow I will send unto thee a man of the tribe of Benjamin, &c.*


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-On the Creation of all things; concerning
Angels, the Devil, and Man.

This good and omnipotent God created all things, both visible and invisible, by his own coeternal Word; and he also preserves the same by his own co-eternal Spirit; David testifying and saying, " By the Word of the Lord were the heavens made, and all the power (virtus) of them by the Spirit of his mouth." But all the things which God created were, as the scripture says, " Very good," and created for the profit and use of man. We say then that all things proceeded from one beginning (or source, principio). Manichees and Marcionites, who

We therefore condemn the impiously feigned two sub

1 Acts xxiii. 11. xvii. 22-25. 30-34.
3 On Ps. cxlviii.. 1 Sam. ix. 15-20.

Jam. iv. 13-16. 5 Ps. xxxiii. 6.

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