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THE MILK PROBLEM. War has made the milk problem one of vital importance.
Milk is an essential for the rearing of healthy infants. Although the importance of breast-feeding is now generally recognized there will always be many mothers who are quite unable to suckle their offspring, and now in these strenuous war days many mothers, from physiological, economic, vocational or other conditions find suckling a process surrounded by difficulties and impossible to maintain. On all grounds it is essential that if healthy babies are to be reared an adequate supply of milk must be secured. The Ministry of Food is evidently alive to che importance of this matter. In the National Food Journal, the new official organ of the Ministry of Food, in its third number there is informing article on “« The First Call on Milk,' from which we reproduce the following: “Every effort is being made by the Departments concerned to maintain the supply of milk, but it may be impossible during the coming winter to prevent some shortage in various districts. It is therefore necessary that milk should be used only for essential purposes, and that waste should be prevented. The first call on available supplies must be for babies and young children, for nursing and expectant mothers, for munition workers engaged in certain dangerous processes the risks of which are reduced by drinking milk, for hospitals and for the sick. Directors of infant consultations, maternity centres, canteens for munition workers, hospitals, health visitors and others concerned with public health are asked to note that provision for giving priority in the distribution of milk to those by whom it may be most needed is made in the Milk (Prices) Order of September 7. Clauses 8 and 9 confer extensive powers on local food committees to meet special needs of this kind. A committee may, with the consent of the Food Controller and under specified conditions, take steps, if necessary,
a wholesome supply, to direct which classes of the population shall be served first, and even to buy and sell milk on their own account. Schemes of this kind should be initiated only after consultation with the trade. An outline of a scheme showing
how priority distribution could be carried out is now being prepared, and will be issued shortly. Economy in the consumption of milk must be enforced, but it is not desired that this economy should be practised at the expense of children or of mothers. On the contrary, it is recognized that the provision for them has been inadequate in the past. Those who are asked to keep their consumption of milk foods within the narrowest possible limits are the adult population who can most easily dispense with them. Householders should make it a matter of conscience to order only quantities that are absolutely required, and to see that milk is not wasted by being improperly stored or kept too long. Further, those who can afford to buy fresh milk should on no account use condensed milk. Supplies of condensed milk are limited, and must be reserved for those families who are unable to secure a supply of fresh milk, It is suggested to local committees that they should consider the possibility of fixing a lower price for milk sold over the counter, since the poor commonly buy in this way and the vendor is saved the cost of the milk round.
The raw milk produced in this country is not, of course, entirely devoted to human consumption. A certain amount is required for calf rearing, but the Board of Agriculture have recently stated that substitutes for milk should be employed by farmers as far as possible from the age of six weeks onwards, and that to feed whole milk to calves beyond that age is undoubtedly a waste of human food."
SCHOOL GARDENING. Now is the time to think about school gardening and to prepare teachers for an extension of this educational, economic and patriotic form of service. The Board of Education have issued the following circular to local education authorities for higher education on training courses for teachers of gardening : “ The Board of Agriculture regard it as essential that every effort should be made to increase the area of land under cultivation and the output of garden produce during 1918, and the Food Production Department have recently approached the Board of Education with a view to securing a substantial increase in the number of to attend the classes. It will be desirable that county authorities should consult the authorities of boroughs and urban districts exercising powers in respect of elementary education as to the number of teachers in elementary schools maintained by them who desire to take advantage of the opportunities afforded, and should in all other ways enlist such help as those authorities can give. Recognition may be applied for in respect of the classes under the Regulations for Technical Schools in the ordinary way, and grants will be payable under Article 32 or Article 34 of the Regulations as the case may be. Since, however, the establishment of the classes will be primarily of the nature of a War measure, the Board are also prepared to repay to the authority all reasonable and necessary expenditure incurred by them in meeting the railway (3rd class) or other travelling expenses incurred by bona fide teacher-students selected to attend the classes, subject to a maximum limit of 45. in respect of any one return journey for any individual teacher-student. They feel sure that the authorities will exercise strict economy, both in the allowances of travelling expenses and in the distribution of centres for instruction, so as to cover the ground at the minimum of cost.
teachers, men and women, capable of giving useful instruction on practical lines in the subject of .gardening, and to facilitating a corresponding increase in the number of school gardens attached to public elementary and other schools. The Board of Education are confident that local education authorities will desire to co-operate in carrying out this national object, and they suggest that, in view of the urgency of the demand, the most effective step will be to establish, at as early a date as possible in the autumn, a greatly increased number of such Saturday classes for the instruction of selected teachers of secondary and elementary schools and evening classes as were already in existence in certain areas before the War, regard being had to the training of suitable women, as well as of men, for the important work in prospect. It is desirable that the classes should be held at suitable intervals throughout the year, in order that the instruction may gradually be extended to cover all the main operations of the gardening calendar, although it will probably not be found necessary to hold them on every Saturday, especially during the mid-winter months. It is, of course, of importance that the centres for instruction should be so distributed, especially in county districts, as to cover as wide an possible, and that the instruction should be of a very practical character, which the teacher-students may be in a position to begin passing on to their pupils at an early date. Probably classes of about twenty are as large as can reasonably be handled by a single instructor, but if classes meet less frequently than once a week, say, every second or, third week, the number of classes for which one instructor is responsible can be correspondingly increased. It is realized that the present is not altogether a convenient date at which to suggest to authorities the early provision of additional classes during the coming autumn. In view, however, of the importance of the matter, the Board trust that local education authorities will do their best to meet the Food Production Department's request, and will notify to the Board at an early date the centres which they find it possible to establish and the anticipated number of teacher-students who are likely
CHILD WELFARE AND UNIFI
CATION OF DIRECTION AND
Child welfare is the most essential requisite for national progress. The final issue of the Great War in so far as Britain is concerned will depend mainly on the sort of boy and girl we are rearing in these fateful days of critical conflict. It is only by raising a virile, disciplined, patriotic, self-controlled race that we can hope to retain and to develop the privileges, responsibilities and powers which have been won and held only by supreme sacrifice. Ind yet we are content to suffer an appalling wastage of future man-power. The preventable death and preventable damage which now exist among infants and young children threaten the present and future weal of the Commonwealth, In face of the peril to our people we have persistently ties. It is thus seen that the child might pass under a very large number of possible public health authorities. In this way we are confronted with a most important administrative problem. Certainly the system is necessarily condemned merely by reason of the fact that it entails a certain amount of overlapping and confusion of functions. The principal question is, How does the system work out in practice? Does it work well or ill? Is it econo
nomical, and is it productive of friction?" Regarding the answers to these questions there can be no doubt. Child welfare Work in all its departments is suffering irreparable loss through the lack of a co-ordinating brain centre.
urged a concentration of forces : cooperation of workers and co-ordination of work. The urgent necessity for such action was well brought out recently by Mr. H. A. L. Fisher, Minister of Education, when presiding at an address on “ Health Problems and a State Ministry of Health,” delivered by Major Waldorf Astor, M.P., at the Royal Institute of Public Health, 37, Russell Square, W.C. Mr. Fisher's words deserve serious consideration, for these clearly indicate the urgent need for some unity of direction and control in child welfare efforts : • Recent events have done a great deal to quicken the public health conscience of the country. The time seems now to have come when it is appropriate, and indeed necessary, to attempt a review of all the agencies existing in the country for the purpose of promoting public health, with a view to considering whether those agencies could be combined in a more effective and economical system. A child comes into the world under the ægis of the Central Midwives Board and the Lords of the Privy Council. A month or two later he receives the care, if he receives any at all, of a voluntary asso'ciation, which may or may not be subsidized by the Board of Education or by the Local Government Board. About the
the child proceeds to an elementary school, and from 3 to 14 receives his education there. During that period he is under the medical supervision of the school medical service, which in turn is controlled by the local education authorities and the Board of Education. From 14 to 16 the child does not seem to be "under any special public health control. At the age of 16 the child passes under the control of the Insurance Commission. Children who are engaged in manufactures are medically supervised by the Factory Department of the Home Office, unless they happen to be engaged in the manufacture of munitions, in which case they pass under the control of the Minister of Munitions. If they are disabled by the War, they become the prey of the Local Pensions Committee. Of course, if the child happens to be mentally defective he passes under another system of control. If he has the misfortune to be a pauper he becomes the object of the solicitude of the Poor Law authori
The President of the United States of America has issued a noble appeal to
The Soldiers of the National Army." Mr. Woodrow Wilson's stirring words will live through the ages. Britishers should read and ponder over their great message : “You are undertaking a great duty. The heart of the whole country is
Everything that you do will be watched with the deepest interest and with the deepest solicitude not only by those who are near and dear to you, but by the whole nation besides. For this great War draws us all together, makes uş all comrades and brothers, as all true Americans felt themselves to be when we first made good our national independ. ence. The eyes of all the world will be upon you, because you are in some special sense the soldiers of freedom. Let it be your pride, therefore, to show all men everywhere not only what good soldiers you are, but also what good men you are, keeping yourselves fit and straight in everything, and pure and clean through and through. Let us set for ourselves a standard so high that it will be a glory to live up to it, and then let us live up to it and add a new laurel to the crown of America. My affectionate confidence goes with you in every battle and every test. God keep and guide you !”
A scheme is being developed to estab- . lish a number of scholarships tenable at Universities of the United Kingdom for officers and men from overseas who have
been rendered unfit in the service of this country. The idea is to equip them for a useful life in their own lands after the War by admitting them before discharge to specially designed courses in various subjects. Interested and sympathetic readers may obtain particulars on application to the Organizing Secretary, “ Overseas Sailor and Soldier Scholarships," Seymour House, Waterloo Place, S.W.1.
War conditions are bringing the problem of illegitimacy and the unmarried mother before all the belligerent peoples. In America the Boston Conference of Illegitimacy is preparing a Bibliography on Illegitimacy, of which the Massachusetts Society for Social Hygiene is to be custodian, It is intended that this bibliography shall be of service to social workers and all interested in this phase of war work.
“A Friendship Calendar” has been prepared by the members of the Christian Commonwealth Fellowship, and is issued from the offices of the Christian Commonwealth, 133, Salisbury Square, London, E.C.4 (price is. 3d., or post free is. 4d.). This artistically arranged, compact, and well-printed turn-over calendar is charming collection of inspiring quotations which will comfort, stimulate, instruct and cheer. It provides an ennobling and guiding thought for each day. As a Christmastide souvenir and messenger for the New Year this gathering of great treasures should go to friends scattered throughout the world.
“ The Daily Mail Year Book, 1918," has arrived in its familiar red-book form. The price is now od. net. It is published by the Associated Newspapers, Ltd., Carmelite House, E.C.4. The work is now in its eighteenth year of issue. Mr. David Williamson retains the editorial chair. The book is an indispensable record of the great events in the World War. It contains in condensed form the essentials regarding the chief doings of these ever eventful days. A remarkable table is given of the annual birth-rates in various countries. There is a useful section devoted to child welfare, and a summary
of the chief points relating to education in England. A copy of this informing Year Book should be available in every home and school,
“ The Pennsylvania Health Bulletin," issued every month by the State Department of Health, Harrisburg, Pa, U.S.A., under the direction of Dr. Samuel G. Dixon, the Commissioner, contains much valuable material which will be of practical service to health workers. Through the courtesy of Commissioner Dixon, M.D., LL.D., Sc.D., we have received a number of recent issues each containing “Little Talks on Health and Hygiene." These homely presentations in direct language readily understood by the common people will be invaluable to lecturers on personal and public hygiene, health visitors seeking to assist in the improvement of home conditions, and all working for human betterment.
The National Education Association, Caxton House, Westminster, S.W.1, have issued in pamphlet form“ The Education Bill, 1917, Analysed, Summarized, Criticized and Explained” (price 6d.). “ The Bill is a great measure, excelling many predecessors in careful drafting, dignity of language and purpose, firmness in principle softened by ingenious amelioration of temporary difficulties, showing a large outlook towards big public interests, though sometimes a mistaken view, but deserving, as few education bills have done, the immediate and serious consideration of Parliament in order that after suitable revision it may become law without delay.'
No. 24 of the “Bulletins of the Russell Sage Foundation Library," published bimonthly from 130, East Twenty-second Street, New York City, gives a particularly timely and helpful bibliography of works, articles and reports on Industrial Fatigue.”
No. 17 of the valuable “ Columbia War Papers," published by the Division of Intelligence and Publicity of Columbia University, City of New York, is by Dr. Douglas C. McMurtrie, the Editor of the American Journal of Care for Cripples, and deals with “The War Cripple."
CHILD WELFARE AND STATE SERVICES.
In this section are inserted records of the progress of Child Welfare Work as carried out by various
State Services dealing with Health, Education, Industry, Delinquency, Defectiveness, and other questions relating to the care and control of the young. We shall be glad to receive copies of reports and all other official publications as soon after issue as may be possible.
THE LONDON TEACHERS'
ASSOCIATION. The following particulars regarding the London Teachers' Association, the headquarters of which are located at Legal and General Chambers, 9, Fleet Street, E.C.4, have been supplied by Mr. W. J. Pincombe, the General Secretary of the Association. The need for professional organization among English teachers was first felt acutely between forty and fortyfive years ago. In those days was founded the National Union of Elementary Teachers, now conveniently known as the N.U.T. There were also associations of teachers in the distinctive groups of schools already in existence at the time of the passing of the Education Act of 1870, such as teachers in Church schools, Wesleyan schools and British schools. It was natural, therefore, that, in 1871 and 1872, shortly after the creation of School Boards (and the opening of Board Schools mainly in the urban and industrial areas), that Associations of Board School Teachers should come into existence. One of the earliest of these was the Metropolitan Board Teachers' Association, which has now just completed its forty-fifth year of activity. Most of these associations of Board School teachers have been absorbed into the N.U.T. local organizations. The Metropolitan Organization has, however, preserved its separate corporate existence. When the London County Council became the authority for all forms of education within the Administrative County of London on May 1, 1904, as a direct result of the passing of the Education Acts in 1902 and 1903, the Metropolitan Board Teachers' Association boldly transformed itself into the London Teachers' Association. Just as its membership had formerly been limited to the service of the London School Board, its membership was now extended to all teachers working in schools aided
maintained by the London County Council. Its appeal became widespread and catholic. Every qualified teacher in every type of school, from the kindergarten to the University, is eligible for membership, and the vast majority of London teachers have availed themselves of the opportunity of joining. In order, however, not to present a misleading picture, it should be noted that the proportion of teachers in elementary schools who belong to the London Teachers' Association is greater than the proportion of teachers in secondary schools and higher education institutions. The L.T.A., as the Association is colloquially called, is, however, unique in this respect, that it is the largest “Service Association” of teachers in the whole world, its membership at the present time being about 19,800. The annual subscription to the Association is 55., for which the members receive all the ordinary benefits of a professional organization, such as advice and assistance both of a general and personal character. The interests of various sectional groups of teachers are served by special committees, thus there are committees for mistresses, for teachers in non-provided schools, for teachers in the higher education service, for teachers in central and higher grade schools, for teachers in evening institutes, for teachers in the special schools for physically and mentally defective children, for domestic economy instructresses and for handicraft instruc
The Association is governed by Conference, which has two fixed meetings each year. Its Executive Committee consists of about 130 members elected in constituencies representing the various metropolitan boroughs or groups of boroughs. The Association attaches great value to the circulation each week amongst its members and amongst London educationists, of its official organ, The London Teacher, which, from the point of view