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which is proving of much practical service in military nursing and Red Cross work.

that safety-pins are becoming increasingly difficult to procure at economical rates, this simple, ingenious, inexpensive, but very effective contrivance should become popular. It only needs to be known for its advantages to be appreciated. The chief features of the fastener

indicated in the illustrations p. 252. l'e believe this little contrivance should prove of service in infant care and child welfare work. The fastener

not only be used for all kinds of bandages, but will be of value in the adjustment of maternity binders and the underclothing of women and children, for various purposes in connection with ordinary dress and toilet purposes; and as a ready substitute for buttons, clips, and almost all purposes for which a safety-pin is desired. These fasteners can now be obtained from Messrs. Allen and Hanburys, Ltd., price rod. per box of three dozen small sizes, or is. per box of three dozen large or assorted sizes. Wholesale terms may be obtained from Messrs. Allcock and Co., Ltd., of Redditch.

the United States and Canada. But there are also many serviceable articles and among them reference should be made to the following : “ The Early Education of Girls,” Development of the Summer Camp,” “The New School Movement,” “ The Year's Advance in Education," and

Vocational Guidance." Professor Arthur 0. Norton provides a suggestive paper on · Measuring Educational Results,” and Professor Robert M. Yerkes furnishes a particularly valuable communication on Measuring Intelligence." There is also a valuable section on “ Recent Educational Literature," with “ A Select Classified Reading List " which will be very useful for reference. The handbook contains an immense amount of practical information, and includes alphabetically arranged lists of educational associations, periodicals, school bureaus, agencies, lecturers, publishers, and centres for various forms of educational equipment. This work is one of a series of educational handbooks which Mr. Sargent has in hand. The present Directory is a monument of patient, systematic, scientifically ordered investigation and collation, and all concerned in the preparation and publication of so indispensable a reference work merit congratulations and thanks. We hope Mr. Sargent may be able to arrange for the inclusion in his next edition of a condensed article on “ British Educational Progress."

AMERICAN SCHOOLS. British educationists do well to interest themselves with the principles and practices of educational work in the United States of America. In these days of common aim and kindred spirit we have much to learn from our cousins across the Atlantic. Much light is thrown on the schools of the United States by the very valuable “ Handbook of American Private Schools,” prepared and published by Mr. Porter E. Sargent. This educational encyclopædia is now in its third edition. It is a veritable “ Tho's Who " of scholastic references. The work aims to be a reliable guide-book for the use of parents and others on whom rest the responsibilities of selection of educational centres. It is a wonderful compendium of information regarding schools and allied training institutions which educationists will know how to appreciate. The main portions of the volume consist of paragraphs and well-arranged tables giving essentials respecting the chief private schools and educational establishments of

ANNUALS. The “New Hazell Annu a 1 and Almanack for the Year 1918," edited by T. A., Ingram, M.A., LL.D., and published by Mr. Henry Frowde, of the Oxford University Press, and Messrs. Hodder and Stoughton, Warwick Square, E.C.4 (price 5s. net), is an indispensable volume of reference for all educationists and workers for national advancement. It is a veritable encyclopædia of condensed, up-to-date, and authoritative information regarding all matters relating to the British Empire. There are facts and figures respecting all the great questions of the day, and the work furnishes a reliable directory to all enterprises striving for the betterment in any way of the Commonwealth. The essential features of the Great War receive adequate consideration. Valuable sections are devoted to educational endeavours, and there is an excellent review of the medical progress of the past year. In regard to this year-book the only essential advice is Get it.

“ Whitaker's Almanack,” issued from 12, Warwick Lane, Paternoster Row, E.C. (price 35. 6d. net), is too well known and prized to require any formal introduction. The volume for 1918 is its fiftieth annual issue. The compilers and publishers deserve warmest congratulations on the celebration of half-a-century of such well-tried and universally approved service. The present volume contains upwards of a thousand pages and is wonderfully complete and up-to-date. It is a work which every understanding and patriotic Britain should keep within reach of his right hand.

All photographers will be grateful that “ The • Wellcome' Photographic Exposure Record and Diary," issued by Bur

roughs Wellcome and Co., appears in its customary form and at its nominal price of is.

This invaluable pocket-book retains all the excellent features in the 1918 edition, which have made it so general a favourite.

“ The Writers and Artists' Year-book, 1918 : A Directory for Writers, Artists and Photographers," edited by G. E. Mitton, and published by A., and C. Black, Ltd., 4-6, Soho Square, W., (price 25. net), is another annual for which we make thanksgiving. To all educationists it is simply indispensable. Editors, publishers and all slaves of the pen who strive to serve their day and generation through newspapers and periodicals, simply cannot do without it. This compact red book is a working guide to the leading periodical publications in Britain, America and Canada. The names and addresses are given of the chief publishers in this country and in the United States of America.

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YESTERDAY,

TO-DAY, AND TO-MORROW.

Under this general heading appear miscellaneous notes and records of current events and other topics relating to child welfare, and to this section it is earnestly hoped readers of this Journal will contribute.

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BIRTH-RATE AND EMPIRE. Under the title of “ Birth-rate and Empire,” the Rev. James Marchant, Secretary of the National Birth-rate Commission, and the Cinema Inquiry, and also Director of the National Council for the Promotion of Race Regeneration, has issued through Messrs. Williams and Norgate, ii, Henrietta Street, Strand, W.C.2 (price 7s. 6d.), a notable and timely work, which, however, must arouse much discussion. The book deals in a very direct and open fashion with fundamental facts and governing principles relating to birth-rate and birth control. Such a work if issued in pre-war days would in all probability have been tabooed by the majority of good people, but in the fires of deadly conflict we are being slowly purged of our prejudices and ignorances and made willing to see things as they really are, and study problems without bias and free from the trammels of authority, tradition, and convention. Still even for these days Mr. Marchant's book is a courageous one.

It is written in a broad-minded spirit, with intimate knowledge of conditions and procedures as they now exist, but with a firm belief in Christian ethics and a respect for scientific principles and medical practices making for the prevention and arrest of disease. The book is one which all medical advisers should peruse, and we earnestly commend it to the consideration of parents, teachers and all citizens who as true patriots desire both by precept and example to further the weal of the British Commonwealth at home and in all our Dominions overseas. We trust also that the clergy of all denominations may be induced to give the book the unprejudiced study it deserves. We cannot do more in the space at our disposal than indicate the chief points to which Mr. Marchant directs attention. The British Empire covers 13,000,000 square miles, or one-fourth of the land

of the world, and our vessels voyage in all the seven seas. Our white population amounts to 60,000,000, of these 45,000,000 constitute the home population, and 15,000,000 remain to govern, develop and defend our dominions overseas, being derived, replenished and reinforced mainly from the British Isles. India in 1911 had a population of 161,338,935 males and 153,817,416 females; the births in 1915 (for British India alone) being 4,664,460 boys and 4,357,365 girls. Canada at the last census in 1911 had a population of 7,206,643, divided into 3,821,995 males and 3,384,648 females—an excess of 437,347 males and an average of only two persons to the square mile. Australia has been under the British Crown for over a century, yet in the Northern Division of 500,000 square miles there are only about 3,300 males and 700 females of white population. Western Australia, which is sub-tropical, had in 1911 282,114 white inhabitants, and Queensland 605,813. New Zealand had an estimated population, excluding Maoris, on December 31, 1915, of 563,963 males and 538,831 females, a total of 1,102,794; and on December 31, 1916, 550,033 males and 550,125 females, a total of 1,100,158; the births registered in 1915 were 27,850, and in 1916 28,518. In England and Wales we have an average of 618 persons to the square mile. The available statistics regarding the birth-rate and death-rate in various countries provide much food for serious thought. Marchant gives an interesting table, which appears on p. 256.

This volume is a mine of valuable data regarding some of the fundamental facts of life and death. The author has made himself thoroughly acquainted with the results of recent investigations, and with much discrimination has selected his material and presented it in a form which all thoughtful men and women can appreciate. It is estimated that in the forty

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lives. Possibly the direct and indirect loss in forty years may be put at about 11,000,000 lives. And if to this figure be added the number of fætal deaths the total loss in forty years comes to something like 19,500,000. Interesting returns are presented regarding the proportion of girls to boys in different parts of the world. It can be taken as a general rule that in both hemispheres more males are born than females. In Western countries Greece heads the list with 879 girls to every 1,000 boys, and Portugal is second with 899. The following countries are given in descending order : Roumania, 902 girls to 1,000 boys; Spain, 923; Bulgaria, 927; Galicia, 941; Norway, 944; Serbia, 945; Ireland and Sweden, each 946; Austria and Italy, each 947; Finland and European Russia, each 948; Hungary, 949; Denmark, Holland, Germany and Australia, each 950; Scotland and Belgium, each 956; France, 960; and England and Wales, 966. The difference between the first and the last is 121 more boys per 1,000 girls in Greece, and in England only 34 ; whereas Germany has 50 and Austria 53 more boys than girls per 1,000, France has 40 and England 34. Australia and New Zealand, it is interesting to note, stand level with Germany. The proportion of boys to girls born in England and France is lower than in any other country and fell to 1,032 boys to 1,000 girls in the March quarter of 1915, which was the lowest ratio recorded since registration began. The total number of births in 1915 was 415,205 males and 399,409 females. It has been frequently said that in times of war there is an increase in male births, and that seems to be true of the present times. The Registrar-General has shown that the ratios between male and female births, the latter being reckoned at 1,000, for the four quarters of 1916 were 1,050, 1,051, 1,045, and 1,050 respectively; while for the year extending from July 1, 1915, to June 30, 1916, the first complete year during which the births registered have been fully affected by war conditions, the ratio stands at 1,047, a figure considerably above any recorded during the preceding fifty years and within measurable distance of the general European ratio, which for many years has been much in

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excess of our own. Over one quarter of males than females emigrated from Engthe total deaths of all ages during the land and Wales. The Australian census years 19U-14 occurred in the first five of 191 showed that of persons of less years of life : 2,036,466 persons died, and than four years' residence in the Com575,078 of them, or 28.2 per cent. perished monwealth there were only 320 females in infancy or early childhood. And of to 1,000 males in the age groups 15 to 24, these deaths 384,950 occurred before the and only 403 to 1,000 in the age groups child's first birthday; that is, during the 25 to 44. The Emigration and Immigrafirst year of life the deaths are twice as tion Statistics supplied by the Board of numerous as during the next four years. Trade show that 65 per cent. of the total Sir Arthur Newsholme estimates that net emigration of males over 12 in 1913 approximately the causation of the loss took place in the age groups 18-30, and may be thus grouped : Ages 0-1, four- the net emigration was greater than the fifths of the deaths are due to infection; normal increase by natural growth of 1-5, 23.9 percent. result from measles population at those ages. Mr. Marchant's and whooping-cough, 5 per cent. from conclusion is so statesmanlike that we diarrhæal diseases, 12.6 per cent. from venture to quote it here : “ The movetuberculosis, and 20'3 per cent. by bron- ment of population is determined by many chitis and pneumonia. Of the 575,078 underlying causes, famine, war, pressure deaths, 304,334, or 52.9 per cent. are due of trade, enlargement of territory, the to six diseases, each of which is in great healthy and natural desire of young life measure controllable : “ In every area a for adventure in other lands; but it is very high proportion of the total present of the utmost importance in a land like mortality can be obviated, and it is well ours that the natural increase of populawithin the range of administrative action tion should not be eted by emigration to reduce child mortality within the next to such an extent as to wipe it out enfew years to one-half of its present tirely, or to deplete essential industries amount.” Mr. Marchant devotes an im- like agriculture upon which our life may portant chapter to the consideration of in the end, as we now see, depend. And industrialism and child life, and presents it is obvious that the cry of over-populamany valuable statistics which show that tion must be strictly scrutinized, and corwhile life is given to us in abundance we rected not by limiting births whilst our selfishly and ignorantly squander it. Mr. Colonies are nearly empty, but rather by Marchant has made himself well increasing births and systematically disquainted with the philosophic and scien- tributing our population according to sex, tific aspects of his subject. In a chapter age and occupation, and the actual on “ Heredity and Environment” he deals quirements of the lands we are in duty effectively with the problems of nature bound to humanity to people efficiently and nurture and the various contentions. if we claim to retain them.” In referof disciples of different schools of thought, ence to the migration of young unmarried eugenists, Neo-Malthusians, Mendelians men from this country to the Colonies, and others. A very practical chapter is there is quoted Dr. Saleeby's cynical devoted to a consideration of the penal- query : “Do we believe in monogamy ties of parenthood, and a number of everywhere, or, as would appear, in polypractical suggestions are made for the

gamy at home and polyandry overseas ? ” lightening of the load which now presses Mr. Marchant raises much that is conso heavily on many parents. We would tentious in his chapter on“ 'Birth Control particularly commend to the thoughtful and the Racial Instinct,” and his views study of all patriots and practical states- expressed in the section on “ The Attimen the section on Migration.” In 1911 tude of the Church towards Birth Conthere

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in the United Kingdom trol” will, we hope, give rise to such 1,329,000 more females than males, and open discussion as will serve the national in the self-governing Dominions 762,000 weal. The last chapter but one is enmore males than females. It is estimated titled “ The New Motherhood," and adthat of the surplus women some 527,000 mirably expresses thoughts which are now are over 45, and so too old for emigra- in many minds : “When the nation has tion. From 1871 to 1911, 590,000 more thoroughly organized the care of matern

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