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seemed a steadily rising improvement in morals and manners.

It is easy to exaggerate the importance of statistics of juvenile delinquency, and to forget that what our legal conventions signify as offences, if not crimes, are very often childish pranks. But due allowance being made, the police records in regard to youthful offenders demand the attention of all interested in the training of the young Mr. Munro Fraser, Chief Inspector of the Western Division, in referring to the increase in the number of juvenile offences, says: Such causes as the absence of parents and social workers during the War, the darkening of our public streets, the high wages earned by juveniles and the prevalence of the fighting spirit-not by any means an unmixed evil-are to be credited with most of these outbursts of misdirected activity." Voting some criticism of the schools in relation to the training of character, he further says : "I am inclined personally to believe that the impulse to act rightly on the part of the average scholar has improved, except in the congested and more squalid districts of our large towns, and that the habits of industry and selfcontrol that are acquired in the day school are largely responsible for this fact. Moral discipline, so far as it can be produced in schools, whatever help it may receive from the inculcation of civics and of specific moral duties, must in the main depend upon the influence of the teacher's own personality, and his ability to infuse the true spirit of work and obedience into those under his charge. It must be remembered, however, that our elementary schools have no boardinghouses attached to them, and that the ultimate responsibility for the good conduct of the children, as they grow up, rests upon their parents and guardians, who, it is to be feared, are not always in sympathy with the discipline to which their children are subjected at school." Mr. Wattie, Chief Inspector of the Northern Division, after analysing the police statistics and stating the causes mentioned by Mr. Munro Fraser, expresses the following opinion: “ The general tendency of all these causes has been towards an earlier assertion of independence of control. Something, too, must be set down to the spirit of manly

emulation of brothers and fathers at the Front. As already stated, however, the principal cause is youthful energy finding a wrong outlet; and the true remedy lies in its redirection, not in repression. Already the greater bulk of the adolescent population are well provided with scope . for

employing profitably their leisure hours, whether through boys' brigades, boy scout patrols, or attendance at continuation classes; and social improvement must be looked for by the persistent extension of these helpful agencies." With regard to medical inspection and medical treatment, Dr. Cruickshank reports as follows : “When the War broke out medical inspection was in operation in forty separate districts, which included the whole of Scotland with the exception of Shetland. During the year 1915-16, in twelve of these districts medical inspection was carried out on normal lines or was only slightly modified where the staff was reduced; in seventeen districts the schemes of inspection were greatly modified, the work being performed in many cases by school nurses working under

very limited amount of medical supervision; and in eleven districts the work entirely suspended. Under these arrangements approximately 38 per cent. of the total school population was more or less completely provided for; 49 per cent. had the advantage of a modified scheme; and 13 per cent. was left without the benefits of medical inspection. In twentyseven districts for which figures were available 201,694 children out of 592,745 in average attendance, or about 34 per cent., were inspected during the year. Some 44,300 of these were inspected by nurses, the remainder being inspected by the medical officers. The work entrusted to the nurses was performed in a creditable manner, and where experienced school nurses were at work it is probable that, apart from those who may have suffered from somewhat obscure defects of the heart or lungs, few, if any, children in need of treatment escaped notice. Since my last report was submitted there have been signs of increasing activity in the work of medical treatment. During the year 1915, 399 School Boards made provision for some form of medical treatment, as compared with 298 the previous

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year. This increase was mainly due to an addition to the number of county schemes, of which there were nine in 1915 as against five in the previous year. Some of these county schemes were, of course, of an initiatory nature, but a good beginning was made. The figures with regard to the number of children treated also showed a gratifying increase, the total being 48,159 as against 38,716 in 1914.

There were also signs that parents are becoming more alive to the advantages of medical treatment, for no fewer than 3,400 partly necessitous and non-necessitous children obtained treatment at reasonable charges as against 1,336 in the previous year. Altogether, during 1915, 11,508 more children were treated than in the previous year.

The amount of grant paid by the Department was £7,737, compared with £6,067 the previous year. On the whole, these figures with regard to medical inspection and treatment constitute a very satisfactory record of work, in the present exceptional circumstances; and while it is to be regretted that a number of districts were left without the benefits of a medical scheme, the percentage of children thus affected was relatively small."

vice either at home or abroad. (2) Realizing that public health nurses are essential to the carrying on of child welfare work, we recommend that every possible effort be made to prevent these specially trained nurses from being drawn from such work, and that public health nursing be officially recognized as war service. (3) Recognizing the increasing need for trained nurses and the inadequate number available for military and home service, we recommend especially efforts to enlist graduates of colleges and high schools and other suitable candidates for hospital training courses. (1) Organized volunteer aids should be enlisted to assist public health nurses and other social workers through all practicable methods of personal service. We advise appropriate courses of training for such volunteers. (5) We recommend that the Council call upon all committees to see to it that there is no abatement, but, on the contrary, a decided increase in their activities along the lines of maternal, infant, and child welfare--this to apply to all public and private agencies. (6) We deplore the breaking up of the home and recommend that everywhere special provision be made to keep the mother and her young children together in the home; but this does not imply the endorsement of the home work system. Mothers of infants should be provided for through mothers' pensions or otherwise. Dav nurseries should be especially supervised, and reference should be had to the standards of the National Federation of Day Nurseries. The highest standards should be required of all children's institutions. (7) We urge that the Council of National Defence recommend the prompt enactment of model laws for the registration of births and deaths and the reporting of preventable diseases in the States in which such laws do not exist, and we strongly urge their complete enforcement throughout the country. (8) We urge that every effort be made not only to prevent the repeal or relaxation of any of the existing child labour laws, but we urge on the contrary their more rigid enforcement and the enactment of such further laws as may be needed. We recommend a plan of supervision similar to that adopted by the National Child Labour Committee in pamphlets 276 and 277. (9) For the sake

CHILD WELFARE IN WAR TIME.

Child welfare workers on both sides of the Atlantic are now realizing that the existence of war conditions calls for a special study of the principles of child welfare work and demands readjustments and reconstructions in methods of practice. Our American confrères have learnt much from our sins of omission and commission, and if we are wise it will be necessary for us to manifest an open mind with regard to ways and means which American experts are now advocating and employing. The General Medical Board of the Council of National Defence recently held an important Conference in Washington to consider and report on child welfare work, and the following resolutions were approved : (1) We urge the Council of National Defence to direct that, so far as practicable, physicians teaching obstetrics and pediatrics and those devoting themselves exclusively to problems of maternity and of infánt and child welfare, continue in such ser

COWS.

of obtaining the highest possible development of child life and as one of the best means of conserving the character and moral tone as well as physical development of the growing child we recommend the extension and use of all sound recreational facilities. (10) Appreciating that no plan for real child conservation in war time can be developed without a serious consideration of the mentally defective child and the juvenile delinquent, and especially because of the great increase in juvenile delinquency in Europe since the War, we urge the Council of National Defence to recommend to the various States that greater facilities be created for the recognition and handling of these problems, through the schools, medical teaching, juvenile court work, and children's institutions, (11) We recommend proper medical examination and supervi. sion for boys and girls entering volunteer organizations involving physical exercise. (12) We urge as particularly important the medical examination of boys and girls before they enter industries, also subsequent medical oversight for them. (13) We recommend systematic publicity and free circulation of accredited literature on maternal, infant, and child welfare. Since many organizations are distributing pamphlets and literature broadcast, some good and some poor, we recommend that a committee of obstetricians, pediatricians, sanitarians, and nurses be appointed to review and standardize such literature for wider distribution. (14) Il'e strongly endorse the measures taken by the Army and Navy authorities for the moral protection of the military forces and endorse also liberal recreational facilities as an indispensable measure to that end. (15) lle urge that immediate steps be taken to secure the adoption of a Governmental plan to assure adequate support for soldiers and their families. This plan should include financial and medical provision, facilities for the re-education of the injured soldier, and the re-establishment of the family. Such a plan promptly put into operation would have more effect in promoting child welfare than any other measure which the Government could adopt on behalf of the dependents of men in service. (16) This country should be warned by the mistake of the European countries which have allowed their milk

supplies to become impaired. It should therefore take the necessary steps to prevent a milk shortage. We protest against the indiscriminate slaughter of milch

(17) We urge the Council of National Defence to ascertain whether there is need among the allied nations for maternity care and infant and child welfare work that can properly be performed by Americans, and if this be the case, that the Council confer with suitable persons or organizations with a view to rendering such service. (18) We recommend that the Council of National Defence organize a national committee representative of maternal, infant, and child welfare, child welfare associations, to keep in touch during the present emergency with national problems of maternal, infant, and child welfare, and to advise the Council of National Defence from time to time of such features of the then existing situation as may call for remedial action. We recommend further that the Council of National Defence, through the several State Councils of Defence, cooperate with local organizations interested in maternal, infant and child welfare, and establish an agency or appoint an existing agency to secure information as to the specific needs of each community and to show how such needs can be adequately met. We recommend that so much of this report as may be approved by the Council of National Defence be transmitted to the State Councils of Defence and to the proposed national and state committees recommended above, if such committees be created, or designated, to guide them in their respective actions looking toward

the

conservation of maternal, infant and child welfare during the present emergency.

MEMORANDA. The Medical Research Committee, originally established in connection with the National Health Insurance Commis. sion, are accomplishing scientific services of the greatest value to the Commonwealth. The Chairman of the Committee is Major the Hon. Waldorf Astor, M.P., and Dr. 11. M. Fletcher, M.D., Sc.D., F.R.S., is Secretary. The offices are at 15, Buckingham Street, Strand, W.C. The Committee have recently issued their

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Third Annual Report ([Cd. 8825), published by His Majesty's Stationery Office, Imperial House, Kingsway, W.C2, price od. net). It is a record of exceptional interest. It deals with the position and work of the Central Research Institute and its Departments, indicates something of the schemes for research framed before the War, and details the investigations and duties undertaken definitely in connection with the War. There are several references to subjects closely related to child welfare. There are suggestive notes on rickets and morbid states met with in rachitic children. Statistical investigation by Miss Ferguson at Glasgow for the Committee showed that tetany was present in one-third of over 300 rickety chil. dren visited within one period of a few months. The section on the Hygienic Relations of Milk” is of particular importance. Many will also be interested to note the evidence presented in regard to dried milk. At Leeds, Mr. Winfield has obtained clinical evidence from in. fant consultation centres as to the effects of desiccation of milk and as to whether the preparation of commercial dried milk impairs its nutritive properties. The results of these observations agree with those of the animal feeding experiment: at Cambridge in showing that dried milli supports early animal growth as efficiently as fresh milk." It should be ob. served that “the animal experiments show that milk, whether dried or fresh, is an imperfect diet for adolescent animals over long periods." These studies regarding dried milk are still in progress, but an interim report bas been prepared and is to be issued immediately. The whole Report is of the greatest interest, and seems to suggest that even after all we may some day come to understand, as a highly evolved State, that scientific investigations are essential to progress and necessary for the maintenance of national efficiency.

The Board of Agriculture and Fisheries continue to issue their valuable series of * Leaflets.” Copies may be obtained free of charge and post free on application to •he Secretary, Board of Agriculture and Fisheries, 3, St. James' Square, S.W.1, and letters of application so addressed need not be stamped.

Girls of 13 to 18 should receive not less than four-fifths of the ration for boys of the same age. Younger girls should receive the same quantities as boys of the same age.

Children and young persons should be weighed every month at the same period of the day before a meal, and a record kept of their net weight without clothes. If the weights are stationary or declining for two consecutive weighings, the allowance of food should be increased.

The Board of Education have issued, through H.M. Stationery Office, Imperial House, Kingsway, W.C.2, a revised edition of the introduction to “Suggestions for the Consideration of Teachers and others concerned in the Work of Public Elementary Schools" (price 2d.). These “ Suggestions” deal with such fundamental subjects as the School and the Teacher, Local Authorities and Voluntary Help, the Training of Character, School and Home, the Head Teacher and Staff, Organization and Classification, the Curriculum, Stages of the School Course, Examinations and Further Education. The thirty pages of this official publication demand and deserve the serious consideration of all teachers engaged in the instruction of scholars in our public elementary schools.

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At a Congregation held on December 7 at Cambridge the Vice-Chancellor (Dr. Shipley), Dr. Anderson (Master of Caius), Dr. Giles (Master of Emmanuel), Dr. Parry, Professor J. G. Adami, Dr. Keynes, Professor Sorley, Professor Hopkins, Mr. L. Whibley, Mr. H. A. Roberts, Mr. A. Hutchinson, Mr. R. V. Laurence, and Mr. G. T. Lapsley, were appointed a syndicate to consider the means of promoting educational collaboration with the universities of the Empire and foreign universities.

CHILD WELFARE AND THE WORK OF NATIONAL

ORGANIZATIONS AND INSTITUTIONS.

During this period of supreme testing our journal will endeavour to render every possible assistance to

National Associations and Societies, Hospitals, Homes and Orphanages, and all agencies working for chilu welfare and oesirous of publishing particulars regarding their plans, purposes and activities for rendering special assistance to childhood and youth in these days of stress and strain. Particulars should be sent, in as clear and condensed a form as possible, to the Editor, with copies of any publications, appeals, &c., which are being issued to the public.

ments.

No. 3

EXPERIMENTAL SCHOOLS AND

THE BUREAU OF EDUCA

TIONAL EXPERIMENTS. The Bureau of Educational Experiments, the headquarters of which is at 70, Fifth Avenue, New York City, is made up of a group of persons who are engaged in first-hand efforts for improving the education of children, and who have all shared in the general movement that has brought about a more scientific study of them. They feel that the development of some more comprehensive plans for utilizing the results of the recent interest in “free education” is the next step, and that it depends essentially upon securing a closer co-operation among experimenters. The workers hold that, among the noticeable features of the present educational situation are the following: a broader view of education, which makes well considered experimenting a much sought-for opportunity; the emergence of a considerable number of educators who are really experimentally minded; the accumulation of a large amount of highly specialized experience; the appearance of a considerable literature dealing with experimental procedures; and the gradual sorting out of doubtful experiments from those that have more permanent usefulness. To this situation the Bureau hopes to contribute by affording an opportunity to increase the value of all experiments through co-operative effort, and by preserving and making permanent those experiments that may suitably become parts of an organized system of experimental education. The Bureau aims to accomplish these ends by giving support to present experiments; by initiating new experiments; by collecting and making available for public use information about the whole field of ex

periments in education; and by hastening the introduction of newly acquired methods through actual teaching experi

The active members of the Bureau form a general committee, or Working Council, which, through various departments or committees, has entire charge of the work of the Bureau. Edu.' cationists in this country will do well to make themselves acquainted with the publications of the Bureau which are highly suggestive and should stimulate the development of experimental schools in various parts of Great Britain. The Bureau has recently issued three interesting Bulletins (price 10 cents each) dealing with experimental schools. deals with the play school, and contains a communication, entitled “The Play School : An Experiment in Education," by Caroline Pratt, and a paper on “Children in the Play School," by Lucile C. Deming. There is also a list of experimental schools now at work in the United States, together with a helpful bibliography. Bulletin No. 4 contains the following articles : “A Direct Method of Education," by Margaret Naumburg: “ The Children's School,” Teachers' College Playground," and " The Gregory School,” by Lucile C. Deming. Bulletin No. 5 contains descriptions of certain experimental centres : “The Stony Ford School,” by Robert H. Hutchinson and Delia D. Hutchinson; “Stony Ford: A School Community,” by Lucile C. Deming; and “ The Home School, Sparkill, New York,” by Mattie B. Bates, The concluding communication « The Home School : An Open-air Experiment is by Lucile C. Deming. All these communications are highly suggestive, and we commend them to the consideration of progressive educationists. The Bureau has also published. as Bulletin No. 6, a

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