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subject. All interested in religious, civic, and moral education will do well to procure and peruse Dr. Hayward's very comprehensive scheme for reconstruction in our educational thought and procedure.

"The Quest of New Life," by John Francis Burton, published by the Author at 120, Newington Green Road, N.1 (price, post free, 1s. net), is a collection of sonnets, lyrics and ballads of war and peace, apparently formed between 1914 and 1917. These eighty poems of life and love vary greatly in subject, length, form, and merit. The author is widely read, and has pondered much on the problems of peace and conflict, and his productions will be appreciated by many. Mr. Samuel J. Looker contributes a sympathetic introduction.

"Adenoids and Tonsils," by Algernon Coolidge, M.D., Professor of Laryngology in Harvard University, is the latest manual in the helpful series of "Harvard Health Talks" issued by the Harvard University Press, Cambridge, U.S.A., and published in this country by Mr. Humphrey Milford at the Oxford University Press, Amen Corner, E.C. (price 2s. 6d. net). The little book furnishes in clear, non-technical language a serviceable account of the nasopharynx with its lymphoid structures. Sound advice is given regarding morbid conditions involving the tonsillar tissues and the indications for operative interference. The work is one which parents and teachers and others responsible for the well-being of children will appreciate.

"The Story of the Stubby Dub," by the Author of "The Book of Artemas," with illustrations by "Rab," published by W. Westall and Co., Ltd., 8, Adam Street, Adelphi, W.C.2 (price 3s. 6d. net), is an amusing and moral-pointing history in lilting rhyme such as young children delight to hear and remember and recite, of the adventures of Meg and her dolly, Annabelle," and their meeting with Stubby Dub and Chickie and Mrs. Cog Gog and the rest. As an excursion into the realms of fantastic imagination the work is immense, and the effects are greatly enhanced by the series of clever and wonderful illustrations in colour and black-and-white. This is a book which

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will delight the little people. It is a good example of British production in war time.

"A Brief Introduction to the Study of Regional Geography," by H. D. Sutherns, B.A., Lecturer in Geography and Geographical Method in the Durban Technical College, is published by Messrs. T. W. Griggs and Co., West Street, Durban, South Africa (price is. net). It is an endeavour to provide teachers with a suggestive and compact collection of lessons which will serve to explain the relations between geographical cause and effect and to build up a foundation for the effective study of regional geography. The design is good and the matter excellent. There are serviceable maps and diagrams. The author hopes to issue a companion volume on "Mineral Wealth and Industrialism."


Space for correspondence is necessarily limited. Communications containing suggestions, serviceable information, criticism, and anything likely to be of general interest or value should be condensed into a short letter. Writers must in all cases give their name and address, although not necessarily for publication.

JUVENILE OFFENDERS. SIR,-The following memorandum has been addressed to the Home Secretary: We, the undersigned, respectfully urge the Home Secretary to consider the advisability of : (1) The appointment of a "Commission of Protection and Control of juvenile offenders under the elementary school age, and of first offenders above that age up to the age of 21. (2) We are of opinion that special authority should be given under the new Education Act to enable magistrates to place juvenile offenders attending elementary schools under a direct guardianship of the local education authority, who would thus deal with children who were out of parental control without removing them from their normal surroundings. Only juvenile offenders who would be a danger to the other children attending school would thus come under the cognizance of the Commission of Protection and Control. (3) The Commission of Protection and Control should be composed of both men and women, some of whom should be paid, and the Education Office should be represented on the Commission. They should be responsible for the direction and, where necessary, the industrial training up to the age of 21 of all juvenile and first offenders dealt with under present or future legislation. (4) To approve, certify, and inspect by means of experienced Government inspectors existing homes and hostels. If necessary, to provide additional remand homes for such young persons on similar lines to those now existing for children, in which homes such young persons may be kept for a short period pending inquiry by the Commissioners, until they have come to a decision as to the best way of dealing with individual cases. (5) Without interfering with the present powers of magistrates, to give them discretion in dealing with young persons, to commit first offenders to the care of the Commissioners of Protection and Control, instead of discharging them on the probation system to the

care of the Commissioners. (6) In cases referred to them the Commissioners shall decide whether after inquiry the several cases may be: (a) Referred back to the magistrate for probation. (b) Kept under the care of the Commissioners, who would be responsible for them during the period of training and after care. The reasons for our request are as follows: (1) To adequately assist first offenders, and the magistrates in dealing with them, it is necessary that careful inquiries should be made by impartial and experienced trained persons. Such inquiries require considerable time and work. (2) To avoid the disgrace and possible contamination of prison pending the result of inquiries, it is necessary to provide something in the nature of homes or hostels as places of detention on remand. We believe that if such a Commission was appointed it would be possible to find and make use of many existing places of accommodation which would prevent the reform being hindered by excessive cost. (3) If fresh surroundings and industrial training are to be provided other than the ordinary industrial school or reformatory, it will be essential to appoint a responsible body of men and women to undertake this work. It is also suggested that it would be useful for provision to be made to place young people who are not actual offenders under the care of the Commissioners in the same way as under the present law-children can be sent to an industrial school on the application of the parent of an unmanageable child [Children Act, 58 (4)]; where the parents are lacking, or negligent, or unfit, or immoral [Children Act, 58 (1)].





SIR, Unofficially, our St. Nicholas Home for Raid-Shock Children is known as the "House of Smiles." High up in the gables over the doorway shine the two great golden wings of the airmen's crest, whose motto we love best of all. Soon we hope to have the names of airmen over our beds (a donation of £10 secures this privilege), for although in London we learnt to fear the air, in the country we learn to trust it. Here, miles away from thoughts of panic and alarm, the children recover strength, happiness, and courage; and eventually resume lessons under ideal conditions. There is plenty of outdoor work-gardening, nature study, and the like--and indoor singing, dancing, and story-telling. In fact, it is a "House of Smiles." But we want a piano more than anything else at the moment. Will happier children-no, they cannot exist-then, more fortunate boys and girls or their parents, and, above all, will airmen and their friends play the part of St. Nicholas by sending gifts of money, toys, and games, of necessary food and clothing? The lease of the house was signed on Trafalgar Day-not without thought, for if England expects anything to-day, surely it is the generous support of such work as this. The piano, cheques, and gifts should be addressed to the St. Nicholas Home for Raid-Shock Children, The Heritage Craft Schools, Chailey, Sussex.

(Mrs.) G. T. KIMMINS.

The Old Heritage,




SIR, The objects of the study of history in day continuation schools should be to arouse the interest of the pupils in the past, and through the past to explain the many-sided life of the present; to widen their horizon and to stimulate their imagination; and to fit them to discharge their responsibilities by taking an active and intelligent part in the world in which they live. The history taught should not only deal with matters of government, but also illuminate the whole life and human surroundings of the student. Treated in

a broad and generous spirit, it should form, in close connection with literature and geography, the best humanistic course for these schools. With a view to the accomplishment of these objects we make the following suggestions: (1) Care should be taken to select, so far as possible, such teachers as are also students of history and have a real interest in the subject. (2) An ample supply of books, maps, and illustrations should be provided for each school, these being as indispensable to the study of history as laboratory apparatus is to that of science. (3) Local history should be kept in continuous and vital connection with the whole history work. (4) Social and economic conditions which affect and explain the development of the community should be given their due place in the teaching. (5) In the later stages some attempt should be made to explain the machinery of modern government by tracing in outline its historic development. (6) At some stage, if not in all, attempts should be made to show the pupils the effect of general history upon the development of their own community and of the British Commonwealth as a whole. (7) Throughout the work the training afforded by history as a means of self-expression, both spoken and written, should be fully utilized. (8) Since the outlook and interests of the pupils vary at different ages, the selection and treatment of the subject-matter should be adapted accordingly. Finally, it must always be borne in mind that even the best teachers, in the short time at their disposal, can convey only a few facts to the minds of their pupils; the best they can do is to interest their students in the past and make them want to read about it, and then to put the right books into the hands of the right pupils -for it is the much these young workers acquire from their own reading which is so essentially important.

(Mrs.) ALICE STOPFORD GREEN, President, Historical Association. 22, Russell Square,

London, W.C.1.


SIR,It is good that there should be signs of an attempt to mobilize children for service in the food economy cam




It is better that the initiative in doing their bit" should come from the children themselves. The head master of a large private school in the West of England wrote to me last March: "Following the appeal of the Food Controller for national economy in food, the senior boys, or a representative committee of boys, met in each house and, amongst other things, formed anti-tuck' 'chuck-tuck' leagues. The exact wording of the rules of the 'chuck-tuck' league in my house is: 'Members will consist of two classes. The 1st class pledge themselves to abstain from tuck, for the sake of national economy and patriotic self-denial, for the rest of the term. This pledge does not cover whole holidays, however, nor does it refer to next term, though it is hoped that all members will renew their membership in May. The second class consists of those who do not feel able to deny themselves of all tuck, but who pledge themselves to abstain from all consumption between meals of sugar-as sweets, &c.—and flour as buns, cakes, tarts, &c. No one is desired to join unless prepared to keep the pledge and in sympathy with its objects.' The 1st class was joined by threequarters of the boys in the house, and the second class by most of the others. each house, also, representative committees of boys met to discuss the general question of keeping food consumption within the desired limits, and afterwards conferred with the house masters. As a result various economies and substitutions, such as Devonport Stew,' 'Bonar Lawyers,' &c., have been tried. In one house the problem of the sugar ration is at present being met by giving out in jars to the boys at the beginning of the week the sugar allowance for that week, and


letting each use his allowance as he thinks best. Except in the case of jams, no sugar is then used in cooking." It is fitting that so strong a lead should have been given by the school, the prefects and sub-prefects of which some six years ago, in the piping times of peace, voted the abolition of the tuck-box, as recorded in "Aids to Fitness." A visit paid last June for the purpose of giving a talk on the latter subject satisfied me that the self-imposed restrictions had exerted no prejudicial effects upon the health and spirits of the boys. In the case of girls an effective appeal may be made through the medium of war-time cookery demonstrations, such as those conducted by "The Pudding Lady," Miss Florence Petty, M.C.A., and others working on her lines. Among schools already visited may be mentioned Clapham and Finchley High Schools, Farnham Girls' Grammar School, Dudley High School, The Croft School, Fleet, and St. Hilary's, Alderley Edge, while schools at Ripon and Wakefield are hoping to enjoy a similar opportunity. Only the simplest utensils and ingredients are used, and in one case the demonstration was given over a couple of Beatrice oil stoves, with a biscuit tin for an oven. I shall be happy to send particulars to any head mistress and to social workers who realize that the War offers "a great opportunity for raising the whole standard of the ordinary British household in the method of dealing with food," and also to all teachers who are desirous of extending school meals, as suggested in the Board of Education circular.


Hon. Secretary, National Food
Reform Association.

14, Great Smith Street, S.W.1.


Under this heading descriptions are given of preparations and appliances, new and old, likely to be of service in the study and management of child life. Every care is taken to procure reliable notices based upon practical knowledge. In this way trustworthy information is available regarding the work of inventors and the products of manufacturers, which it is believed will afford valuable guidance to all engaged in the care of infants and the protection and education of children.



Mothers and nurses and others responsible for the hygienic management of infants will find the sanitary conveniences introduced by Messrs. Southall, Bros. and Barclay, Ltd., of the greatest possible value. THE BABY COT SHEET (price 2s. 3d. each) is a strong, durable, waterproof, protective, 30 x 18 in. in size. It ensures the maximum of comfort and cleanliness with the minimum of trouble. BABY KNICKERS are sensible waterproof protectors, convenient and comfortable, and easily cleansed. They are made in three sizes (price Is. 9d. to 2s. 6d. each). INFANTS' "KNAPKENETTES" are made of soft, light, absorbent cotton material. They are thoroughly effective and prevent chaffing of the skin and other discomforts (price, in three sizes, 2s. to 3s. 6d. per packet of one dozen). All workers in connection with infant welfare centres and schools for mothers would do well to have these sanitary appliances on view.


All garments should bear the name of the person to whom they belong. This is a hygienic necessity as well as a procedure which is rendered essential on economic and administrative grounds. The method of marking has been much simplified by the introduction of the NAME. TAPES manufactured by Messrs. J. and J. Cash, Ltd. The letters of the name are woven in fast Turkey-red thread on fine, strong, durable cambric tape. Various sizes and styles of lettering may be obtained. The tape can be attached not only to linen underwear, but to woollen and knitted garments, and, indeed, to almost all kinds of garments or other materials used for personal wear or for household service. For use not only in the home, but in school and college, hos

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