« ПредыдущаяПродолжить »
which is proving of much practical service in military nursing and Red Cross work. Now that safety-pins are becoming increasingly difficult to procure at economical rates, this simple, ingenious, inexpensive, but very effective contrivance should become popular. It only needs to be known for its advantages to be appreciated. The chief features of the fastener are indicated in the illustrations on p. 252. We believe this little contrivance should prove of service in infant care and child welfare work. The fastener can not only be used for all kinds of bandages, but will be of value in the adjustment of maternity binders and the underclothing of women and children, for various purposes in connection with ordinary dress and toilet purposes; and as a ready substitute for buttons, clips, and almost all purposes for which a safety-pin is desired. These fasteners can now be obtained from Messrs. Allen and Hanburys, Ltd., price 10d. per box of three dozen small sizes, or 1s. per box of three dozen large or assorted sizes. Wholesale terms may be obtained from Messrs. Allcock and Co., Ltd., of Redditch.
British educationists do well to interest themselves with the principles and practices of educational work in the United States of America. In these days of common aim and kindred spirit we have much to learn from our cousins across the Atlantic. Much light is thrown on the schools of the United States by the very valuable "Handbook of American Private Schools," prepared and published by Mr. Porter E. Sargent. This educational encyclopædia is now in its third edition. It is a veritable Who's Who' of scholastic references. The work aims to be a reliable guide-book for the use of parents and others on whom rest the responsibilities of selection of educational centres. It is a wonderful compendium of information regarding schools and allied training institutions which educationists will know how to appreciate. The main portions of the volume consist of paragraphs and well-arranged tables giving essentials respecting the chief private schools and educational establishments of
the United States and Canada. But there are also many serviceable articles and among them reference should be made to the following: "The Early Education of Girls," Development of the Summer Camp," "The New School Movement," "The Year's Advance in Education," and "Vocational Guidance." Professor Arthur O. Norton provides a suggestive paper on "Measuring Educational Results," and Professor Robert M. Yerkes furnishes a particularly valuable communication on
Measuring Intelligence." There is also a valuable section on "Recent Educational Literature," with "A Select Classified Reading List" which will be very useful for reference. The handbook contains an immense amount of practical information, and includes alphabetically arranged lists of educational associations, periodicals, school bureaus, agencies, lecturers, publishers, and centres for various forms of educational equipment. This work is one of a series of educational handbooks which Mr. Sargent has in hand. The present Directory is a monument of patient, systematic, scientifically ordered investigation and collation, and all concerned in the preparation and publication of so indispensable a reference work merit congratulations and thanks. We hope Mr. Sargent may be able to arrange for the inclusion in his next edition of a condensed article on "British Educational Progress."
The "New Hazell Annual and Almanack for the Year 1918," edited by T. A. Ingram, M.A., LL.D., and published by Mr. Henry Frowde, of the Oxford University Press, and Messrs. Hodder and Stoughton, Warwick Square, E.C.4 (price 5s. net), is an indispensable volume of reference for all educationists and workers for national advancement. It is a veritable encyclopædia of condensed, up-to-date, and authoritative information regarding all matters relating to the British Empire. There are facts and figures respecting all the great questions of the day, and the work furnishes a reliable directory to all enterprises striving for the betterment in any way of the Commonwealth. The essential features of the Great War receive ade
quate consideration. Valuable sections are devoted to educational endeavours, and there is an excellent review of the medical progress of the past year. In regard to this year-book the only essential advice is Get it.
"Whitaker's Almanack," issued from 12, Warwick Lane, Paternoster Row, E.C. (price 3s. 6d. net), is too well known and prized to require any formal introduction. The volume for 1918 is its fiftieth annual issue. The compilers and publishers deserve warmest congratulations on the celebration of half-a-century of such well-tried and universally approved service. The present volume contains upwards of a thousand pages and is wonderfully complete and up-to-date. It is a work which every understanding and patriotic Britain should keep within reach of his right hand.
All photographers will be grateful that "The Wellcome' Photographic Exposure Record and Diary," issued by Bur
roughs Wellcome and Co., appears in its customary form and at its nominal price of is. This invaluable pocket-book retains all the excellent features in the 1918 edition, which have made it so general a favourite.
"The Writers' and Artists' Year-book, 1918 A Directory for Writers, Artists and Photographers," edited by G. E. Mitton, and published by A., and C. Black, Ltd., 4-6, Soho Square, W.1 (price 25. net), is another annual for which we make thanksgiving. To all educationists it is simply indispensable. Editors, publishers and all slaves of the pen who strive to serve their day and generation through newspapers and periodicals, simply cannot do without it. This compact red book is a working guide to the leading periodical publications in Britain, America and Canada. The names and addresses are given of the chief publishers in this country and in the United States of America.
YESTERDAY, TO-DAY, AND TO-MORROW.
Under this general heading appear miscellaneous notes and records of current events and other topics relating to child welfare, and to this section it is earnestly hoped readers of this Journal will contribute.
BIRTH-RATE AND EMPIRE.
Under the title of "Birth-rate and Empire," the Rev. James Marchant, Secretary of the National Birth-rate Commission, and the Cinema Inquiry, and also Director of the National Council for the Promotion of Race Regeneration, has issued through Messrs.. Williams and Norgate, 11, Henrietta Street, Strand, W.C.2 (price 7s. 6d.), a notable and timely work, which, however, must arouse much discussion. The book deals in a very direct and open fashion with fundamental facts and governing principles relating to birth-rate and birth control. Such a work if issued in pre-war days would in all probability have been tabooed by the majority of good people, but in the fires of deadly conflict we are being slowly purged of our prejudices and ignorances and made willing to see things as they really are, and study problems without bias and free from the trammels of authority, tradition, and convention. Still even for these days Mr. Marchant's book is a courageous one. It is written in a broad-minded spirit, with intimate knowledge of conditions and procedures as they now exist, but with a firm belief in Christian ethics and a respect for scientific principles and medical practices making for the prevention and arrest of disease. The book is one which all medical advisers should peruse, and we earnestly commend it to the consideration of parents, teachers and all citizens who as true patriots desire both by precept and example to further the weal of the British Commonwealth at home and in all our Dominions overseas. We trust also that the clergy of all denominations may be induced to give the book the unprejudiced study it deserves. cannot do more in the space at our disposal than indicate the chief points to which Mr. Marchant directs attention. The British Empire covers 13,000,000 square miles, or one-fourth of the land
of the world, and our vessels voyage in all the seven seas. Our white population amounts to 60,000,000, of these 45,000,000 constitute the home population, and 15,000,000 remain to govern, develop and defend our dominions overseas, being derived, replenished and reinforced mainly from the British Isles. India in 1911 had a population of 161,338,935 males and 153,817,416 females; the births in 1915 (for British India alone) being 4,664,460 boys and 4,357,365 girls. Canada at the last census in 1911 had a population of 7,206,643, divided into 3,821,995 males and 3,384,648 females-an excess of 437,347 males and an average of only two persons to the square mile. Australia has been under the British Crown for over a century, yet in the Northern Division of 500,000 square miles there are only about 3,300 males and 700 females of white population. Western Australia, which is sub-tropical, had in 1911 282,114 white inhabitants, and Queensland 605,813. New Zealand had an estimated population, excluding Maoris, on December 31, 1915, of 563,963 males and 538,831 females, a total of 1,102,794; and on December 31, 1916, 550,033 males and 550,125 females, a total of 1,100,158; the births registered in 1915 were 27,850, and in 1916 28,518. In England and Wales we have an average of 618 persons to the square mile. The available statistics regarding the birth-rate and death-rate in various countries provide much food for serious thought. Mr. Marchant gives an interesting table, which appears on p. 256.
This volume is a mine of valuable data regarding some of the fundamental facts of life and death. The author has made himself thoroughly acquainted with the results of recent investigations, and with much discrimination has selected his material and presented it in a form which all thoughtful men and women can appreciate. It is estimated that in the forty
lives. Possibly the direct and indirect loss in forty years may be put at about 11,000,000 lives. And if to this figure be added the number of foetal deaths the total loss in forty years comes to something like 19,500,000. Interesting returns are presented regarding the proportion of girls to boys in different parts of the world. It can be taken as a general rule that in both hemispheres more males are born than females. In Western countries Greece heads the list with 879 girls to every 1,000 boys, and Portugal is second with 899. The following countries are given in descending order: Roumania, 902 girls to 1,000 boys; Spain, 923; Bulgaria, 927; Galicia, 941; Norway, 944; Serbia, 945; Ireland and Sweden, each 946; Austria and Italy, each 947; Finland and European Russia, each 948; Hungary, 949; Denmark, Holland, Germany and Australia, each 950; Scotland and Belgium, each 956; France, 960; and England and Wales, 966. The difference between the first and the last is 121 more boys per 1,000 girls in Greece, and in England only 34; whereas Germany has 50 and Austria 53 more boys than girls per 1,000, France has 40 and England 34. Australia and New Zealand, it is interesting to note, stand level with Germany. The proportion of boys to girls born in England and France is lower than in any other country and fell to 1,032 boys to 1,000 girls in the March quarter of 1915, which was the lowest ratio recorded since registration began. The total number of births in 1915 was 415,205 males and 399,409 females. It has been frequently said that in times of war there is an increase in male births, and that seems to be true of the present times. The Registrar-General has shown that the ratios between male and female births, the latter being reckoned at 1,000, for the four quarters of 1916 were 1,050, 1,051, 1,045, and 1,050 respectively; while for the year extending from July 1, 1915, to June 30, 1916, the first complete year during which the births registered have been fully affected by war conditions, the ratio stands at 1,047, a figure considerably above any recorded during the preceding fifty years and within measurable distance of the general European ratio, which for many years has been much in
excess of our own. Over one quarter of the total deaths of all ages during the years 1911-14 occurred in the first five years of life: 2,036,466 persons died, and 575,078 of them, or 28.2 per cent. perished in infancy or early childhood. And of these deaths 384,950 occurred before the child's first birthday; that is, during the first year of life the deaths are twice as numerous as during the next four years. Sir Arthur Newsholme estimates that approximately the causation of the loss may be thus grouped: Ages 0-1, fourfifths of the deaths are due to infection; 1-5, 239 per cent. result from measles and whooping-cough, 5 per cent. from diarrhoeal diseases, 12.6 per cent. from tuberculosis, and 2013 per cent. by bronchitis and pneumonia. Of the 575,078 deaths, 304,334, or 52'9 per cent. are due to six diseases, each of which is in great measure controllable: "In every area a very high proportion of the total present mortality can be obviated, and it is well within the range of administrative action to reduce child mortality within the next few years to one-half of its present amount." Mr. Marchant devotes an important chapter to the consideration of industrialism and child life, and presents many valuable statistics which show that while life is given to us in abundance we selfishly and ignorantly squander it. Mr. Marchant has made himself well acquainted with the philosophic and scientific aspects of his subject. In a chapter on "Heredity and Environment" he deals effectively with the problems of nature and nurture and the various contentions. of disciples of different schools of thought, eugenists, Neo-Malthusians, Mendelians and others. A very practical chapter is devoted to a consideration of the penalties of parenthood, and a number of practical suggestions are made for the lightening of the load which now presses so heavily on many parents. We would particularly commend to the thoughtful study of all patriots and practical statesmen the section on Migration." In 1911 there were in the United Kingdom 1,329,000 more females than males, and in the self-governing Dominions 762,000 more males than females. It is estimated that of the surplus women some 527,000 are over 45, and so too old for emigration. From 1871 to 1911, 590,000 more
males than females emigrated from England and Wales. The Australian census of 1911 showed that of persons of less than four years' residence in the Commonwealth there were only 320 females to 1,000 males in the age groups 15 to 24, and only 403 to 1,000 in the age groups 25 to 44. The Emigration and Immigration Statistics supplied by the Board of Trade show that 65 per cent. of the total net emigration of males over 12 in 1913 took place in the age groups 18-30, and the net emigration was greater than the normal increase by natural growth of population at those ages. Mr. Marchant's conclusion is so statesmanlike that we venture to quote it here: "The movement of population is determined by many underlying causes, famine, war, pressure of trade, enlargement of territory, the healthy and natural desire of young life for adventure in other lands; but it is of the utmost importance in a land like ours that the natural increase of population should not be depleted by emigration to such an extent as to wipe it out entirely, or to deplete essential industries like agriculture upon which our life may in the end, as we now see, depend. And it is obvious that the cry of over-population must be strictly scrutinized, and corrected not by limiting births whilst our Colonies are nearly empty, but rather by increasing births and systematically distributing our population according to sex, age and occupation, and the actual requirements of the lands we are in duty bound to humanity to people efficiently if we claim to retain them.” In reference to the migration of young unmarried men from this country to the Colonies, there is quoted Dr. Saleeby's cynical, query: "Do we believe in monogamy everywhere, or, as would appear, in polygamy at home and polyandry overseas?" Mr. Marchant raises much that is contentious in his chapter on "Birth Control and the Racial Instinct," and his views expressed in the section on "The Attitude of the Church towards Birth Control" will, we hope, give rise to such open discussion as will serve the national weal. The last chapter but one is entitled "The New Motherhood," and admirably expresses thoughts which are now in many minds: "When the nation has thoroughly organized the care of matern