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in school, or at least under the direction of teachers, whose constant supervision might help them to master some of its difficulties; also that children's reading generally should not be hampered by the indiscriminate use of public library books, by which the child is liable to destroy any skill in the use of print he may be in the way of acquiring. Some libraries have maintained, on the other hand, that young people will read out of school, and that the public library should furnish them with the proper kind of reading, which, in contrast to that done in school, should be chiefly recreational and cultural. This implies that everything done in school is irksome, and that all outside reading is recreation, an opinion which does not seem to be justified by the facts. Publishers of the 5-cent weeklies report that the boy of to-day wants technical books. Even if he uses the public library for recreational reading, he will also read his "Bowery Bill" until he acquires more serious interests. The cultural and literary side of education receives much attention from the leaders in school matters, as is shown by the amount of material on this subject, and they have the assistance of child experts and the advantage of long years of experience with children. To be sure the school is not yet able to apply psychological principles to the education of all children. Much less has the public library the means by which to discover those children to whom reading is a hindrance rather than a help. The public library is supported by public funds upon the theory that it is part of the educational system; therefore, in dealing with school children it should proceed only in co-operation with the older institution. The library is necessarily the book expert, not the child expert." The above quotation is taken from a remarkable work which deserves the study of parents, teachers, librarians and all educationists. "The Children's Library: A Dynamic Factor in Education," by Sophy H. Powell, with an introduction by John Cotton Dana, is published by the H. W. Wilson Company, 958-964, University (Lind) Avenue, New York City. It is written from the standpoint of broad educational principles. Mrs. Powell indicates her outlook in the preface: "School
authorities are often indifferent to the value of libraries for children; librarians are none too familiar with educational ideas and ideals, and frequently seem to judge modern education, not by its aims, but by its immediate accomplishments, while the teacher is likely to underestimate the value of books other than text-books, the librarian is in danger of over-emphasizing the æsthetic and literary values of reading for children, and of overlooking the tremendous changes in the attitude of the educational world toward books, due to developments in sociology, psycho-> logy, applied science and industry. The statement of educators and of librarians in regard to children's reading bear an astonishing similarity; yet it seems to be the general opinion among librarians, judging from their printed words, that the school gives too little attention to the cultural side of books and reading. This book is presented in the hope that it will help librarians to understand better the modern educational attitude toward children in relation to books, and teachers to appreciate the value of the work which could be done by the public library for the schools." Mrs. Powell is an expert and has enjoyed wide experience in library work. Her book is a notable contribution to a study of the needs of our educational and social life for children and adolescents, and her conclusions seem applicable to the English-speaking peoples on both sides of the Atlantic. The author explains her desires in the following suggestive words: "The function of the public library as a continuation school has not been fully recognized. How to educate adolescent children, who are often working children, is a problem as yet unsolved. The use of books in vocational and trade education is especially emphasized, partly because such training is well within the pale of liberal culture if properly handled, and partly because the significance of books as literature has been adequately treated elsewhere. Whatever doubts one may have about vocational education in some form or other, it is here to stay, and probably for others than prospective wage-earners. The public library as yet plays a small part in the lives of working children. Here is an attempt at an explanation of this fact, with suggestions which may
help to make the library more useful to that class for which it has always been primarily intended-those unable to take advantage of formal education." book is likely to occupy an authoritative position. It opens with a full discussion of the place of books in education, outlines the evolution of the early libraries for children, describes the elementary school library, the high school library, and the library resources of country children. Chapters are devoted to a special consideration of the relations of the public library to the public schools, and the rôle of the public library viewed as an integral part of public education. Separate sections deal with the children's room and the children's librarian and her training. The concluding chapters deal respectively with aids to library work with children, book selection, and some social aspects of library work with children. A particularly valuable feature of the work is an extensive bibliography. We would suggest that in the next edition it would be advantageous if the price of each book mentioned could be given. The work, as we have indicated, is in many ways unique, and it certainly meets an urgent need. We commend the volume to the serious study of all practical educationists striving for betterment of educational advantages for boys and girls.
THE JEWISH CHILD.
In THE CHILD for July, 1914, appeared an article on Eugenics from the Jewish Standpoint," by Dr. W. M. Feldman. This striking communication, we are glad to find, has developed into a notable and unique book, "The Jewish Child: Its History, Folklore, Biology and Sociology." The volume is of considerable size, containing upwards of 500 pages, and has two plates and nineteen illustrations; it is published by Messrs. Baillière, Tindall and Cox, 8, Henrietta Street, Covent Garden, W.C.2 (price 10s. 6d. net). The author claims for his monograph that it is the first attempt in English or in any other language to provide an exclusive, comprehensive and reliable first-hand account of all the phases and aspects of Jewish child life. The book is truly
encyclopædic, and practically every page is crowded with valuable references; it is a work which will remain of permanent value and one which all serious students of the Jewish people will be obliged to consult. The book deals with all epochs and phases of development: (1) Ante-natal, with its divisions (a) anteconceptional or germinal; (b) conceptional; (c) post-conceptional (i) embryonic and (ii) fœtal. (2) Natal, and (3) Postñatal: (a) infancy; (b) childhood; and (c) puberty, or the ante-conceptional stage of the next generation. In describing each phase the records are presented as far as possible in chronological order, Biblical, Talmudic, Midrashic and mediæval periods up to modern days. The following periods of Jewish biological science are recognized: (1) Biblical, from the time of Abraham to that of Ezra (i.e., 2000 to 450 B.C.). (2) Pre-Talmudic, from the time of Ezra to the destruction of Jerusalem by Titus (450 B.C. to 70 C.E.). This period includes the time of Ben Sirah and that of the Essenes, and finishes with that of Thudas the physician. (3) Talmudic, from the time of Thudas to the conclusion of the Babylonian Talmud (i.e., 70 to 500 C.E.). (4) Midrashic, sixth to ninth centuries C.E. (5) Mediæval, embracing the period of Maimonides and Ibn Ezra and later Jewish writers. The book has necessitated much patient, painstaking research and no little discrimination and judgment. Dr. Feldman has provided a work which will be of exceptional value to the scholar and considerable interest to the general reader. Sir James Crichton-Browne contributes a sympathetic and suggestive introduction, in which he describes the work as one "of unique scholarship, of deep scientific insight, of perfect lucidity, and of great literary charm." This is high praise, but it is thoroughly merited. Dr. Feldman shows that the Rabbis, 2,000 years ago, arrived at the same conclusion as that which we approve to-day, namely, that while environment has some influence on the welfare of the child, the main moulding force is dependent on heredity. Nature rather than nurture is the dominating influence. But no little of the volume is devoted to an exposition of the importance of a wisely ordered environment.
As Sir James well puts it, the author "shows how nurture, according to Jewish methods, from the ante-natal period up to puberty, confers, and always has conferred, signal advantages on the Jewish child, and may be instrumental in building up a vigorous and well-balanced constitution." The Jewish child certainly seems to inherit a remarkable prepotency, but there is much that non-Jewish peoples may learn from the child welfare methods of the Jewish race. In these pages there is collected material bearing on all aspects of child life and records of practically all forms of child welfare work which may be viewed as of distinctly Jewish origin. It is a book which every Jewish parent and teacher will be wise to study. We earnestly commend it also to the consideration of educationists generally. In nearly all our public schools Jewish children are to be found; and school medical officers, teachers and others whose duties bring them in contact with boys and girls of Jewish parentage will find much material in Dr. Feldman's book which will be of the greatest practical service to them. It should be noted that in an appendix there is a useful biographical index of the more important Rabbinical and classical biologists mentioned in the text, and also a short index of quotations giving the original of some of the more interesting Rabbinical citations. Finally, a word of praise is due to the publishers for the very effective way in which the book has been printed.
The Twenty-sixth Annual Meeting of the Incorporated Association of Headmasters will be held at the Guildhall, London, on Tuesday, January 1, 1918.
A Conference of the Teachers' Christian Union is to be held from January 1 to 4, at the Central Y.M.C.A., Tottenham Court Road, W.
The Annual Meetings of the Incorporated Association of Assistant Masters in Secondary Schools will be held from January 2 to 4, at the London Day Training College, Southampton Row, London, W.C.
A Congress of the Educational Institute of Scotland meets in the Royal Tech
nical College, George Street, Glasgow, on Thursday and Friday, January 3 and 4, 1918. Full particulars may be obtained from the General Secretary, Mr. Hugh Cameron, 34, North Bridge, Edinburgh.
A fourth course of lectures and discussions on "Public Health Problems under War and After War Conditions," will be held in the Lecture Hall of the Royal Institute of Public Health, 37, Russell Square, W.C.1, on Wednesdays in January, February and March, 1918, at 4 p.m. The following list indicates the wide scope and importance of this course : January 16: "The Problem of Birth Control, with special reference to the Public Health Aspect," by C. Killick Millard, Esq., M.D., D.Sc.; Chairman, Major Leonard Darwin. January 23: "Some Constructive Suggestions in regard to the proposed Ministry of Health," by Professor E. W. Hope, M.D., D.Sc.; Chairman, Sir Horace Monro, K.C.B. ary 30: "The Reform of the Treatment of Mental Disorder," by Professor G. Elliot Smith, M.D., F.R.S.; Chairman, Sir James Crichton-Browne, M.D., LL.D. February 6: "What Steps are possible to Improve the Teeth of the Nation?" by J. G. Turner, Esq., F.R.C.S., L.D.S.; Chairman, Stephen Walsh, Esq., M.P. February 13: "The Problem of Tuberculosis under War and After War Conditions," by Sir Arthur Newsholme, K. C.B., M.D.; Chairman, Major the Hon. Waldorf Astor, M.P. February 20: "The Management of Venereal Disease in the Civil Community," by Lieut.-Col. L. W. Harrison, D.S.O., M.B.; Chairman, The Right Hon. Lord Sydenham of Combe, G.B.E., G.C.S.I., G.C.M.G., F.R. S. &c. February 27: "The Rôle of the Midwife in relation to the Nation's Health," by Lady Barrett, C.B.E., M.D., M.S.; Chairman, Professor E. W. Hope, M.D., D.Sc. March 6: Town Planning in its relation to Public Health," by Professor S. D. Adshead, M.A., F.R.I.B.A.; Chairman, Sir Richard Paget, Bart. March 13 "Food in its relation to External or Useful Work," by Professor W. H. Thompson, M.D., Sc.D.; Chairman, The Right Hon. Lord Rhondda.
The Annual Conference of the National Union of Teachers will be held in Cambridge at Easter.
GREAT THOUGHTS ON CHILD LIFE AND
Under this heading are gathered quotations from the works of those who have formed ideals or dealt with actualities relating to child life and child welfare. It is hoped that many of our readers will assist in the compilation of this page by sending any helpful thoughts which they may have found of service in their own experience or discovered in the course of their general reading.
"I press God's lamp
Close to my breast; its splendours, soon or late,
Will pierce the gloom.
"Where'er thou be,
Or in the air,
Thine honour smite !--
His true and upright,
Sweet and stainless,
Pure and sinless,
O Clay lies still, but blood's a rover;
The Lord is my teacher, I shall not lose the way,
The need of companionship has come with intellect and culture, and the only successful marriage is a comradeship calling for unselfishness on both sides. The man owes as much duty to his wife as the wife owes to her husband. One would be almost ashamed to utter such platitudes were it not for the conviction that a large number of men never can have heard them. A man has no right to crush a woman's life out of her, and to regard her merely as his property, as a servant who has not the privilege of giving a month's warning. Either he chooses her as a companion, or he has no right to marry her. And having chosen her as his friend through life, he should be her friend, and think of her as he would think of a chum.
J. K. JEROME.
A MONTHLY JOURNAL DEVOTED TO CHILD WELFARE.
THE EVOLUTION OF A BOYS' TRAINING SHIP. By A. L. SCOTT.
Captain-Superintendent of the "Mars" Training Ship for Boys.
I HAVE lately been writing a short history of the Mars Training Ship from the time she became an Industrial School in 1869, and it has been suggested that some of our experience in regard to the training of boys may in these days of adolescent problems be of interest and service to many readers of THE CHILD.
The Mars is an old wooden line-of-battle ship, one of the few still remaining afloat; when in commission she carried 850 officers and men, but her complement at present is 400 boys of from 11 to 16 years of age. These lads are in no sense to be viewed as criminals. The object of the institution are defined as the "reception and training of boys who through poverty, neglect, or any other cause are destitute or homeless, and in danger from association with vice or crime." Up to twenty years ago the education carried out on board most training ships was purely nautical, but when, owing to the elimination of the sailing ship and the development of an unrestricted competition of foreign seamen, which has been so unwisely permitted for very many years, permanent employment under the Red Ensign was made impossible, it became clear that alternative trades ought to be taught to the boys. There were, however, difficulties in the way which seemed insurmountable, and nothing was done until we were forced into action. from outside. I may briefly state that the Mars lies in the Tay estuary opposite Dundee, and 300 yards from the Fifeshire shore. The neighbourhood after the completion of the second Tay Bridge became almost a suburb-in fact, building went on so rapidly that the managers of the Mars were obliged to acquire a stretch of land on the river bank to avoid being inconveniently crowded. Having secured this ground