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Soldiers is dealt with by Mr. John L. the Charles Mercier, M.C.C., Member of Todd; “ The Red Cross Institute for the Casual Club, who tells in facile Crippled Soldiers and Sailors” is de- rhyme and wholesome fun of the angling scribed by Mr. Edwao T. Devine; and an adventures of King George the Fifth (of account of “ The Inter-Allied Conference Yvetot?). on War Cripples” is provided by Miss Jack Cornwell : The Story of John Lilian Brandt. Colonel Sir Robert Jones Travers Cornwell, V.C., ‘Boy, ist Class, writes on “Orthopædic Surgery in its re- by the Author of Where's Master ? lation to the War”; Mrs. M. A. Cloudes- * Like English Gentlemen,” &c., and publey Brereton tells of what is being done lished by Messrs. Hodder and Stoughton for British crippled sailors and soldiers (price is. 3d.), is appropriately dedicated at Queen Mary's Convalescent Auxiliary * To the Glorious Memory of Unknown Hospitals at Roehampton, and Queen Heroes." As frontispiece appears a fine Mary's Workshops, Pavilion Military reproduction of Mr. F. 0. Salisbury's Hospital, Brighton ; Sir Frederick Treves well-known stirring picture. The wonfurnishes a description of the Star and derful story of this boy-hero of the sea Garter at Richmond as a permanent is told with simplicity and much beauty. home for paralysed and disabled sailors It is a story parents should read to their and soldiers; and Mr. Cyril L. Burt gives boys and girls and teachers should tell to a picturesque account of Educative Con- their scholars. Such a record affords a valescence for Crippled Soldiers at the lasting lesson in patriotism. We could Heritage Craft Schools, Chailey, in Sus- wish that a copy of this attractively gotsex. Papers also deal with provisions for up little book could be presented to every crippled combatants in France and Ger- adolescent boy in our public schools. many. Several important articles relate “ Pillow-dust Ditties,” by Druid Grayl, to cripple children, and we would direct and illustrated by Helen C. Metcalfe, is special attention to “Provision by the published by Mr. B. H. Blackwell, 50 and Brooklyn Bureau of Charities for Chil- 51, Broad Street, Oxford (price 25. 6d. dren Crippled by Poliomyelitis,” by Aaron

It is a collection of eighteen M. Lopez, and “ Visiting Teachers for original verses, fanciful and humorous Crippled Children," by Mildred Terrett. and undoubtedly clever and certainly

highly amusing. The author has the gift for quaint and picturesque expression in

haunting rhythms. These verses will beNOTES.

come favourites with many little folks,

and even the grave seniors will not fail “ The King's Fishing," done into verse to be attracted by the weird and whimby Charles Mercier, M.C.C., with notes sical illustrations, which add much to the critical and explanatory, published by the charm of this dainty little gift-book. Mental Culture Enterprise, 329, High “ More than this World Dreams Of," by Holborn, W.C.1 (price is. net), is some- Coulson Kernahan, published by the Rething too good even for educationists to ligious Tract Society, 4, Bouverie Street, miss. Dulce est desipere in loco, or even E.C.4 (price is. net), is described on the to witness the relaxation of other learned title-page as “ A Little Book for Human persons into the fun of pure light-hearted- Needs in Wartime.” It is written for ness. Such an opportunity is abundantly • "the men at the Front and for the men provided by this booklet of

and women at home," and is a beautiful verse by the versatile Dr. Mercier, whose exposition of and appeal for prayer. Mr. Fitzpatrick lectures Astrology in Kernahan claims no sacerdotal privi. Medicine" (published by the same firm), leges, and urges no theological argushow a vast erudition. We cannot hail ments, but with sincerity of spirit and him a rival to Calverley or to Owen much beauty of thought and no little Seaman, but we can at least feel that we literary skill, presents a telling plea for are all the inore disposed to look for the practice of prayer in fitting us to face sanity and good judgment as well as the perils and bear the burdens of doubt. learning in Dr. Mercier's serious writings and suffering and bereavement in these after discovering him to be identical with great days of sorrow and sacrifice.

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CORRESPONDENCE. Space for correspondence is necessarily limited. Communications containing suggestions, serviceable

information, criticism, and anything likely to be of general interest or value should be condensed into a short letter. Wrilers must in all cases give their name and address, although not necessarily for publication.

DECIMAL COINAGE. Sir,- The commercial community will be glad to know that the coming decimalization of our coinage has been materially advanced. At a joint meeting of the Institute of Bankers, the Association of Chambers of Commerce, and the Decimal Association, unanimous agreement was secured as to the retention of the £ sterling as the monetary unit and its division into 1,000 parts or mils. This enables all the existing gold and silver coins down to and including the 6d. piece to be retained without any alteration in their respective values. For example, the 6d. is represented exactly by 25 mils. In regard to the coins of lower denomination, it was unanimously agreed that they shall consist of 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 10-mil pieces, of which the two latter would be of nickel. This enlarged range of the coins of lower value, in addition to providing coins substantially equal in value to the existing halfpenny and penny, will provide coins of intermediate value between the present halfpenny and penny, and thus overcome a defect in our present coinage which has resulted in prices in millions of small transactions in daily life being unduly increased because of the absence of suitable intermediate coins.

THEO. MCKENNA, Chairman of the Executive

Committee. Finsbury Court,

Finsbury Pavement, E.C.4.

taken as justifying the rather severe strictures expressed by Mr. Pollock. Children have been visiting picture theatres for the last ten years, and it is rather odd that the injuries to the eyes now described have not been noticed before. I know of several people who have been intently studying pictures for six to eight hours daily for many years past without noticing any impairment whatever in their sight, and if excessive viewing of this kind produces no apparent result in twelve or fourteen years, it does not seem reasonable that grave in jury to the eyesight of children should be produced from occasional visits to cinemas. This question of the injury to children's eyesight has, I am sure, been raised in perfect good faith by Mr. Pollock, but I cannot forget that it is one of a sequence of charges which have been brought against the cinema covering a variety of alleged evils which have all in due course been disproved, and at any rate some of those who are now raising this rather belated charge are people who have in the past been associated with other charges which have been proved either false or grotesquely exaggerated. But when Mr. Pollock concludes that he would “only allow children to attend cinema perform

a month," I venture to say that he is failing to see the wood for the

Those who are interested in the general welfare of children have to consider a good deal more than their eyesight. They have to consider moral and physical well-being, and if children are prohibited from attending cinemas—and ihat is virtually what Mr. Pollock's ruling wouid amount to-the result would be to throw many children of our slums and lower classes on to the darkened streets for their evening amusements. gest that the chance of the children: moral and physical ruin in this direction is vastly

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THE CINEMA AND THE EYESIGHT OF CHILDREN. SIR, -In your October issue of THE Child is an interesting article by Mr. 11. B. Inglis Pollock, F.R.F.P.S.G., on “The Cinema and Children's Evesight.” It seeins to me that this is not a question solely for specialists; it affects the general welfare of the child. I have every respect for Mr. Pollock's authority to express an opinion on matters relating to eyesight, but I would point out that the Cinema Commission secured much expert evidence, none of which could be

formidable than any theoretical risk to their eyesight. The use of printed books in school by young children is possibly open to objection for the same reasons as those Mr. Pollock produces. But in practice we

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know that it is not politic to prohibit reading to children even if it were practicable. Children have to run the risk of contracting infectious diseases by their compulsorily enforced attendance at school, but on a broad view we decide that it is to their advantage, nevertheless, to attend school because the risks involved by non-attendance are immeasurably greater than those involved by attendance. Under modern conditions much the same argument applies to the reasonable attendance of children at the cinema. Evidence has been forthcoming from the police and other officials all over the country that the prohibition of the cinemas children would doubtedly result in greatly increased hooliganism, street offences and juvenile crime. And this evidence must be borne in mind when considering what are as vet purely theoretical charges regarding the effect of the cinema on children's eyesight. Improvements in the conditions under which children view the pictures are doubtless possible and necessary, but the subject must be viewed with detachment.

FRANK FOWELL. Broad mead House,

Panton Street,

Haymarket, S.I.1.

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vincial Courts the system of probation is
used with such admirable effect that
numbers of young persons, after a proba-
tionary term, make no further appearance
before the Justices. In others this method
is employed but little and in a fashion
which prohibits success. In August last,
the Home Office issued a valuable letter
to Justices, calling their attention to the
need for an increased use of probation
and pointing out the advisability of secur-
ing voluntary helpers, to prevent Proba-
tion Officers being overburdened with
cases, as some of them undoubtedly are.
The letter emphasized the necessity of
securing as probation workers “persons
of intelligence, active, and in real sym-
pathy with those coming under their
supervision," and stated that some of the
existing officers are too old or are want-
ing in a knowledge of modern reforma-
tive methods. It is undoubtedly true that
the best help obtainable is not too good
to be of service to eager and imaginative
youth. The purpose of this letter, there-
fore, is to appeal to such of your readers
-men or women-as have sympathy with
and understanding of the young,
offer their services to their local Bench
of Magistrates as voluntary probation
officers for one, two or more children, as
their time and powers permit. There can
be no more important work than that of
befriending those boys and girls who are
rapidly graduating for citizenship. It is
confidently affirmed that the seeds of
criminality are sown before the age of 16.
We venture to affirm with equal confid-
ence that under the influence of a steady-
ing friendship the greater number of the
juvenile offenders to-day would become
trustworthy citizens of to-morrow.

LYTTON, Chairman.
HENRY BENTINCK.
GEORGE TOULMIN, Vice-

Chairman.
ALBERT SPICER, Chair-

man of Parliamentary

Committee.
LOUISE OLIVER,
FRANCA BUXTON, Hon.

Treasurers.
HENRIETTA O. BARNETT,

Hon. Secretary, State
Children's Associa-

tion. 53, Victoria Street,

S.WI.

PROBATION FOR JUVENILE

OFFENDERS. SIR,—The State Children's Association is deeply concerned at the number of boy's between 16 and 18 who are being sent to prison for periods varying from seven day's to six months. The overcrowded state of reformatories and Borstal institutions due to the tide of lawlessness which has risen amongst the young as a result of war conditions—is perhaps responsible in some measure for this state of things. Whatever its cause, it is deplorable that young persons should become familiarized with prison life and conditions and thus be thrust further into crime. For our prison system-as we know to our cost-is never reformative. Moreover, imprisonment is unnecessary, for the Justices have another method which they can employ for young delinquents whose desire for adventure and whose inexperience of life have landed them in the Juvenile or in the ordinary Police Court. In some London and Pro

WAYS AND MEANS.

Under this heading descriptions are given of preparations and appliances, new and old, likely to be

of service in the study and management of child life. Every care is taken to procure reliable notices based upon practical knowledge. In this way trustworthy information is available regarding the work of inventors and the products of manufacturers, which it is believed will afford valuable guidance to all engaged in the care of infants and the protection and education of children.

A

THE GLAXO FEEDER. The infants' fecding bottle has gone through many stages in its evolution and may now be considered to have reached its highest type in the GLAXO FEEDER. This truly rational and strictly hygienic feeding bottle is supplied by the wellknown firm which supplies the much used and most satisfactory dried whole milk powder Glaxo. Its most conspicuous features are illustrated in the accompanying illustrations. The Glaxo Feeder is the

the child. Both teat and valve are easily turned inside out for cleansing. The Glaxo Feeder is supplied carefully packed in a dust-proof box and enclosed in hygienic wrapping paper. The complete feeder only costs is. 3d., spare bottles are available at od., teats at 3 d. each, and valves at 2!d, each. The postage for the complete feeder is 3d. extra. The Glaxo Feeder may be strongly recommended as undoubtedly the best form of feeding bottle available. All medical practitioners, lecturers on home management, maternal and infant welfare and the like, midwives and nurses, home visitors and all others having to advise in regard to infant care should keep a Glaxo Feeder on hand for purposes of demonstration. In all schools for mothers and infant welfare centres in the country one of these up-to-date feeding bottles should be kept on show,

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acme of scientific simplicity. It is made of glass and can be perfectly cleansed and easily sterilized; there are no corners, crevices, awkward curves or indented letters to retain food and render cleansing difficult: The feeder can be readily flushed out and no germ-bearing brushes are to be used. The annealing of the feeder has been carried out with exceptional care, and so there is but little risk of cracking when transferred from hot to cold water.

Each feeder is accurately graduated in ounces and tablespoons, thus allowing for the precise measurement of the food given to the baby. The feeder is narrow at its base and can be comfortably held in the hand without fatigue. The teat and valve are made of the best pure transparent plantation rubber. The tcat has an inner collar, which prevents its being pulled off while the baby is feeding. The valve regulates the inflow of air according to the sucking powers of

THE CLEANSING OF CHILDREN'S

HEADS, In the hygienic management of children, and especially those attending schools, particular attention must be given to the care of the hairy scalp. In the issue of this journai for October last we drew attention to the importance of effective treatment for pediculosis, and indicated that Messrs. Lawson and Co. (Bristol), Ltd., had introduced, under the designation of Para-Quit," a reliable anti-parasiticide. This firm have now

specimens of their PARAQUIT SHAMPOO POWDERS. The powder is rubbed into the hairy scalp and allowed to remain in contact with the hairs and skin for not less than five minutes. A breakfast-cupful of hot water is then used to make a lather, which is well rubbed in and allowed to remain for at least ten minutes, after which thorough cleansing

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with warm water follows according to the usual procedure. This preparation is being used in Poor Law institutions and elsewhere, and promises to be of real service in dealing with children whose heads are infested with Pediculus capitis.

ANNUALS. War has added innumerable difficulties to the preparation and publication of annuals and year-books, but in spite of all considerable numbers of well-prized, much used, serviceable favourites are ap. pearing in their customary forms and with but little evidence of change in quality or quantity and in most cases but insignificant alteration in price. “ The Red Caps' Annual," issued by Charles H. Kelly, 25-35, City Road, E.C.I (price 35. Od. net), is an ideal volume for little folk. The type is bold and clear. The articles and verses are numerous, varied, bright and amusing, and perhaps the most compe ing features are the admirable full-page coloured pictures. There are also numerous other excellent illustrations. The annual is a perfect giftbook for young children.

“ The Empire Annual for Boys," edited by A. R. Buckland, M.A., published by the Religious Tract Society, 4, Bouverie Street, E.C.4 (price 35. 6d. net), is a handsome volume which will make a delightful New Year's gift for adolescent boys. It contains a fine gathering of articles, mainly stories. The Right Hon. William F. Massey, the Prime Minister of New Zealand, provides sound advice “ To Boys about to Emigrate.” Among the contributors to this fine gathering of good things are many well-known writers, among whom are Morley Adams, James Baker, O. R. Borradaile, A. B. Cooper, Harold Dorning, D. W. 0. Fagan, A. L. Haydon, W. S. Hooton, H. C. Moore, Leslie Ovler, M. C. Ramsay, C. E. Tyndale-Biscoe, G. A. Wade, Fred Whishaw, H. W. Williams, and H. A. Woolley. The volume is splendidly printed, and there are coloured plates and sixteen good black-and-white illustrations. Mr. Buckland is to be congratulated on having well maintained the high standard of his “Empire Annual."

“ The Adult School Lesson Handbook, 1918,” has been compiled by the President, W. Arnold Viccars and certain of his colleagues of the National Adult School Union, 1, Central Buildings, Westmin. ster, S.W.1, for use in adult schools. It is published by Headley Brothers, Kingsway House, Kingsway, W.C.1 (price : paper, od., post free ud. ; cloth boards, 15. Od. net., post free is, od.). The volume deals with the essential “ Tasks of the New Age," and deals specially with the “ Making of Man.” The lessons have a definite religious aim. They deal with the Beginnings of Life, the Meaning of Birth, the Child and the Race, the New Person, the Moulding of the Future, the Unfolding of the Individual Life in rela. tion to personal influence, discipline, free. dom, association, responsibility, struggle, discovery, inward experience, and creative effort. Then follow lessons on the Fatherhood of God, A Nation in the Making, God in Nature, Standards of Worth, and finally, Re-interpretation of the Christian Message, the Re-construction of the Social Order, and the Reconstruction of Industry. The book has been well planned and ably executed, and will prove of immense service in directing thoughtful religious men and women to constructive Christian policy and con. duct.

Messrs. Abdulla and Co., Ltd., the wellknown firm of cigarette specialists, 173, New Bond Street, 11.1, have issued a particularly attractive and large “Abdulla” Almanac for 1918. It contains beautiful artistic pictures in black-and-white by Maurice Greiffenhagen, W. Hatherell, Fred Leist, Frank Reynolds, Harry Rountree, and Joseph Simpson; and in colours by Christopher Clark, Lionel Edwards, Frank Gillett, Gilbert Holiday, C. M. Padday, and Bernard Partridge. No less than 20,000 copies of this fine production are being offered for sale. The publishers are paying is. on each copy sold to the British Red Cross Society. Copies of this handsome almanac can be obtained through local tobacconists or direct from Messrs. Abdulla, at is, 4d. per copy post free.

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