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daily if under 18 months of age, i pint daily if between 18 months and 5 years; (b) for persons other than children, the quantity specified on their medical certificate or that generally recommended for the class to which they belong. The priority ticket will not be available for the purchase of milk after 10 a.m., unless the supply has been ordered and paid for in advance.

the outcome of scientifically sifted experiences and experiments, and deal not only with conditions relating to the environment of the worker, but to his and her personal attitude to the laws of health. This handbook has apparently been issued as a war measure, but to thoughtful minds it is clear that this is a work which will remain as a permanent guide to the hygiene of the factory worker. We have no hesitation in prophesying that this little volume, labelled “ for official use," will prove a publication of far-reaching national importance and will mark a further stage in the educational policy and practice of the British Commonwealth. The handbook deals with the Relation of Fatigue to Industry, Hours of Labour, Sunday Employment and Night Work, Lost Time and Incentives to Industry, Healthy Factory Environment, Washing Facilities and Baths, Provision of Seats, Clothing, and Personal Equipment, The Organization of the Industrial Canteen, Sickness and ACcident, Protection of the Eyesight, Industrial Diseases, Welfare Supervision, and Outside Factory Conditions. We hope it may be possible to circulate this serviceable handbook freely. Certainly a copy should be available for the teachers in every elementary and secondary school, and we hope that all medical practitioners will make a point of perusing the book from beginning to end. Of all the many committees . now engaged on problems of National Service probably none has accomplished work of more permanent value than the Health of Munition Workers Committee of the Ministry of Munitions.

THE HEALTH AND WELFARE

OF MUNITION WORKERS. War has made us all thoughtful regarding conditions affecting the health and welfare of munition workers. Large numbers of these are adolescents who will be the parents of our people in coming years and on whom must devolve the responsibilities of citizenship. And among them are potential or actual fathers and mothers on whose health and happiness the future well-being of our land must depend. Mr. Lloyd George, when Minister of Munitions, in September, 1915, appointed a Health of Munition Workers Committee with Sir George Newman, M.D., as Chairman. The terms of refer

were "to consider and advise on questions of industrial fatigue, hours of labour, and other matters affecting the personal health and physical efficiency of workers in munitions factories and workshops." The Committee have accomplished notable service. They have issued particularly valuable memoranda, twenty in number, to which we have repeatedly drawn attention. An Interim Report on “ Industrial Efficiency and Fatigue” has also been issued. And now there has been published a handbook on the “ Health of the Munition Worker." It may be obtained at H.M. Stationery Office, Imperial House, Kingsway, W.C.2 (price is. 6d. net). It provides in well-arranged chapters, concise, categorical, and dogmatically expressed directions for the initiation and maintenance of measures for the health and efficiency of the workers. The work is primarily intended to meet the requirements of employers and supervisors and those engaged in various forms of welfare work, but it will be studied by many thoughtful men and women who are themselves engaged in war work. The advice and guidance provided are

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MEMORANDA. The National War Savings Committee, Salisbury Square, E.C.4, are issuing from time to time valuable circulars which should serve to further the aims of the Food Economy Campaign of the Ministry of Food. A four-page leaflet (F.C., No. 46) recently published provides “ Hints on Fuel Economy," and every teacher should possess a copy and use it as the subject matter for instruction of school children. All householders should give this helpful circular serious consideration.

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Dr. C. Savill Willis, Principal Medical Officer, has favoured us with a copy of his Report for the Year 1916.

It is an informing and highly interesting record of valuable developments in connection with the medical inspection and treatment of school children in Australia. We are glad to see that a Society of School Medical Officers of Australasia has been formed, with Dr. C. Savill Willis as its first President, and Dr. Jane Greig, of Victoria, as Hon. Secretary.

We have received from Montevideo a copy of "Anales de Instruction Primaria” (Ano xiv-xv, Tomo xiv, Nos. 7-15. Julio de 1916—Junio de 1917). It is issued from the Dirección General de I. Primaria of the República Oriental Del Uruguay. It contains a vast amount of valuable material likely to be of the greatest value to those interested in educational progress in Uruguay. There is an interesting illustrated section on “La Escuela al aire Libre.”

At a recent meeting of the London " Safety First” Council, held in the Council Chamber of the Guildhall, Westminster, the Publicity Committee recommended, and the Council agreed to, the promotion of a “ Safety First” Practical Suggestions Competition, to encourage the public to submit practical suggestions for the prevention of traffic accidents in the streets, on railways, and casualties in factories, workshops, &c., in the Greater London area.

First and second prizes of one guinea and half-a-guinea, together with a diploma, will be awarded each month until further notice for the best

suggestions received during each month beginning with February. Suggestions must be made on a special form which can be obtained by sending a stamped addressed envelope to the Hon. Secretaries, London “ Safety First” Council, 31, Westminster Broadway, S.W.1.

At the Royal Institute of Public Health, . 37, Russell Square, the courses of lectures on “Public Health Problems under War and After-War Conditions” are being continued on Wednesday afternoons at 4 p.m.

Admission is free. On February 13, Sir Arthur Newsholme, K.C.B., M.D., lectures on “The Problem of Tuberculosis.” One February 27, Lady Barrett opens a discussion on “ The Rôle of the Midwife in relation to the Nation's Health," and Professor E. W. Hope, of Liverpool, occupies the chair.

A course of public Rhodes Lectures on “ Imperial Preference from the Historical Standpoint” is being given by Dr. A. P. Newton, M.A., at University College, Gower Street, W.C., on Tuesdays, at 5.15 p.m.

At the College of Preceptors, Bloomsbury Square, W.C., Professor John Adams, M.A., LL.D., is giving a course of lectures on “Psychology” for teachers, on Thursday evenings, February 7 to March 21, and May 2 to 30.

The London University Authorities have organized a fine programme of upwards of sixty courses of extension lectures for the Lent term. Full particulars can be obtained from the Registrar, University Extension Board, University of London, S.W.7.

CHILD WELFARE AND THE WORK OF NATIONAL

ORGANIZATIONS AND INSTITUTIONS.

During this period of supreme testing our journal will endeavour to render every possible assistance to

National Associations and Societies, Hospitals, Homes and Orphanages, and all agencies working for child welfare and desirous of publishing particulars regarding their plans, purposes and activities for rendering special assistance to childhood and youth in these days of stress and strain. Particulars should be sent, in as clear and condensed a form as possible, to the Editor, with copies of any publications, appeals, &c., which are being issued to the public.

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colm Morris, K.C.V.O., F.R.C.S., &c., with prefatory remarks by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Monsignor Brown, Rev. Dr. Scott Lidgett, and the Chief Rabbi (price 2d.); “An Outline of the Medical Treatment Venereal Diseases in Women," by Mary Scharlieb, M.D., M.S., and Morna L. Rawlins, M.B., B.S. (price 2d.); “What Mothers Must Tell their Children,” by Mary Scharlieb, M.D., M.S. (price id.); Ineger Vitæ : Notes on the Moral Aspect of the Sex Problem,” by J. H. Muirhead, LL.D. (price id.). We particularly commend these brochures to our readers. They deserve to have a wide circulation among all who are interested in medico-educational problems, and particularly those who are working for maternal and child welfare.

THE NATIONAL COUNCIL FOR COMBATING VENEREAL

DISEASES. The work of this comparatively new medico-educational body should be known by all workers for child welfare. The headquarters of the Council are at 81, Avenue Chambers, Southampton Row, W.C.1. The Second Annual Report has recently been issued (price 6d.), and provides full particulars regarding the developments of the Council. Its aims and objects are as follows: (1) To provide accurate and enlightened information as to the prevalence of these diseases, and as to the necessity for early treatment. (2) To promote the provision of greater facilities for their treatment. (3) To increase the opportunities of medical students and practitioners for the study of these diseases. (4) To encourage and assist the dissemination of a sound knowledge of the physiological laws of life in order to raise the standard both of health and conduct. (5) To co-operate with existing associations, to seek their approval and support, and to give advice when desired. (6) To arrange, in connection with such organizations, for courses of lectures, and to supervise the preparation of suitable literature. (7) To promote such legislative, social and administrative reforms as are relevant to the foregoing aims and objects. Among recent publications of the Council reference should be made to the following, which are likely to be of particular service to those engaged in practical efforts for human betterment : “The Problem of Venereal Diseases : How Ministers of Religion can Help,” by Sir Thomas Barlow, Bart., K.C.V.O., F.R.S., M.D., and Sir Mal

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TRAINING FOR CHILD

WELFARE WORK. In the democracy to-morrow the wellfare of the child will be the greatest concern of the State. A great man once said, “He who helps a child helps humanity with a distinctness, with an immediateness, which no other help given to human creatures in any other stage of their human life can possibly give again." In order that powers for service may be increased and standards of efficiency raised, systematic training of child welfare workers is essential. Valuable work in this direction is being carried out at the Westhill Training Institute, Griffin's Hill, Selly Oak, near Birmingham. This educational centre has been founded to train leaders for the conduct of social and religious work among children. It might well be described as a College for the Training of Child Welfare Workers. Its aim is to help those who have to do with the training of children to understand the points of contact with child life, to follow lines of least resistance in developing the best in boys and girls, and to bring teachers of all classes into league with Nature and Nature's method of development of the child in body, mind, and spirit. The fundamental principle of those in charge at Westhill is that all true education should begin with the child. They claim that the beginning is with the child, not with the book; not with the teacher; not with the State; but with the child. As a consequence, the chief subject of study must be the child himself. The main endeavour at Westhill is to guide the child's activities, reaching these through his emotions and

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little group of people determined to do the best for the child. They felt that the best, and the best only, was good enough, and this ideal has been firmly held throughout. Owing to the size of the building the scope was first limited to students specially interested in the specific religious training of children, but the demand for the training of Froebel students, play centre leaders and child welfare workers generally, has broadened the scope and widened the horizon. Westhill attracts many daughters of gentlemen and trains them for a life of social service among children. It has also opened its doors to the training of temperance and other social service workers. Still another branch has lately been inaugurated, that of training workers on the staffs of chil

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interests; with this in view much is made of play in education. Mr. G. Hamilton Archibald, the Director of Studies, is the author of “ The Place and Power of Play in Child Training,” and Westhill may well become a Mecca for play centre leaders. Teaching has always been reckoned to be an important function, but leaders in child welfare work have come to see that it is of equal importance to guide the leisure of the child. At present the value of the play centre is only beginning to be appreciated; perhaps some day we will find that it is easier to teach the child than to play with him. Westhill commenced in a small rented building, and was organized by a

dren's homes and orphanages, and after the War the training of Scoutmasters, Boys' Brigade Leaders, Girl Guide, Camp Fire Girl Guardians and the like will be taken up, and leaders for all kinds of work among adolescent boys and girls will be effectively trained. The College is a residential one. The fees are from £20 to £23 per term. There are three terms per annum, beginning in October, January and April. A prospectus and further particulars may be obtained on application to the Director of Studies, Westhill Training Institute, Selly Oak, or to the Hon. Secretary, Mr. Frederic Taylor, 15, Devonshire Street, London, E.C. The courses of studies will include :

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Child Psychology, with special emphasis on the Psychology of the Emotions and Interests; Genetic and Racial Psychology; Physical Defects of Children; The History of Education; The Art of Storytelling; Nature Study; Courses for Sunday School Leaders; Instruction for Temperance Leaders; Bible Study; Criticism Classes; Seminars; and Practical Work. Westhill is an attractive place, as the accompanying illustration indicates. The building was in course of construction at the beginning of the War and was finished in September, 1915. It is a handsome and artistic structure, standing in its own grounds of three and a half acres, situated about four miles south-west of Birmingham, on the border of a beautiful open country in north-east Worcestershire. The building includes a commodious lecture room, dining and common rooms, kindergarten room, class rooms, and every student is given a single bedsitting room. Those who desire may have an additional bed on one of the open-air sleeping balconies, specially built for the purpose. The building is comfortably and artistically furnished throughout, and every convenience is at hand. The grounds are attractively laid out with gardens, walks, tennis lawns, net ball court, &c.

The kindergarten and preparatory school are provided with the most modern appliances. Westhill is affiliated with three other institutions. The combined buildings and grounds cover something like thirty acres. Staff and students of the united settlements number considerably over one hundred.

of the Challenge Shield of the League during 1919. Only centres with an active membership of not less than 50 will be entitled to compete for this Shield. (3) Only the following mothers are eligible for membership : Those whose babies in the opinion of the Superintendent of the Centre, or some responsible official thereof, have not used a dummy for three consecutive months before inscription. (4) Should the child of a mother inscribed on the Roll of Honour be subsequently seen with a dummy, her name will be erased by means of a red line drawn through it. (5) Mothers wishing to qualify for inscription on their local Roll of Honour, must hand over their dummy, if they have used one, to the Superintendent of the Centre,

some other qualified official, at the beginning of the three months' probation, and take a solemn promise not to get or use another dummy. (6) On inscription, mothers are entitled to wear the League's badge. In the event of the regulations being infringed, it is suggested that the centre should secure the return of the badge. The illustrated Roll of Honour, which has space for 210 signatures, is now ready for issue, price 6d. each, also an

attractive red enamel safety-pin brooch-badge, price 6d. each, is available for each mother qualifying for membership.

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THE NO DUMMY LEAGUE. This League is a development of the Association of Infant Welfare and Maternity Centres, which is a department of the National League for Physical Education and Improvement, which has its headquarters at 4, Tavistock Square, London, W.C.1. The League is working under the following regulations : (1) Only centres affiliated to the Association of Infant Welfare and Maternity Centres shall be entitled to join the “No Dummy League.” (2) The centre showing the largest number of inscriptions in proportion to its membership from January 1 to December 31, 1918, shall be the holder

NOTA BENE. A series of classes for instruction in Dalcroze Eurhythmics to suit the convenience of teachers in elementary schools will be held during the Spring Term at the following centres : New Cross, Tottenham Court Road, Wood Green. A prospectus may be obtained on application to the Dalcroze School of Eurhythmics, Ltd., 23, Store Street, W.C.1.

The National League for Physical Education and Improvement, 4, Tavistock Square, W.C., have issued a new edition of their valuable “ Directory of National and Local Health Societies" (price is. post free). The list contains the names and addresses of 1,100 centres, 379 of which are conducted by municipal authorities, and the remainder wholly or partially under voluntary and philanthropic management.

The Student Christian Movement now

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