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all suspicion in the mind of the average member of the public." Should a State censorship be decided upon, the Commissioners recommend that it should be constituted under the following conditions : (1) One censor should be appointed for the United Kingdom, not by a State Department, but by his Majesty in Council, and the person so appointed should not necessarily be a Civil servant, but one who will bring to the discharge of his duties adequate knowledge and generous appreciation of the people whose interests are primarily to be considered. (2) An advisory Council, representative of public interests, should be appdinted to whom the censor may apply in matters of doubt and difficulty. (3) While the appointment of the examiners should be in the hands of the censor, the advisory

council should be consulted, and out of • the advisory council a small executive

should be chosen, with whom the censor should be in constant touch. (4) The expense of the censorship should be charged on the Parliamentary estimates. (5) This censorship should be made final, and supersede all local censorships. Pending the adoption of such recommendations it is recommended that the present censorship should be continued with some modifications. The Commissioners say : There is a growing recognition by the trade that in its own interests, apart even from higher considerations to which the leaders of the industry, we are assured, are not indifferent, such reproach brought against the character of the films shown should be removed as speedily as possible. The hands of the censor in giving effect to his decisions are strength. ened by local authorities when they make a condition of licensing a picture-house that it should show only films on the white list, issued by the trade, and also by the public if they refuse to enter a house which does not restrict itself to films on this list. An advisory council, as previously described, should be appointed as soon as possible by mutual agreement of the censor and the Commission. The trade censorship should apply only to films exhibited for public entertainment and recreation. Any film for social, moral, or religious propaganda, to be shown under such conditions as may be specified by the promot

ing society, should not be subject to such censorship, but should be exhibited on the entire responsibility of the reputable public society the objects of which it is used to serve. Where the exhibition of such a film in a picture-house is desired, the trade censor shall consult the advisory council regarding such exhibition. A similar consideration should be shown by him to any film submitted by a producer not connected with the trade, which has a serious educational, literary, or artistic intention. The report is signed by the Bishop of Birmingham (President), the Rev. Alfred E. Garvie (Vice-President), the Rev. James Marchant (Secretary), and with one exception by all the members of the Commission. Mr. T. P. O'Connor, M.P., owing to his absence

an important political mission in America, was away from the later meetings of the Commission when the report was being prepared, and it has been found impracticable to communicate with him in order to obtain his signature. Mr. A. E, Newbould, Mr. Sidney Lambert, and Mr. W. Gavazzi King, the three representatives of the cinema industry sitting on the Commission, in giving their support to the findings generally, desired to make it clear that they supported the principle of State censorship on the lines indicated by the Commission as an ideal to be worked for. They expressly reserve for the industry the right to oppose any attempt to set up this form of censorship without the provision of adequate safeguards against its many possible disadvantages and dangers. We understand that manufacturers of cinematograph films and those responsible for the conduct of cinemas are already raising objections to certain of the above recommendations. We shall be glad to have our readers' views regarding the desirability or otherwise of appointing a State censor. ship for cinemas.





ESSAYS. As a part of the Baby Week enterprise arrangements were made for the conduct of an Essay Competition for children attending elementary schools. Something like 180,000 essays were sent in: The subject for the boy's was “ Why I should


kill that fly," and for the girls, “How I mind our baby.”. Special lessons were given on both subjects in the schools during Baby Week, and leaflets distributed among the children. The best essays were selected by the head teachers of each school and submitted for judgment to the National Baby Week Council. Of the total selected, thirty-four essays (fifteen by boys and nineteen by girls) were awarded more than 95 marks out of 100, and 130 between 80 and 95 marks. The examiners state that on the whole the boys' essays were of a higher standard than those of the girls. The following is the first prize essay, written by Leonard Foster, aged 12, of Goodmayes School, Ilford, and it was illustrated by neatlydrawn sketches showing the anatomy and habits of the fly : “ Look at this wonderfully made .creature, with such delicate gauzy wings. Ah! but this wonderfully made creature is one of the greatest pests to mankind. It is a fly, and carries about with it thousands of disease germs. The fy's legs are covered with large numbers of bristly hairs, to which numerous germs become attached, while more of them get fixed on to the glue-pads, which are to be found at the ends of the legs. So it stands to reason that the fly must carry many germs on its legs alone, for when it goes on a rubbish heap the filth must stick to its feet and legs, and this would very likely be dropped on our food. Many people are not aware of the way the fly consumes its food. After settling on various things, including dustbins and refuse heaps, collecting numerous disease germs, the fly gains entrance to a house. It finds its way into the pantry or anywhere where eatables are kept, and alights on some of the food. As it is unable to bite things, Nature has provided it with a sucker, or, as we call it, a trunk. Before it can suck up the food, it has to moisten it. This it does by vomiting, or regurgitating the filth it has previously sucked up. Sometimes a bubble, as large as its head, may be seen hanging from its trunk, and this it draws in and out with gusto. This bubble, if the fly is disturbed, is left on our food, and, as this contains thousands of bacteria, the result may be easily imagined. We should therefore screen our food, especially milk. Very likely the milk is meant for a baby, and therefore it takes

into its system, not only the milk, but the germs.

These disease germs are likely to upset the baby, and in some cases it is taken ill, and dies. No wonder we are told to kill that fly.' People should burn all animal and vegetable refuse, and tea leaves, and no rubbish should be left about. Do not hesitate to kill a fly, but kill it quickly, and do not be cruel. .1 fly carries many kinds of diseases about. One single fly, in the course of seven weeks, will produce no less than three-quarters of a million fies. Therefore, kill that fly.' It is the duty of everybody to get rid of this pest, and make the future generation strong and robust, to make up for the terrible waste of life during this great war." The best essay on “How I mind our baby written by Betty Mc Micken, aged 10, of Highway Vale School, Conewood Road, V., and is as follows : “ We have a little baby at home, who laughs and crows so gleefully that people smile when they look at her, but my sisters generally say, Oh, baby is tiresome!' I love little baby, and it is my greatest delight when I can nurse her and play being''mother' to her. This is how I begin : I lift baby gently out of her cradle, and then sit down. With one hand I support her back, while with the other I hold her feet. Baby's back is very weak still, and on no account must it be bent. The long chain of bones, called the spine or backbone,' should be kept straight while she is young, for if her back became bent it might never get right again. Mother is always reminding me to be careful not to hurt baby's head. Why is this? It is because baby's head is very soft, and if any harm should come to her head it would be very serious, for under her soft little head is her brain ! 'It is time for baby's bath,' said mother. “Can I bath baby?' I cried, but mother said “No,' and so I had to look on,' as my sisters say. First, mother prepared the bath. She half filled it with hot water, and then poured in enough cold water to be suitable for baby. Then she tested it with her elbow, and finding it ‘just nice,' she got baby ready. Clean clothes hung round the fire, and the room was very warm. Mother lifted baby gently on to her lap and undressed her. She then wrapped a towel round her, and gently sponged her little face and hands and


feet, and dried them. Shall I hand you her clothes, mother?' I asked, and mother said “Yes.' A woollen vest was put on, and over that baby's warm flannel nightgown. Baby was carried upstairs and laid in her cradle. She was soon fast asleep, tired, but contented. Next morning I asked mother if I could take baby out. ‘Yes, soon,' said mother. Mother then sat down and held baby close to her breast. Mother told me that this was called being 'breast fed.' I will go and dress baby,' I said. Baby's little woolly clothes were then put on. A little woollen hat adorned her baby head, and a shawl was wrapped around her. Then she was laid, in her perambulator and covered up. Proudly I went into the streets and wheeled the 'pram' up and down, whilst baby cooed with delight at the birds. Dear little baby! Let us hope that you may live to see other beautiful countries in this wide, wide world! We will hope, too, that you may grow up to be a good child, a good woman, and a kind mother, for perhaps you, too, will have little children.

“ But how did you come to us, baby dear ?". “God thought about you, and so I am here."

We have reproduced these essays here because they furnish striking evidence of what may be accomplished in instructing children in principles and practices connected with the general welfare of the nation. We venture to suggest that this very successful experiment might with advantage be initiated in many parts of the country.

No doubt there are many who would be glad to offer to their respective local education authorities means whereby such competitions might be effectively carried out during the coming winter.

by 'permiiting folly in the present. The President of the Board of Education has recently stated that something like 600,000 children have had their education curtailed in order that they might assist the country in the War. Many of these have suffered permanent injury to their educational growth. Efforts should be made to provide these children with facilities for recovering something of what they have lost. Much can be learnt from endeavours which are being carried out on statesmanlike lines in the United States of America. The National Child Labour Committee (Incorporated), 105, East 22nd Street, New York City, have for long given much attention to the problems of work as they relate to child labour. The Committee have recently issued a pamphlet (No 276) bearing the title “ What shall we do for the Children in Time of llar?” On its front page appears the following : “In Great Britain after two years of war, a Committee on Health of Munition Workers found it necessary to say : “At the present time when war is destroying so much of its best manhood, the nation is under special obligation to secure that the rising generation grows up strong and hardy, both in body and character. It is necessary to guard not only against immediate breakdown, but also against the imposition of strains that may stunt future growth and development.' The tract then goes on to the following statement : "In Europe in the stress of sudden warfare, the children were, for the moment, forgotten. In Great Britain, for instance,

some of the first economies were in the educational system. School buildings were taken over for military purposes; teachers enlisted; repairs, building, appropriations, and supplies were cut down; evening schools, medical inspection, school dentistry, and free lunches were stopped or cut down; and the age limits for schooling were changed so that 300,000 little children 5 or under who had been in school were turned out, while thousands of children of 11 and 12 were excused from school to go to work. The laws governing hours of labour in munition plants were broken down. Club work, settlement work, and general child welfare work were crippled or stopped. The results are : Thousands of children in England are without teachers or schools; at least 150,000 chi



War has greatly increased the number of child labourers. In all the lands of belligerent nations children and adolescents are bearing heavy burdens. It is only right and fair that children should share in the sacrifice and service which are demanded of all. But it is essential that they be protected from undue stress and unjustifiable strain. The children of to-day have to be the citizens of tomorrow, and we can prejudice the future


dren between 1 and 13 have left school ments, recreation centres, health boards, to go to work. Sir James Yoxall said juvenile protective associations, child in Parliament : 'A large portion of our welfare and child labour committees, and elementary school system is in ruins--I other organizations that it has taken will not say as desolate as the ruins of years to build up to be destroyed." Mr. Louvain, but there is to some extent a Owen R. Lovejoy, the General Secretary, likeness.' Sidney Webb predicts that : has summed up the situation thus : “ Those

Peace will involve almost the remaking of us who have dedicated ourselves to the of the nation's educational machinery.' protection of these defenceless ones must Juvenile delinquency in England has in- keep our heads clear and our motives uncreased at least 34 per cent. since the mixed, determining that whatever happens War began. The Health of Munition all other forms of treasure, all other Workers Committee has found it neces- forms of wealth, all other methods of desary to recommend that children should fence shall be sacrificed before we compel not be employed more than 12 hours a the children of America to pass through day, or at night. This same Committee the fire." The National Child Labour has stated that ' The munition workers in Committee has also issued an important general have been allowed to reach a communication :


War Measure : state of reduced efficiency and lowered Children in Farm Work and School health which might have been avoided Gardens." It unfolds a plan whereby without reduction of output by attention children, if required, may be made the to the details of daily and weekly rest.' best use of, under supervision at home or And this Committee says that children on farms, without suffering harm. The are drawing on their strength,' and is plan is offered after conference with the anxious to know what will become of Directors of the Playground Association them after the War. Reports from other and Boy Scouts of America, the New belligerent countries

meagre, but

York Commissioner of Education, and apparently conditions are much the same. the Food Problems Committee of the In Berlin in 1915 there were twice as Merchants' Association. It applies to two many crimes committed by children as in classes of children : (1) Boys 14 years old 1914. A newspaper in Budapest reports and over, who may legally be hired out that in that city alone there are 3,000 re- to farmers or sent away from home in gistered munition workers under 12 years groups to work in farm districts. (No of age.” The question is then asked : girls under 18 should be sent to farms “What shall we do in America ?" and under any conditions.) The National it is urged that workers for the welfare Child Labour Committee are of opinion and development of American children, that no boys under 16 are wanted on can help to preserve the American ideal farms, and additional proof has been reof child protection in supporting the ceived from the Grange Masters of New following : "(1) Oppose all attempts to York State, 75 per cent. of whom say, in break down the school system in your reply to a questionnaire, that they do not vicinity either by relaxing enforcement of want city children. (2) Children under compulsory education laws or by cutting 14, who would be a burden to farmers down school funds. Arnold Bennett said because of inexperience and youth, but in England under like circumstances : may work at home, trained and super'Education is the very last thing we vised in school gardens. The following ought to economize in.' (2) Oppose all · is advised for the younger children : (1) attempts to break down the labour laws Organize teachers, boy scout leaders, of your state, either by giving young playground directors, and others interchildren special permits to work, or by ested in child welfare, into a Summer exempting certain establishments from Agricultural Faculty. (2) Call upon the laws limiting hours of labour. In holders of vacant properties to dedicate England where they relaxed the enforce- them for the summer to school gardens ment of the laws they have found 'too for the raising of vegetables, suitable to big a price is being paid for the output.' soil and location. Your state agricul(3) Support as usual local and national tural department will co-operate with social agencies. Do not allow settle- you, if need be, to secure seeds and im

the farmers. The Boy Scouts of America have agreed to supervise camps established in farm districts. Local authorities will be glad to provide transportation from camps to farms, and the boys may work in gangs, in one field one day, in another the next, and returned to camp after work. In this way both work and living conditions will be supervised and farmers will not have the responsibility and cost of housing them. Similar camps may be established under playground or Y.M.C.A. directors, probation or school officers; but be sure you know where the children live and how." The statement is made that : “ England is already wishing she had not used her children so recklessly at the beginning of the War." The plan outlined here has been endorsed by the Chief of the Children's Bureau, Secretary of Labour, U.S. Commission of Education, governors, and state school officials.

plements, or these may be provided by local subscription. (3) Raise a small fund to hire these plots ploughed and roughly prepared for use. (4) Get a special resolution from your School Board providing that all children who register for this agricultural service under supervision of the Board and perform the work regularly, shall be given credit for it as a part of regular school work. But allow no exemption that will turn children out of school. (5) Organize the children in classes and put them on these home plots under direction of competent supervisors, the Summer Agricultural Faculty mentioned above, who will appreciate the limits of a child's strength and will not permit him to be overworked or school attendance to be interfered with. For older children it is suggested that to send any boys to farms without knowing the actual need for them or without regulation would be wasteful and a hindrance to the farmers who do not want a horde of inexperienced labourers on their hands. Therefore it is proposed that the following points be carried out : (1) Create and appoint a state committee of school officials to confer with the state agricultural department and organizations of farmers to find out whether there is a real need of school boys on farms. (2) If the need exists, the committee should draft a set of regulations to meet the need and at the same time protect the boys, such as these : (a) Boys 14 and over, to be permitted to work on farms for others than their parents and excused from school for this purpose from June i to October 1. (6) Boys thus excused not to be permitted to work more than eight hours a day, or more than six days a week. (c) Boys thus excused must have special work permits, issued by the committee of school officials

persons authorized by them, showing that the child has been examined by a physician and is physically fit for work, permits to be issued only for farms known by the committee to be suitable places for them to work. (3) The state committee of school officials should be responsible for the enforcement of regulations and for transporting, feeding and housing the boys and providing recreation. As to housing, it is advisable that boys sent to farms to work should not be housed with

COMING EVENTS. The London Teachers' Association is holding an Educational Conference on Wednesday, December 5, at 6 p.m., on “ The Baby Room.” Particulars may be obtained from the General Secretary, L.T.A., 9, Fleet Street, E.C.4.

The Annual Festival of the National Children's Home will be held in the Queen's Hall, Langham Place, W., on Monday, December 17, at 3 p.m. Tickets may be obtained at the headquarters of N.C.H.O., 104-122, City Road, E.C.1.

The London School of Dalcroze Eurhythmics, 23, Store Street, W.C.1, will hold a holiday course from December 31, 1917, to January 12, 1918.

At the Royal College of Surgeons of England, Lincoln's Inn Fields, W.C., Professor Arthur Keith, Conservator of the Museum, is delivering a course of lectures on “ The Anatomical and Physiological Principles underlying the Treatment of Injuries to Muscles, Joints and Bones.” A syllabus may be obtained on application.

The Ling Association is arranging a holiday course in Swedish Gymnastics from January 3 to 9, 1918, Particulars can be obtained from the Hon. Secretary, Miss Mary Hankinson, 67, Shaftesbury Road, Crouch Hill, N.19.


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