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by such study can they find out the possibilities of the material with which it is their privilege to work. We all have often grieved when we have seen little children with stunted, deformed, and crippled bodies due to the ignorance or apathy of their parents. Stunted, deformed, and crippled minds are even more common; but we do not grieve about them. They are so common that we accept them as normal. Our eyes are blind to the ideal. We are beginning to realize how much may be done during the first years of life to secure that priceless boon-a healthy, well-developed body; we shall, I believe, in the near future, realize also how much in these same years may, and must, be done if we are to secure the equally priceless boon-a healthy, well-developed mind."

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Problems of Subnormality." By J. E. Wallace Wallin, Director of the PsychoEducational Clinic, Board of Education, St. Louis, author of Experimental Studies of Mental Defectives," &c. With an introduction by John W. Withers, Ph.D., Superintendent of Public Schools in the City of St. Louis. Pp. xv + 485. Yonkers-on-Hudson, New York, U.S.A.: World Book Company. 1917. Price $3.00.

"There are four fundamental questions relating to mentally subnormal individuals which invite thorough scientific investigation First, the question of the development of an adequate art of differential diagnosis of the different degrees and types of mental subnormality; second, the question of providing differential educational treatment in accordance with the diagnosis for different types or classes; third, the question of the organization of adequate systems of after-care, afterguidance, and control; and, fourth, the question of the development of preventive measures, whether eugenical or euthenical, designed to reduce or eliminate the army of subnormal incompetents." This is the opening paragraph of the preface of Dr. Wallace Wallin's monumental study of mental subnormality. It is a work of first-class importance and permanent value, and deserves to be studied in its entirety by all medical advisers, clinical psychologists, teachers in schools and colleges for mentally defective cases, and organizers and administrators responsible for the care, control, and training of all


classes of mentally exceptional children. The work is the most complete, informing, and instructive treatise on the mentally subnormal yet published. As Dr. Withers wisely indicates in his introduction, the book is not restricted to the consideration of educational problems, but deals with social, civic, industrial, criminological, and eugenic questions affecting different types of abnormal children. "It has a vital message for the school administrator no less than for the teacher of defective children, and also for the psychologist, physician, penologist, social worker, and law maker." The book opens with an elaborate historical survey of the changing attitudes towards the problem of subnormality. In Chapter 2 an answer is provided to the question, Who is Feeble-minded? Then follows a lucid exposition of the general principles and facts which have to be recognized in arranging for the rational conduct of work for the benefit of mentally and pedagogically retarded children. Chapter 4 is devoted to a discussion of the Problem of the Feeble-minded in its Educational and Social Bearings. A separate chapter deals with the consideration of epileptic cases. The two last chapters treat respectively with the questions of State Provisions for Defective Children and the Hygiene of Eugenic Generation. There is a select bibliography. The volume is appropriately dedicated to Professor George Trumbull Ladd "in commemoration of his seventy-fifth birthday anniversary." It is impossible in the limited space at our disposal to attempt any abstract of so comprehensive a work, but we have endeavoured to indicate something of the importance of the contents so that all interested in the subjects treated shall take immediate steps to procure a copy of this notable work.

School and College Credit for Outside Bible Study: A Survey of a Non-sectarian Movement to encourage Bible Study."' By Clarence Ashton Wood, A.B., Ph.B., D.B., Ph.M., LL.M., Ped. M. With an introduction by Vernon Purinton Squires. Pp. viii+ 317. Yonkers-on-Hudson, New York, U.S.A: World Book Company. 1917. Price $1.50.

America is world-famed for its liberty. This freedom for the individual has made

Church and State willing to act independently of each other. This lack of identity in aim and co-operation in endeavours seems to have resulted in the achievement of a situation where something like two-thirds of America's youth enjoy no opportunities for definite religious instruction. The absence of Biblical teaching in the lives of children is looked upon by many educationists as a serious loss. The book prepared by Mr. Wood contains an elaborate account of a movement in which the public or State schools recognize the cultural value of Bible study and grant academic recognition, leaving it to the Church or some other organization to provide the opportunities and be responsible for Bible study and religious exposition. The movement is essentially an educational one, and care is taken to avoid any appearance of any discrimination in regard to creeds and sects. Credit is to be given for Biblical study carried out on satisfactory lines, whether conducted by Christian or Jew. It is expected that Sunday schools and like religious organizations will serve as educational agencies. The advantages of this plan of co-operation between the State and Church schools is thus summarized : (1) It standardizes Bible study and raises the standard of qualification of Sunday school teachers. (2) It dignifies the subject and encourages Bible study. (3) It affords an incentive for more serious Bible study. (4) It increases interest on the part of parents in religious education. (5) It tends to reduce sectarian differences. (6) It co-ordinates church, parochial, and private schools with the public schools. (7) It gives uplift and impetus to church schools and reacts beneficially upon the conduct and life of public schools. The plan is being applied in the planes of higher education with promising results. Not only has the idea of giving credit toward graduation for Bible study pursued outside of public educational institutions proved a success in certain State universities, colleges, and normal schools, but such credit is being given in many public high schools and in a few public elementary schools in a great majority of the States and provinces." America is showing us the ways out of many perplexities, and it may be that in some such manner as is indicated

in this informing and suggesting monograph we may secure release in this oldfashioned and highly religious country from the incubus of the long-existent and so-called "religious difficulty."

"A Child's Bookshelf: Suggestions on Children's Reading, with an Annotated List of Books on Heroism, Service, Patriotism, Friendliness, Joy and Beauty." By Lilian Stevenson. Pp. 136. London: Student Christian Movement. 32, Russell Square, W.C. 1. 1917. Price 1s. 6d. Post free 1s. 8d.

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This little book will prove of exceptional service to all concerned in the intellectual and moral advancement of children. Every home and school should possess a library to which children can have free access. As the Bishop of Wakefield says in his foreword, whoever is "at the pains to guide us in selecting books for our children, and does so wisely, deserves our heartfelt gratitude." Miss Stevenson has certainly brought a trained and experienced mind to her self-imposed task. The work has entailed much painstaking research and no little discrimination and knowledge of the needs of children of all ages. There are consecutive references to 762 books, arranged under such sectional headings as "Citizenship and Love of Country," "Friends of all the World," "Wonder and Discovery," Adventure and Heroism," "Allegories and Stories with a Meaning." The first title of each book is given, with the names of author and publishers and the price, and in many cases suggestive and helpful notes are appended. In the Appendix are lists of books and pamphlets bearing directly on children and the War, stories of everyday life, series referred to in the classified sections, bibliographies and books of reference, and the names of a hundred books with which to begin the formation of a library. We have endeavoured to indicate something of the scope and powers for service of this modest-looking but very valuable little volume. It is a work which should be known and used by parents and be available for students in all training colleges and teachers in schools of every grade. We also commend the book to the

heads of all schools, workers in Sunday schools, scoutmasters and Girl Guide leaders and the like. Every preacher of religion should place this "Child's Bookshelf" alongside the best used of his reference books. We hope Miss Stevenson will now prepare a similar volume dealing with publications likely to be of special service to Youth.

Maternity Nursing." By Sarah Macdonald, late Matron of the Salford Maternity Training School and Private Nursing Home. Pp. xiii + 201. With 11 diagrams. London: Methuen and Co., Ltd., 36, Essex Street, W.C. 2. 1913. Price 3s. 6d. net.

Mrs. Macdonald is not only a trained nurse and certified midwife, but is an expert in the training of maternity nurses. As this work testifies, she also possesses the power of imparting reliable instruction in a concise and direct form. The book is dedicated "To my District Mothers," and it is intended for women "who are anxious to be initiated into the special work of maternity nursing." Mrs. Macdonald says pupil midwives are well provided for in the way of serviceable handbooks, but for the direction of the monthly nurse the number of suitable manuals is very small. Many women engaged in district nursing stand in need of a simple guide-book. The volume consists of a reproduction of the author's lectures. It opens with sound advice to intending pupils. The first part deals with fundamental anatomical, and physiological facts, and the essentials of pregnancy and labour. Part two is devoted to a consideration of practical measures necessary for the scientific management of the parturient woman. The third and concluding part deals with the care of the newborn child and other matters relating to the well-being of the mother. The work concludes with an obstetrical table and a collection of questions. The book is well planned and effectively executed, and it aptly fulfils its purpose and should go far to aid many maternity nurses to equip themselves to become true missioners of health to many hard-working, ignorant, well-meaning mothers requiring assistance in their responsible duties of child-bearing. The book is ex

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Here is a book which will be welcomed by many of our readers. It certainly meets a real need. It provides information regarding the limits of tax liability and instruction regarding the filling up of forms, applications to secure abatements, and procedures to obtain repayment. The book will provide payers of income tax on both "earned" and unearned" incomes with just the guidance which so many of them desire and require. There are many who though entitled to total exemption are in the first instance charged a heavy rate of taxation by deduction "at the source " from income on investments, and these will be particularly grateful for the direction afforded by Mr. Burns. The subject matter is conveniently arranged in twentytwo chapters, and all is set forth succinctly in simple language free from technicalities. Many illustrations are provided, and the whole work is thoroughly practical.

"The Oxford and Cambridge Edition of the Historical Atlas of Europe with Chronological Notes " by J. Hartley Fudge, M. A. Pp. 104, with 34 maps. London: George Gill and Sons, Ltd., 13, Warwick Lane, E.C. 1. 1917. Price 1s. 3d. net.

This manual provides an excellent illustration of the way in which instruction in the essentials of geography and history may be profitably combined. The work deals with Europe, and includes the period from the time of Diocletian to the outbreak in 1914 of the present Great War. The chief historical facts are conveniently set forth in paragraphs chronologically ordered and with marginal marking of dates. The fundamental geographical features are admirably indicated by a series of coloured maps. The manual will be of much service for use in schools and colleges, and may well be studied by all thoughtful men and women interested in the course of the present

great conflict in Europe and wishful for historical grounds which shall guide in the consideration of plans for future reconstruction. The work is issued at a price which brings it within the reach of all.

"The Pasteurization of Milk from the Practical Viewpoint." By Chas. H. Kilbourne, late Chief of the Division of Pasteurizing Plants, New York City Department of Health. Pp. iv 248. New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc. London: Chapman and Hall, Ltd. 1916. Price $1.25 net, or 5s. net.

This book claims to be " a handbook relating to the installation, operation, and control of pasteurizing plants; useful to milk dealers, students in dairy schools, public officials having control of milk handling, and of interest to the general public." The claim is fully justified. It is the most compact, concise, and complete practical exposition of the subject which we have as yet seen, and it will be of much practical service to all engaged in milk production, supervision, and control. Written by one who has had exceptional official experience, the book is nevertheless fair and impartial, and the subject is considered in all its bearings. The manual opens with a discussion of pasteurization in general. Then follow detailed accounts of heaters, holders, and temperature controllers and recorders. The numerous illustrations add much to the value of the text. There are also sections on the Clearing and Cooling of Milk, the Cleansing of Containers, Bottle-filling, Home Pasteurization and the like. A useful chapter is devoted to a consideration of efficiency of various apparatus, and tables are given indicating results obtained with various types of pasteurizing plant. Practical workers will be particularly interested in the careful study on the changes in the cream line due to the pasteurization of milk. Mr. Kilbourne is a convinced believer in the value of pasteurization : "Other methods may be discovered by which milk may be rendered safe with less trouble and expense, but none such are now in sight, and until they appear our towns and cities must depend upon the proper application of heat to render milk safe as food."


A School Camp Fire." Pp. viii + 335. With illustrations by Percy Tarrant.

"The Tuck-Shop Girl: a School Story of Girl Guides." Pp. viii+ 316. With illustrations by Harold C. Earnshaw.

Both volumes by Elsie Jeanette Oxenham. London and Edinburgh: W. and R. Chambers, Ltd., 38, Soho Square, London, W. and 339, High Street, Edinburgh. 1918. Price 3s. 6d. each.

Miss Elsie J. Oxenham, the talented daughter of a popular novelist and poet, has made for herself a distinct place as a writer of books for school girls. In her latest volumes she has very cleverly introduced something of the spirit and purposes of the Camp Fire Girls' Movement and the Girls' Guide Movement. Both stories are skilfully drawn pictures of schoolgirl life and adventures. The stories are full of action and the interest is maintained from beginning to end. These are just the books which should have a place in all school libraries. They are admirably printed, and the excellent coloured illustrations add much to their attractiveness. It is worth noting that the first volume is inscribed "To the girls who sit with me around the camp fire this book is dedicated with love and all best wishes by their guardian"; and the second bears the inscription: "To my dear mother and father I dedicate this book with all best love." Miss Oxenham has commenced her literary career at an early age and with conspicuous success, and we anticipate a long service for her in the highest interests of adolescent girls.

"The Trail a Boy Travels, and Other Stories." By Hervey Smith McCowan. Pp. v + 222. With illustrations. New York and London: Association Press, 124, East 28th Street, New York, and 47, Paternoster Row, E.C. 1916. Price $1.00.

This collection of ten sketches will be read with interest by workers among adolescent boys and with profit by youths and young men. Here is one little quotation: "No one understands a boy at that period, from 14 to 18. He doesn't understand himself. Yet is it the most crucial period of our lives. We have no anchor. We have no moorings. We have no standard of judgment. We have no established characters. Novelties appeal. Temptations tempt. Crimes call. Sins

seduce. Appetites hunger. Thirsts crave. Passions boil. All in a caldron together they settle in the boy, who is not man enough to see where they lead or what they will do to his life. And, worst of all, at that period there are mysteries of physical change within him which make him secret in his thoughts and acts." These soul-strengthening stories teach great lessons, and they are told with directness, dramatic force, and spiritual appeal. It is a book to help in the difficult service of boy betterment and manbuilding.

"The Boston Way: Plans for the Development of the Individual Child." Compiled by the Special Class Teachers of Boston. Pp. 127. Concord, N.H., U.S.A.: The Rumford Press. 1917. Price $1.00.

The supreme need of one who would teach or train a little child is the power to put oneself in his place to go as far as the actual point of meeting with his actual need. What avails if that the teacher is strong, learned, skilled, if she cannot link her strength to her pupil's weakness, her knowledge to his ignorance, her skill to his lack of skill?” These words appear as Foreword to this unique volume, which is primarily intended for special class, primary and rural school teachers, governesses, mothers and others concerned for the right development of the child along lines of freedom and individuality. There are forty-two sections dealing with practically all the subjects of school work, and also sense and motor training, physical exercises, games, folk dancing, domestic science, gardens and farm work, and simple handicrafts. These outlines should be of real value to teachers in special schools and others engaged in the instruction of exceptional children. Copies of the volume may be obtained on application to Miss Mary C. Culhane, Somerset Street School, Boston, Mass., U.S.A.

The Vegetable Garden." By Edward J. S. Lay. Pp. 144. London: Macmillan and Co., Ltd., St. Martin Street, W.C. 1917. Price 1s. 6d.

This latest addition to "The Pupils' Class-Book Series" is a manual for the

needs of to-day. Throughout the land teachers are being directed to establish wherever possible vegetable gardens for the instruction and patriotic service of their scholars. And here is the handbook as to ways and means. Mr. Lay is well acquainted with the requirements of teachers and the desires of school children, and he has succeeded in providing a thoroughly practical, interesting, and effective text-book for young pupils. There are thirteen chapters dealing with the seed, the plant, the soil, manures and fertilizers, working the soil, the potato, insect pest, green vegetables, vegetable roots and bulbs, peas and beans and vegetable marrows, rhubarb and celery. There is also a monthly calendar of work with a glossary. At the beginning of each chapter are directions for the conduct of simple experiments, and at the end of each chapter a summary and exercises. The manual is suitably illustrated. We strongly commend this sensible little guide. It should be known and used in all schools where garden work is at all possible.


Familiar Folk in Town and Country." By Alyce L. Sandford, Head Mistress of Brandlehow Road School, Putney, formerly of Rolls Road Council Infants' School, London. Pp. xii + 211, with illustrations. London: James Nisbet and Company, Ltd., 22, Berners Street, W.1. 1917. Price 3s. 6d. net.

This is one of the excellent practical volumes of the series of "Nisbet's Teachers' Handbooks." Mr. W. Pett Ridge provides a foreword, and with his usual acumen and directness declares the work "will lighten the work of teaching in many a classroom." The plan of the book is admirable, and text and pictures have been prepared with a thorough understanding of the needs and limitations of the young child. The lessons here so skilfully set forth are intended for little folk in Grade II of our elementary schools. They are the outcome of long and intimate contact with young school children. The lessons deal with real people who are workers in the active life of the Commonwealths: Soldiers and sailors, the policeman and postman, the farmer and shepherd, the coastguardsman and lighthouse keeper, the tradesman and

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