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scientific student of mankind. The book stimulates thought and will arouse discussion. Every teacher and all educationists should thoughtfully follow the arguments so lucidly and so logically and yet so startlingly set forth in these pages.
The Play Way: An Essay in Educational Method." By H. Caldwell Cook, M.A. Pp. xvi + 367. With frontispiece, 27 illustrations and map. London: William Heinemann, 21, Bedford Street, W.C. 2. 1917. Price 8s. 6d. net.
This is a bold, original, suggestive and intensely interesting contribution to schoolmastery and educational methods. It is based on experiments carried out at the Perse School, Cambridge, and the volume is appropriately dedicated to the Head Master, Dr. W. H. D. Rouse. The author's points of view are best set forth by a few brief quotations: "Instead of leaving a child to gain wisdom by painful as well as pleasant experience, it is well to let him try as much as he can for himself under guidance. It would not be wise to send a child innocent into the big world, and talking is of poor avail. But it is possible to hold rehearsals, to try our strength in a makebelieve big world. And that is play. The main concern in a child's life is that manifold business understood clearly by him, and dimly by his elders, as play. It must have occurred to every one that since a child's life under his own direction is conducted all in play, whatever else we want to interest him in should be carried on in that medium, or, at the very least, connected with play as closely as possible. . . I know of nothing so whole-hearted, so thorough, so natural, so free from stain, so earnest, as the spontaneous playing of a child. . . . The child is the true amateur, he does a thing for the love of it. Among all workers he is the player, and alone is fit to stand beside the genuine artist, the self-sacrificing physician, and the inspired poet or seer. . . . The teacher works, whether consciously or sciously, on his own lines, and not in and for his children. . . . Let us remember that without interest there is no learning, and since the child's interest is all in play it is necessary, whatever
the matter in hand, that the method be a play method. . . . It is the core of my faith that the only work worth doing is really play; for by play I mean the doing anything with one's heart in it.
The play way is not a bunch of contrivances for making scholarly pursuits pleasurable, but the active philosophy of making pleasurable pursuits valuable. . . . To do anything with interest, to get at the heart of the matter and live there active-that is play. . . . The play way is an endeavour to achieve right conduct in a true blend of the functioning of all man's powers. . . Play, as I mean it, goes far deeper than study; it passes beyond reasoning, and, lightening up the chambers of the imagination, quickens the body of thought, and proves all things in action. . . . Elaborately we reason it out that if play is the doing anything with one's heart in it, a man's life-work is play, and all lesser works are only to be justified by their contributing, in greater or less degree, to this greatest work-which must be play." These quotations will be sufficient to indicate the principles which underlie the practices so ably expounded in this remarkably unconventional and progressive revelation of a system of freedom to develop along natural lines. In regard to the general method of the play way, Mr. Cook lays down certain definite postulates: "The method of study is quite as important as the matter studied. . Direct instruction is only a small part of what can take place in the classroom. ... Self-government is not a matter of discipline only, but a condition which makes it possible for the boys to learn by themselves in actual lessons.
If boys are to be taught by means of play the master must have a genuine interest in the play. . . . One of the first qualities of a playmaster is tact. The basis of educational method must be a regard for the pupil's interests. Under a natural system of education there can be no absolute standard of discipline. Right behaviour is a relative condition to be determined by its appropriateness to the occasion." A high ideal is unfolded in the chapter on "Selfgovernment," a chapter which deserves the serious consideration of every educationist. A particularly suggestive chapter
describes the system of Littleman Lectures, which has proved so effective at the Perse School: "The boys come out one at a time and speak to the class for a few minutes on subjects of their own choosing. The lectures may be either prepared or extempore. One member of the class acts as chairman and announces the speaker, another goes about to discover who is ready to speak next and upon what subject, and a third official at the close of each lecture ascertains the marks. The marks are apportioned by the boys of the class voting with a show of hands." Schoolmasters will find much original material for mental digestion in the chapter entitled " Ilonds and Chap Books." "An Ilond is one of those dreamlands which all children imagine and love to tell stories of." A special chapter is devoted to "Playtown," which is essentially an out-of-school occupation, and striking illustrations show at a glance the far-reaching scope of this section of the Play Way. Schoolmasters of all classes will find much of value in the study on "Acting Shakespeare in the Classroom," and the following chapter on "Miming and the Ballads" opens a new world of educational possibilities. One of the most valuable chapters of the whole book is that entitled Playmaking," and itself makes the book one which no teacher can afford to neglect. The concluding chapter is on "The Subject Teacher," and contains much food for thought. The whole book is an innovation. It will arouse discussion and that must be advantageous. Many will scoff and condemn and turn away hardened in their faith in traditions and conventionalities. But to seekers for enlightenment and searchers for sure roads of educational progress the book will come as a revelation of undreamt of possibilities. And to all liberal-minded progressive educationists this unique book will provide stimulus and suggestions for the conduct of experiments which are rich in promise for the future.
"The Camp School." By Margaret McMillan, C.B.E. Pp. 178, with frontispiece. London: George Allen and Unwin, Ltd., Ruskin House, 40, Museum Street, W.C. 1. 1917. Price 3s. 6d. net.
Miss Margaret McMillan is a pioneer whom it is a duty to honour, and her
vision, understanding, and inexhaustible faith and powers for service have accomplished much, and her teaching and example have energized many disciples. All workers for child welfare will gratefully welcome this interesting and suggestive record of experiments for the protection, education and general betterment of necessitous children. In these days of reconstruction, readjustment, and advancement, all educationists should carefully study this little book. We specially commend it to the consideration of school medical officers and all medical advisers to institutions of every class dealing with the care and instruction of the children of the poor. Miss McMillan records in much fascinating detail the history of her courageously conducted and eminently successful experiments for child betterment in Deptford. The story of the evolution and conduct of the school clinic, the girls' and boys' camps, and the baby camp is delightfully told. There is sound practical wisdom in all the records. This book shows what one woman with vision, sympathy and understanding can accomplish for child welfare with the minimum of expense and the maximum of advantage. We wish all school managers could be induced to read this book, and if every member of a local education authority was made to pass an examination on it much permanent good would accrue. Miss McMillan works for the coming of a brighter era, but before this can come much hard pioneering has to be accomplished. Her views and experiences should be of incalculable value in the establishment of the new nursery schools on right lines: "England has a nursery population of over 1,000,000, and she needs an army of at least 30,000 trained nurses to give nurture to these in their earliest years." This is a large order to begin with. And "the nurses' training school should include infant psychology, voice production, singing, language teaching, and the art of helping young children in their early speech. Story-telling, gardening, and Nature knowledge-all this should be grafted on to a physiological training. On every staff there should be one nurse able to give massage and remedial exercises." Miss McMillan is an enthusiast, but her life and that of her devoted sister, the late Miss Rachel McMillan
after whom the baby camp has been named-have been given to endeavours to secure the fulfilment of dreams, many of which are now coming true. The volume is dedicated "To the School Teachers of Bradford," and it is addressed "to those who are planning a new order of future for the children of the Empire."
"Knock Three Times!' By Marion St. John Webb. Illustrated by Margaret W. Tarrant. Pp. 284. London: George G. Harrap and Company, 2 and 3, Portsmouth Street, Kingsway, W.C. 1917. Price 5s. net.
This handsome big book, with its large pages, clear type, and cleverly drawn coloured illustrations, should prove a popular Christmastide gift-book. It is a delightful fairy-tale of the sort beloved by young children. The story is graphically told of the wonderful adventures of twins, Jack and Molly, in their excursion from the Impossible Land. The mystery of the Great Pumpkin and the records of all that befell make fascinating reading for imaginative little folk. The book is delightfully got up and deserves a wide circulation.
"Hygiene and Public Health." By Sir Arthur Whitelegge, K.C.B., M.D., B.Sc., F.R.C.P., D.P.H., and Sir George Newman, M.D., D.P.H., F.R.S.E. Thirteenth Edition. Revised and Enlarged. Pp. xi + 796, with 77 illustrations and diagrams. London: Cassell and Company, Ltd., La Belle Sauvage, E.C. 4. 1917. Price 10s. 6d. net.
This well-known and justly prized handbook first made its appearance in 1890, and it has undergone progressive revision and enlargement until to-day it appears in its thirteenth edition as the most complete, concise, serviceable and up-to-date manual on subjects of hygiene and public health available for the hardworked student and busy practitioner. The book is one which should be in the hands of all those engaged in any branch of preventive medicine. There is an excellent chapter on "Schools and School Hygiene," and the memorandum on "Schools and Infectious Disease," issued
jointly by the Local Government Board and the Board of Education, is reproduced. Informing sections also appear on the "Medical Inspection and Treatment of School Children. The volume provides reliable direction regarding the application of modern methods of preventive medicine to infant care and child welfare. The chapter on "Vital Statistics" contains valuable data regarding population, age and sex distribution, birth-rate, with a full presentation of the essential features of infant mortality. The preparation of the present edition has fallen entirely on Sir George Newman, who, amidst the pressure of many duties, has succeeded in making the work thoroughly representative and authoritative. Every medical adviser should have a copy of this invaluable work available for frequent reference.
"Women as Munition Makers: A Study of Conditions in Bridgeport, Connecticut, by Amy Hewes, and Munition Workers in England and France: A Summary of Reports issued by the British Ministry of Munitions," by Henriette R. Walter, Investigator Division of Industrial Studies, Russell Sage Foundation. Pp. viii + 158. New York City: Russell Sage Foundation, 130 East 22nd Street. 1917. Price 75 cents net.
The Russell Sage Foundation has accomplished notable service by the issue of many valuable publications relating to educational, hygienic, and economic questions. It would now seem as though the Foundation was to still further justify its existence and its service to all by the issue of monographs dealing with war problems. The present monograph will appeal to workers on both sides of the Atlantic. Miss Hewes's study is luminous, and should go far to indicate to Americans how the health of their women workers many be conserved. It shows also how hard-gained labour laws may be protected and the ills associated with congestion of living prevented, or at least mitigated. The monograph deals with Cartridge Making and its Dangers, Hours of Labour and Night Work Wages, and the Effects on Women at Home. There is also a suggestive chapter on "City and State Programmes." Miss Walter has
provided an excellent summary which, while it provides Americans with serviceable information regarding conditions and regulations in regard to munition workers in England and France, will be of no little value to welfare supervisors and others striving for the safeguarding of war workers in this land. There is a useful bibliography.
"Adventures in Magic Land, and Other Tales." By Dorothy Black. Illustrated by Florence Anderson. Pp. 111. London: George G. Harrap and Company. 1917. Price 3s. net.
Here is a fascinating collection of cleverly told fairy-tales. Generation after generation come and go, but the delight in magic and longing for the supernatural springs afresh in the mind of every natural child. This longing for the occult seems firmly based in primitive instincts. And it is to be hoped fairylore and wonderland will not cease to exercise spells on the imagination of our children. Such a delightful volume as this will go far to accomplish our desires.
Girls' Club Journal. Issued in February, May, and October by the Federation of Working Girls' Clubs, 26, George Street, Hanover Square, W. 1. Single copy, 4d. Annual subscription, post free, 1s.
This periodical is addressed to "workers and those interested in the Girls' Club Movement." The October issue was an "Educational Number." The articles are thoroughly practical, and include communications on "The Girls' Club of the Future," "The Relation of Girls' Clubs to the Education Authority," "The Educational Use of the School Garden," and "The Workers' Educational Association Villages." There are also numerous helpful notes.
Meccano Magazine. Published periodically by Meccano, Ltd., Binns Road, Liverpool.
Meccano is a source of limitless instruction and amusement. The manufacturers of Meccano are now issuing an illustrated periodical containing notes and suggestions which will be of service to all who make use of this ingenious
and fascinating medium for constructive recreation. A copy of each of the next eight issues will be sent on application being made for the same, together with 4d. in stamps.
Science Progress. A Quarterly Review of Scientific Thought Work and Affairs." Edited by Sir Ronald Ross, K.C.B., F.R.S., N.L., D.Sc., LL.D., M.D., F.R.C.S. Published by John Murray, 50A, Albemarle Street, W. 1. Price single number, 5s. net. Annual subscription, post free £1 net.
This authoritative and comprehensive review is one which no progressive educationist cannot afford to neglect. Each issue contains a number of concise summaries of recent advances in science, each written by a well-known expert. There are also several important signed original articles. Special features are the series of notes, essays, essay-reviews, and reviews. The journal has now reached its forty-sixth number, and under the statesmanlike direction of Sir Ronald Ross is increasing in value, power and influence. As one would expect from the famous house of Murray, the journal is produced in first-class form.
"The Fiery Cross," by John Oxenham, published by Methuen and Co., Ltd., Essex Street, Strand, W.C.2 (price: paper covers, IS. net; cloth, 2s.; yapp leather, 3s. 6d.), will carry comfort and inspiration to all strivers for liberty and righteousness. Mr. Oxenham has accomplished a noble patriotic service by his soul-stirring little volumes of appealing poems: "Bees in Amber," "All Well," "The King's High Way," "The Vision Splendid," and now in this latest collection he has given us of his best. The volume is dedicated "To all who feel the vital need for a return to God and a higher spiritual life throughout the world," and the author urges that a complete readjustment of values and of vision is needed, now, at once. These glimpses into the Kingdom of Realities will quicken the divine powers and purposes which slumber in every soul. We anticipate for this soul-stirring pocket volume a world-wide influence for the Cause of Christ and His Cross.
Space for correspondence is necessarily limited. Communications containing suggestions, serviceable information, criticism, and anything likely to be of general interest or value should be condensed into a short letter. Writers must in all cases give their name and address, although not necessarily for publication.
TREASURE BAGS FOR WOUNDED
SIR,-In reply to your request for information as to the way in which children and their parents and teachers can help me in my work of providing hospital bags for our unfortunate wounded and sick officers and men, I cannot do better than give the following description. When a man is. wounded, he is first admitted to a casualty clearing station, where his uniform is removed, and the contents of his pockets placed on the floor beside his bed, or under his pillow; his personal possessions, such as money, watch, letters, treasured trophies, pay sheet (the loss of the latter means delay in getting pay), are soon scattered and may easily be lost unless the nurses have a bag available in which to put them. A man is often in three or four different hospitals before reaching England, and our hospital bags have proved the sole method by which his belongings can be safeguarded during the various stages of his homeward journey. We believe many children in the Christmastide holidays will be delighted to help us in this good work. A few suggestions may be of service: Bags when finished should measure about 12 x 14 in. They can be made of unbleached calico or any new, strong, washing material, but cretonne is preferred by the wounded. Labels of white glazed calico should be affixed; they should measure 2 × 4 in., and be put on 2 in. from the bottom of bags and strongly sewn on all round. The two tapes must be run in separately, not one tape run round twice. As long as there is some capable grown person to cut out the material, the smallest children should be able to make up perfectly serviceable bags. As a matter of fact many thousand boys and girls all over our great Empire, both at home and abroad, have been
making these hospital bags for a long time, thus helping very materially to supply the enormous demands of the hospital authorities. To comply with the demands we require an average of 4,000 hospital bags a day, or 120,000 a month, and it will be easily understood that such large numbers can only be forthcoming if widespread assistance is available. I know how difficult it is to procure material, and further, that prices are constantly rising, but we buy suitable stuff in large quantities and retail at cost price to anyone who sends orders direct to our depot. At the present moment we are able to provide cretonne at 8d. a yard; tape at is. 9d. a 100 yards; and labels at 44d. a 100 (post free 71d.). The sum of 8s. 3d. will procure, post free, sufficient material for thirty bags. We are always ready to send a pattern bag and instructions, post free, and also to answer any letters asking questions. It is a great pleasure to be able to bring this suggestion before the friends and supporters of THE CHILD.
[We earnestly commend Lady SmithDorrien's pathetic appeal and wise suggestion. The making of these "Treasure Bags" by children both at home and in school will not only accomplish a much needed beneficent work for our brave soldiers, but will serve to quicken sympathy and practical service among our coming citizens. Further particulars regarding the Hospital Bag Scheme and Fund may be obtained on making application to Lady Smith-Dorrien, 26, Pont Street, S.W.1 (Tel.: Kensington 1072).— Editor, THE CHILD.]
AN EDUCATIONAL GARDEN.
SIR, I gladly comply with your request for information regarding our Educational Garden, which has for several