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of circulation, stands in the forefront of educational journals in Great Britain. A great deal of educational work is undertaken by the Association under the auspices of its Education Committee. In war time these activities are somewhat curtailed, but generally it may be stated that the L.T.A. provides for its members a continuous series of educational conferences, lectures, visits and tours. Until the War broke out, the L.T.A. arranged an annual educational holiday, parties of teachers being taken as far afield as Niagara, the West Indies, the Northern Capitals of Europe, including St. Petersburg and Moscow and Egypt. The Association has developed also a form of co-operative trading which secures considerable material benefits for its members. A direct supply of coal, insurance, special discounts, a cheap and wellmanaged library arrangement are among the features of this side of the Association's work. In the summer time, in prewar days, a large excursion business was undertaken, some thousands of teachers being conveyed by the L.T.A. at special rates to all parts of the British Isles on the first day of the school holidays. Another important department of the Association's work is arrangement for providing specialist advice and treatment for its members suffering from the special physical disorders to which teachers are prone. The foregoing activities absorb a considerable proportion of the energy of the permanent staff at the headquarters of the Association at 9, Fleet Street, but the work of the London Teachers' Association is predominantly of a professional character. The interests of the whole body of London teachers are continuously under review by the General Committee and its Sub-Committees. Few bodies of teachers outside London are in a better position to pass under critical and constructive review the decisions of the Education Authority or of the Board of Education or other outside bodies as they affect the administration of education in the area served by the Association. Nor are these interests of the Association exclusively professional. The welfare of the London school-child is always of paramount interest to the Association, and its representations to the Education Authority, while technically of a profes

sional character, are based upon a sincere desire to serve the children. The Association has welcomed many of the social and medico-educational movements which have grown up round the schools, such as children's care work, medical inspection and treatment, open-air work, the reforms proceeding from protective legislation for children and the influences which have come into teaching itself from the demand for physical education. There have been times when some of those interested in child welfare movements may have believed or suspected an antagonism on the part of the teachers. That was never the case. The teachers were naturally anxious that what they conceived to be their primary responsibilities --the intellectual and moral training of the children-should not be swamped by the onrush of enthusiastic devotees of new and quite legitimate educational developments. When, however, the conditions for co-operation and co-ordination had once been defined, only mutual and loyal assistance has been forthcoming from the teachers. Children's workers, school doctors and school nurses now agree that the co-operation of the teachers is invaluable. The London Teachers' Association is primarily a professional association, and its first object naturally is to look after the interests of its members, but it has a record of work on behalf of the children of London upon which it looks back with justifiable pride.



WELFARE WORK. Sir Arthur Newsholme, in his latest report as Chief Medical Officer to the Local Government Board for England and Wales (* Forty-sixth Annual Report of the Local Government Board, 1910-17, Supplement, containing the Report of the Medical Officer for 1916-17” [Cd. 8767]. Published by H. M. Stationery Office, Imperial House, Kingsway, W.C.2. 1917. Price 4d. net), presents interesting data relating to the progress of maternity and child welfare work in this country. During 1916 the infant mortality rate for England and Wales was 91 per 1,000 registered births, the lowest recorded rate on record. In the great towns the rate was 99, in the smaller towns 90, and in London 89. At the present time fifty-one county councils have provided for the visiting of women and children by health visitors, and forty-one of these schemes cover the whole county with the exception of sanitary districts having separate schemes. In ten other counties the county council has provided for a portion of the county area. Of the remaining eleven counties several are said to be on the point of establishing practical schemes. All the metropolitan boroughs except Camberwell, and all the county boroughs except Gateshead, have made

some, although often very inadequate, provision for the required work. Of the smaller sanitary authorities 360 are developing some form of activity. There are now in existence 396 centres for maternity and infant welfare work established by local authorities, and 446 are carried on by voluntary agencies, but a large number of these receive assistance, financial and otherwise, from the local authorities. War, unfortunately, has checked the de'velopment of this necessary work for mothers and children. It is good to learn that in spite of all difficulties progress is being made in the matter of the provision of hospital accommodation for complicated cases of confinement or complications arising after parturition either in the mother or the infant, and also for infants found in need of in-patient treatment.

Sir Arthur Newsholme very rightly insists that this is work which requires to be extended until there is provided within a reasonable distance of her home, hospital provision for the woman who needs it on account of complications of pregnancy or labour, or on account of the unsuitability of home circumstances for a satisfactory confinement." The information relating to the statistics of births in London are of special interest. Of a total of 101,649 births in the County of London in 1915, between 9,000 and 10,000 occurred in institutions, 19,738 were attended at their homes by medical students or midwives connected with institutions, 32,461 were attended at their own homes by midwives, an average of 86:1 cases to each midwife; and 38,000 to 40,000 were attended by private practitioners, a large proportion of these being among the poorer classes of the population. There were 495 midwives who notified their intention to practise in London

in 1915, but of these u8 were working in connection with institutions, leaving 377 actually in practice, of whom only 48 were not midwives by examination. Sir Arthur Newsholme is of opinion that “the low mortality from other causes of mortality in connection with child-bearing, other than puerperal sepsis, is due to the ample provision made for attention to complicated midwifery in London.” It is sad to read that “this satisfactory provision does not obtain as a rule throughout England and Wales, and particularly in the smaller town areas.” It is unsatisfactory also to find that the notified cases of ophthalmia neonatorum were more numerous in England and Wales in 1916 than in 1915. In 1916 these amounted to 7,613, thus giving a rate of 9.69 per 1,000 births. Maternity and child welfare work is of paramount importance, but unfortunately relatively slow progress is being made. This Sir Arthur Newsholme makes clear by a reference to compulsory action required by the Board's regulations for the treatment of venereal diseases : “ These gave a grant of 75 per cent., as compared with 50 per cent. for child welfare schemes, and they made the provision of schemes for the control of these diseases obligatory, with the result that within a year an amount of work has been commenced which, in proportion to the total needs, is much greater than has been effected for maternity and child welfare."

MEMORANDA. The recent German raids on London have led to the development of various means for safeguarding citizens, and particularly to the provision of centres for the protection and care of women and children. The London County Council have arranged with the police authorities for the regulated use of certain of its school buildings for a limited number of people wishing to take shelter during air raids at night. The Council does not guarantee the absolute safety of any of its buildings, nor does it advise people to leave their own homes and risk the dangers of the streets in order to take shelter in the school buildings. In view, however, of the public demand for the use of the school buildings at night, the Council emphasize the following points : (1)

At a

Schools approved for shelter at night will be indicated by the display of a poster. (2) On school days the public cannot be admitted to the schools before 5 p.m., as the whole of the cover provided in the school buildings is required for the children in attendance. (3) The public should not enter the school buildings at night before the official warning is given, and they should leave directly the “All clear" signal is given. (4) Those who take shelter in the school buildings at night should remember that these buildings have to be used on the following day for the education of children; they should, therefore, do their utmost to see that no damage is done to the buildings, furniture, fittings, or apparatus. They should keep the rooms they use as clean as possible and should not leave paper or other litter behind them. (5) The use of the schools at night will be regulated by special constables and the schoolkeepers, and their instructions should be quickly and quietly obeyed. (6) When the number of people admitted at night reaches the maximum who can be accommodated with safety, the gates will be locked and a notice with the words “Full up” displayed. (7) Where the public demand exists, and arrangements can be made with the police for supervision, additional school buildings will be thrown open for shelter during night raids. (8) Persons taking shelter in the Council's buildings do so at their own risk.

The Elementary Education Sub-Committee of the L.C.C. announce that 250 schools have been approved as public shelters after 5 p.m. The St. John Ambulance Brigade will render help at schools used by the public at night, and the Commissioner of Police has arranged to advise the Council before requiring the use of any particular school building for the shelter of the public at night. On the architect's report the Sub-Committee dismiss as impracticable the suggestion of sandbags as protection for the roof of one-storey buildings and arches.

The question of the emigration of boys and girls to our Overseas Dominions after the War is already receiving the attention of far-seeing statesmen. Mr. Bruce Walker, the Commissioner of Immigration, Winnipeg, Manitoba, has recently been in this country and has discussed the subject with many inter

ested in the emigration of children to Canada. Mr. Walker states that for some time past the Canadian Government has been giving earnest consideration to the subject of the immigration of British boys and girls to the Dominion when peace shall have been restored. Mr. Bruce Walker, of the Department of the Interior, was commissioned by his Government to visit the principal ChildMigration Societies in the United Kingdom with a view to stimulating the flow of suitable children to Canada. meeting of representatives of the leading societies engaged in the emigration of children in this country Mr. Bruce Walker gave a definite promise that the Canadian Government would in future send reports on children to the societies concerned. He promised also that the Government should satisfy the local authorities in England that the wages and other benefits received by the children in Canada were adequate. There seems reason to believe that the Canadian Government will give financial help, probably by means of grants, toward the upkeep of receiving and distributing homes in Canada. Canada will welcome healthy children, but very naturally Canadians want them to come young, between 7 and 10, so that they may grow up loyal citizens of the Dominion.

The Report of Mr. G. Bogue Smart, Chief Inspector of British Immigrant Children and Receiving Homes, for the year ending March 31, 1916, is issued from Ottawa as part of Part II of the Annual Report of the Department of Interior of the Dominion of Canada. It is a particularly valuable survey of the present state of the Juvenile Immigration Movement so far as Canada is concerned. All interested in the question of emigration of boys and girls to the Dominion should study this informing Report.

The National War Savings Committee report that the practice of presenting War Savings Certificates as school prizes is becoming very general. Here is a suggestion which should be borne in mind when selecting a serviceable Christmas present for boys and girls. The headquarters of the National War Savings Committee are at Salisbury Square, Fleet Street, E.C.4.



During this period of supreme testing our journal will endeavour to render every possible assistance to

National Associations and Societies, Hospitals, Homes and Orphanages, and all agencies working for child welfare and desirous of publishing particulars regarding their plans, purposes and activities for rendering special assistance to childhood and youth in these days of stress and strain. Particulars should be sent, in as clear and condensed a form as possible, to the Editor, with copies of any publications, appeals, &c., which are being issued to the public.

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ing school for boys desirous of entering on a sea-going life or taking up avocation in the engineering trades. Arrangements have been made whereby preference shall be granted to the sons of men of the Welsh Regiment who have fallen in the War. Another valuable extension of the work of the N.C.H.O. is at Sheringham, in Norfolk, where an additional house has been obtained for the daughters of sailors and soldiers who have been killed. A Home in the West is about to be opened at Newquay, in Cornwall, consisting of two excellent houses well adapted for the requirements of children. This Marine Branch will be of the greatest service to necessitous children in Cornwall and Devon. The N.C.H.O. has various other important developments in hand necessitated by the heavy demands of these sacrificial days. In this national work there is an unrivalled opportunity for service. Full particulars regarding the work and the needs of the N.C.H.O. may be obtained on application to the Headquarters, 104-122, City Road, E.C.1.

that this should include sanitary law and practice, personal hygiene, artisan domestic economy, child study and psychology, and maternal and child welfare. The Association does all in its power to ensure an adequate salary being paid by all local authorities, realizing that public health work, which is extremely arduous and requires good education and specialized training, deserves to be adequately recompensated. Further particulars regarding the work of the W.S.I. and H.V.A. may be obtained from the Hon. Secretary, Miss A. M. Dick, at the Central Offices, 12, Buckingham Street, Strand, W.C.2.






VISITORS' ASSOCIATION. This Association was established in 1902. Its aims are to safeguard the interests and improve the status of women sanitary inspectors and health visitors, and to promote the interchange of such knowledge of sanitary and social science as is likely to be of assistance to them and others. Membership is now open to superintendents of maternity and child welfare centres and tuberculosis visitors duly appointed by local authorities. In order to keep members informed on all new developments of public health work, whether it be sanitary science or social economics, monthly meetings are held at the Royal Sanitary Institute, which speakers on special subjects are invited to address. The Association has always endeavoured to improve the training and status of women in the Public Health Service, and has recently urged the Local Government Board to insist on a better and more comprehensive training for women health officials. It was suggested

The Metropolitan Borough of St. Pancras has for long taken an active part in furthering child welfare work. Under the St. Pancras Public Welfare Association endeavours for child protection and betterment are being successfully extended. Each winter before the War the Association held a winter conference, at which all the papers read were by local workers, since it is the needs and possibilities of its own borough with which the Association is particularly concerned. At one conference “ The Care of Children from Birth to the age of Seven” was discussed, and papers were read on the aims and possibilities of such institutions as schools for mothers and nursery schools. Another year “ The Care of Young People on and after Leaving School” was considered. The Boy Scout and Girl Guides movement and club organizations were discussed, and the needs of the borough with regard to these specially considered. To give one example of the practical outcome of such conferences a successful corps of Girl Guides now flourishes in the poorest district of the borough, though membership involves jeers and mudpelting when the members appear in uniform in the streets where they live. A conference on “Recreation ” led to the development of many healthy occupations. An annual window-garden competition, judged and rewarded by the Metropolitan Gardens Association, is organized in many streets through the local visitors, and is now being extended

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