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Soldiers " is dealt with by Mr. John L. Todd; "The Red Cross Institute for Crippled Soldiers and Sailors" is described by Mr. Edwao T. Devine; and an account of "The Inter-Allied Conference on War Cripples" is provided by Miss Lilian Brandt. Colonel Sir Robert Jones writes on "Orthopedic Surgery in its relation to the War"; Mrs. M. A. Cloudesley Brereton tells of what is being done for British crippled sailors and soldiers at Queen Mary's Convalescent Auxiliary Hospitals at Roehampton, and Queen Mary's Workshops, Pavilion Military Hospital, Brighton; Sir Frederick Treves furnishes a description of the "Star and Garter" at Richmond as a permanent home for paralysed and disabled sailors and soldiers; and Mr. Cyril L. Burt gives a picturesque account of Educative Convalescence for Crippled Soldiers at the Heritage Craft Schools, Chailey, in Sussex. Papers also deal with provisions for crippled combatants in France and Germany. Several important articles relate to cripple children, and we would direct special attention to "Provision by the Brooklyn Bureau of Charities for Children Crippled by Poliomyelitis," by Aaron M. Lopez, and "Visiting Teachers for Crippled Children," by Mildred Terrett.


"The King's Fishing," done into verse by Charles Mercier, M.C.C., with notes critical and explanatory, published by the Mental Culture Enterprise, 329, High Holborn, W.C.1 (price is. net), is something too good even for educationists to miss. Dulce est desipere in loco, or even to witness the relaxation of other learned persons into the fun of pure light-heartedness. Such an opportunity is abundantly provided by this booklet of nonsense verse by the versatile Dr. Mercier, whose FitzPatrick lectures on "Astrology in Medicine" (published by the same firm), show a vast erudition. We cannot hail him a rival to Calverley or to Owen Seaman, but we can at least feel that we are all the more disposed to look for sanity and good judgment as well as learning in Dr. Mercier's serious writings after discovering him to be identical with

the Charles Mercier, M.C.C., Member of the Casual Club, who tells in facile rhyme and wholesome fun of the angling adventures of King George the Fifth (of Yvetot?).

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'Jack Cornwell: The Story of John Travers Cornwell, V.C., Boy, 1st Class,'" by the Author of "Where's Master?" "Like English Gentlemen," &c., and published by Messrs. Hodder and Stoughton (price is. 3d.), is appropriately dedicated "To the Glorious Memory of Unknown Heroes." As frontispiece appears a fine reproduction of Mr. F. O. Salisbury's well-known stirring picture. The wonderful story of this boy-hero of the sea is told with simplicity and much beauty. It is a story parents should read to their boys and girls and teachers should tell to their scholars. Such a record affords a lasting lesson in patriotism. We could wish that a copy of this attractively gotup little book could be presented to every adolescent boy in our public schools.

"Pillow-dust Ditties," by Druid Grayl, and illustrated by Helen C. Metcalfe, is published by Mr. B. H. Blackwell, 50 and 51, Broad Street, Oxford (price 2s. 6d. net). It is a collection of eighteen original verses, fanciful and humorous and undoubtedly clever and certainly highly amusing. The author has the gift for quaint and picturesque expression in haunting rhythms. These verses will become favourites with many little folks, and even the grave seniors will not fail to be attracted by the weird and whimsical illustrations, which add much to the charm of this dainty little gift-book.

"More than this World Dreams Of," by Coulson Kernahan, published by the Religious Tract Society, 4, Bouverie Street, E.C.4 (price Is. net), is described on the title-page as "A Little Book for Human Needs in Wartime." It is written for "the men at the Front and for the men and women at home," and is a beautiful exposition of and appeal for prayer. Mr. Kernahan claims no sacerdotal privileges, and urges no theological argu ments, but with sincerity of spirit and much beauty of thought and no little literary skill, presents a telling plea for the practice of prayer in fitting us to face the perils and bear the burdens of doubt. and suffering and bereavement in these great days of sorrow and sacrifice.


Space for correspondence is necessarily limited. Communications containing suggestions, serviceable information, criticism, and anything likely to be of general interest or value should be condensed into a short letter. Writers must in all cases give their name and address, although not necessarily for publication.



SIR, The commercial community will be glad to know that the coming decimalization of our coinage has been materially advanced. At a joint meeting of the Institute of Bankers, the Association of Chambers of Commerce, and the Decimal Association, unanimous agreement was secured as to the retention of the £sterling as the monetary unit and its division into 1,000 parts or mils. This enables all the existing gold and silver coins down to and including the 6d. piece to be retained without any alteration in their respective values. For example, the 6d. is represented exactly by 25 mils. regard to the coins of lower denomination, it was unanimously agreed that they shall consist of 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 10-mil pieces, of which the two latter would be of nickel. This enlarged range of the coins of lower value, in addition to providing coins substantially equal in value to the existing halfpenny and penny, will provide coins of intermediate value between the present halfpenny and penny, and thus overcome a defect in our present coinage which has resulted in prices in millions of small transactions in daily life being unduly increased because of the absence of suitable intermediate coins. THEO. MCKENNA, Chairman of the Executive Committee.

Finsbury Court,

Finsbury Pavement, E.C.4.

THE CINEMA AND THE EYESIGHT OF CHILDREN. SIR,-In your October issue of THE CHILD is an interesting article by Mr. W. B. Inglis Pollock, F.R.F.P.S.G., on "The Cinema and Children's Eyesight." It seems to me that this is not a question solely for specialists; it affects the general welfare of the child. I have every respect for Mr. Pollock's authority to express an opinion on matters relating to eyesight, but I would point out that the Cinema Commission secured much expert evidence, none of which could be

taken as justifying the rather severe strictures expressed by Mr. Pollock. Children have been visiting picture theatres for the last ten years, and it is rather odd that the injuries to the eyes now described have not been noticed before. Ι know of several people who have been intently studying pictures for six to eight hours daily for many years past without noticing any impairment whatever in their sight, and if excessive viewing of this kind produces no apparent result in twelve or fourteen years, it does not seem reasonable that grave injury to the eyesight of children should be produced from occasional visits to cinemas. This question of the injury to children's eyesight has, I am sure, been raised in perfect good faith by Mr. Pollock, but I cannot forget that it is one of a sequence of charges which have been brought against the cinema covering a variety of alleged evils which have all in due course been disproved, and at any rate some of those who are now raising this rather belated charge are people who have in the past been associated with other charges which have been proved either false or grotesquely exaggerated. But when Mr. Pollock concludes that he would "only allow children to attend cinema performances once a month," I venture to say that he is failing to see the wood for the trees. Those who are interested in the general welfare of children have to consider a good deal more than their eyesight. They have to consider moral and physical well-being, and if children are prohibited from attending cinemas-and that is virtually what Mr. Pollock's ruling would amount to-the result would be to throw many children of our slums and lower classes on to the darkened streets for their evening amusements. gest that the chance of the children's moral and physical ruin in this direction is vastly more formidable than any theoretical risk to their eyesight. The use of printed books in school by young children is possibly open to objection for the same reasons as those Mr. Pollock produces. But in practice we

I sug

know that it is not politic to prohibit
reading to children even if it were
practicable. Children have to run the
risk of contracting infectious diseases by
their compulsorily enforced attendance at
school, but on a broad view we decide
that it is to their advantage, nevertheless,
to attend school because the risks in-
volved by non-attendance are immeasur-
ably greater than those involved by
attendance. Under modern conditions
much the same argument applies to the
reasonable attendance of children at the
cinema. Evidence has been forthcoming
from the police and other officials all
over the country that the prohibition of
the cinemas to children would un-
doubtedly result in greatly increased
hooliganism, street offences and juvenile
crime. And this evidence must be borne
in mind when considering what are as
yet purely theoretical charges regarding
the effect of the cinema on children's
eyesight. Improvements in the conditions
under which children view the pictures
are doubtless possible and necessary, but
the subject must be viewed with detach-

Broadmead House,
Panton Street,
Haymarket, S.W.1.



The State Children's Association is deeply concerned at the number of boys between 16 and 18 who are being sent to prison for periods varying from seven days to six months. The overcrowded state of reformatories and Borstal institutions due to the tide of lawlessness which has risen amongst the young as a result of war conditions-is perhaps responsible in some measure for this state of things. Whatever its cause, it is deplorable that young persons should become familiarized with prison life and conditions and thus be thrust further into crime. For our prison system-as we know to our cost-is never reformative. Moreover, imprisonment is unnecessary, for the Justices have another method which they can employ for young delinquents whose desire for adventure and whose inexperience of life have landed them in the Juvenile or in the ordinary Police Court. In some London and Pro

vincial Courts the system of probation is used with such admirable effect that numbers of young persons, after a probationary term, make no further appearance before the Justices. In others this method is employed but little and in a fashion which prohibits success. In August last, the Home Office issued a valuable letter to Justices, calling their attention to the need for an increased use of probation and pointing out the advisability of securing voluntary helpers, to prevent Probation Officers being overburdened with cases, as some of them undoubtedly are. The letter emphasized the necessity of securing as probation workers "persons of intelligence, active, and in real sympathy with those coming under their supervision," and stated that some of the existing officers are too old or are wanting in a knowledge of modern reformative methods. It is undoubtedly true that the best help obtainable is not too good to be of service to eager and imaginative youth. The purpose of this letter, therefore, is to appeal to such of your readers -men or women-as have sympathy with and understanding of the young, to offer their services to their local Bench of Magistrates as voluntary probation officers for one, two or more children, as their time and powers permit. There can be no more important work than that of befriending those boys and girls who are rapidly graduating for citizenship. It is confidently affirmed that the seeds of criminality are sown before the age of 16. We venture to affirm with equal confidence that under the influence of a steadying friendship the greater number of the juvenile offenders to-day would become trustworthy citizens of to-morrow.

LYTTON, Chairman.

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Under this heading descriptions are given of preparations and appliances, new and old, likely to be of service in the study and management of child life. Every care is taken to procure reliable notices based upon practical knowledge. In this way trustworthy information is available regarding the work of inventors and the products of manufacturers, which it is believed will afford valuable guidance to all engaged in the care of infants and the protection and education of children.

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acme of scientific simplicity. It is made of glass and can be perfectly cleansed and easily sterilized; there are no corners, crevices, awkward curves or indented letters to retain food and render cleansing difficult. The feeder can be readily flushed out and no germ-bearing brushes are to be used. The annealing of the feeder has been carried out with exceptional care, and so there is but little risk of cracking when transferred from hot to cold water. Each feeder is accurately graduated in ounces and tablespoons, thus allowing for the precise measurement of the food given to the baby. The feeder is narrow at its base and can be comfortably held in the hand without fatigue. The teat and valve are made of the best pure transparent plantation rubber. The teat has an inner collar, which prevents its being pulled off while the baby is feeding. The valve regulates the inflow

of air according to the sucking powers of


the child. Both teat and valve are easily turned inside out for cleansing. Glaxo Feeder is supplied carefully packed in a dust-proof box and enclosed in hygienic wrapping paper. The complete feeder only costs 1s. 3d., spare bottles are available at od., teats at 34d. each, and valves at 24d. each. The postage for the complete feeder is 3d. extra. The Glaxo Feeder may be strongly recommended as undoubtedly the best form of feeding bottle available. All medical practitioners, lecturers on home management, maternal and infant welfare and the like, midwives and nurses, home visitors and all others having to advise in regard to infant care should keep a Glaxo Feeder on hand for purposes of demonstration. In all schools for mothers and infant welfare centres in the country one of these up-to-date feeding bottles should be kept on show.


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In the hygienic management of children, and especially those attending schools, particular attention must be given to the care of the hairy scalp. In the issue of this journal for October last we drew attention to the importance of effective treatment for pediculosis, and indicated that Messrs. Lawson and Co. (Bristol), Ltd., had introduced, under the designation of Para-Quit," a reliable anti-parasiticide. This firm have now sent us specimens of their PARAQUIT SHAMPOO POWDERS. The powder is rubbed into the hairy scalp and allowed to remain in contact with the hairs and skin for not less than five minutes. A breakfast-cupful of hot water is then used to make a lather, which is well rubbed in and allowed to remain for at least ten minutes, after which thorough cleansing

with warm water follows according to the usual procedure. This preparation is being used in Poor Law institutions and elsewhere, and promises to be of real service in dealing with children whose heads are infested with Pediculus capitis.


War has added innumerable difficulties to the preparation and publication of annuals and year-books, but in spite of all considerable numbers of well-prized, much used, serviceable favourites are appearing in their customary forms and with but little evidence of change in quality or quantity and in most cases but insignificant alteration in price. "The Red Caps' Annual," issued by Charles H. Kelly, 25-35, City Road, E.C.1 (price 3s. 6d. net), is an ideal volume for little folk. The type is bold and clear. The articles and verses are numerous, varied, bright and amusing, and perhaps the most compelling features are the admirable full-page coloured pictures. There are also numerous other excellent illustrations. The annual is a perfect giftbook for young children.

"The Empire Annual for Boys," edited by A. R. Buckland, M.A., published by the Religious Tract Society, 4, Bouverie Street, E.C.4 (price 3s. 6d. net), is a handsome volume which will make a delightful New Year's gift for adolescent boys. It contains a fine gathering of articles, mainly stories. The Right Hon. William F. Massey, the Prime Minister of New Zealand, provides sound advice "To Boys about to Emigrate." Among the contributors to this fine gathering of good things are many well-known writers, among whom are Morley Adams, James Baker, O. R. Borradaile, A. B. Cooper, Harold Dorning, D. W. O. Fagan, A. L. Haydon, W. S. Hooton, H. C. Moore, Leslie Oyler, M. C. Ramsay, C. E. Tyndale-Biscoe, G. A. Wade, Fred Whishaw, H. W. Williams, and H. A. Woolley. The volume is splendidly printed, and there are coloured plates and sixteen Mr. good black-and-white illustrations. Buckland is to be congratulated on having well maintained the high standard of his "Empire Annual.”

"The Adult School Lesson Handbook, 1918," has been compiled by the President, W. Arnold Viccars and certain of his colleagues of the National Adult School Union, 1, Central Buildings, Westminster, S. W.1, for use in adult schools. It is published by Headley Brothers, Kingsway House, Kingsway, W.C. (price : paper, od., post free 11d.; cloth boards, Is. 6d. net., post free is. gd.). The volume deals with the essential "Tasks of the New Age," and deals specially with the "Making of Man." The lessons have a definite religious aim. They deal with the Beginnings of Life, the Meaning of Birth, the Child and the Race, the New Person, the Moulding of the Future, the Unfolding of the Individual Life in rela tion to personal influence, discipline, freedom, association, responsibility, struggle, discovery, inward experience, and creative effort. Then follow lessons on the Fatherhood of God, A Nation in the Making, God in Nature, Standards of Worth, and finally, Re-interpretation of the Christian Message, the Re-construction of the Social Order, and the Reconstruction of Industry. The book has been well planned and ably executed, and will prove of immense service in directing thoughtful religious men and women to constructive Christian policy and con. duct.

Messrs. Abdulla and Co., Ltd., the wellknown firm of cigarette specialists, 173, New Bond Street, W.1, have issued a particularly attractive and large "Abdulla" Almanac for 1918. It contains beautiful artistic pictures in black-and-white by Maurice Greiffenhagen, W. Hatherell, Fred Leist, Frank Reynolds, Harry Rountree, and Joseph Simpson; and in colours by Christopher Clark, Lionel Edwards, Frank Gillett, Gilbert Holiday, C. M. Padday, and Bernard Partridge. No less than 20,000 copies of this fine production are being offered for sale. The publishers are paying Is. on each copy sold to the British Red Cross Society. Copies of this handsome almanac can be obtained through local tobacconists or direct from Messrs. Abdulla, at 1s. 4d. per copy post free.

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