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WAYS AND MEANS. .
Under this heading descriptions are given of preparations and appliances, new and old, likely to be
of service in the study and management of child life. Every care is taken to procure reliable notices based upon practical knowledge. In this way trustworthy information is available regarding the work of inventors and the products of manufacturers, witich it is believed will afford valuable guidance to all engaged in the care of infants and the protection and education of children.
macaws and paraquets. The aim of the originator of this welcome enterprise is to get right off the beaten track and to capture some of the character and charm which each animal possesses and express conspicuous characteristics in the form of a toy.
Much study and thought have gone to secure the success of this adventure; good proportion and drawing are essential, and the artist-designer, learn, spends many hours at the “Zoo ” watching the movements and habits of
vital feature, and the parrot family gives glorious chances for a perfect riot of brilliant hues. Perhaps the most important of all points is the provision of a particular “expression” for each beast. These toys must all be “alive" and appeal to the child. Above all, they must not be ugly. Many consider it a crime to give little children toys of the “golliwog” order, creatures that squint or are in any way morbid.
Only true and beautiful impressions should be allowed to fall on
the sensitive minds of children in their most impressionable years. It is often said in excuse that children love these hideous things; that is surely the strongest argument against their use. The Jungle Toys are specially designed to meet the needs of the children themselves, and being perfectly clean and hygienic throughout and unbreakable, they will stand many hard knocks without losing their shape and may safely be taken to bed. Full particulars may be obtained on application to the headquarters of Jungle Toyland, Miss E. M. Daniels and Mrs. C. Rook, 82, Richmond Road, Earl's Court, S.W.5.
logical atmosphere after a romp, and as little 'voluntaries' before something more solemn, and as nightcaps sometimes.” The volume is dedicated “to the children of Britain whose fathers to-day are serving their country.” We also wish to direct attention to the new and third edition of the “Additional Tunes and Settings in use at St. Mary's Primrose Hill, N.W.," composed by Martin Shaw. Mr. Shaw is an idealist, a progressive musician, with keen socialistic tendencies, profound religious sensibilities, and a great love for and understanding of children and young people. He has shown real courage in publishing his little collection of twenty-nine new tunes, most of them set to old hymns. They provide new forms, new expressions, which in not a feir cases
an improvement on the traditional settings. This little collection should be known and used in school choirs. It should be noted that four of the tunes are by Mr. Geoffrey Shaw. Messrs. Martin and Geoffrey Shaw have inherited the gifts and inspiring forces which energized their father, the late Mr. James Shaw. We trust that Dr. Dearmer and the brothers Shaw will continue their cooperation in the interest of the development of a love of folksong and a reverent and artistic musical expression of religious hymnology.
SONGS AND HYMNS FOR
CHILDREN. In educational work and recreative exercises among children music must be given a prominent place. Fortunately there is now no lack of collections of suitable songs and hymns for children of
Messrs. J. Curwen and Sons, Ltd., have a number of volumes of musical productions and collections of songs admirably fitted for use in the nursery, the school, or in connection with summertime outdoor pageants and plays. It is our desire at the present time to direct attention to two works with which the names of Mr. Martin Shaw and the Rev. Dr. Percy Dearmer are associated.
Songtime” is “ A Book of Rhymes, Songs, Games, Hymns, and other Music for all occasions in a Child's Life." It is a delightful collection, which we commend to teachers, game mistresses, and all responsible for the recreation and instruction of boys and girls. The words and the tunes are for the most part traditional and belong to the realm of wellattested folksong! Many of the tunes will be specially acceptable as dance music. The collection will be a rare find for those who are getting up children's entertainments. We are glad to see that a number of hymns have been included. A praiseworthy feature is the “Hush Music," which the authors claim will be found of service " in changing the psycho
HONOURS FOR HEROES. Under the attractive title of “Honours for Heroes,” Messrs. Raphael Tuck and Sons, Ltd., have just issued a particularly instructive and most timely painting book for children. It provides splendid examples of colour printing and there are uncoloured outlines of the chief orders of chivalry of the United Kingdom. Particulars are also given regarding their institution and purpose. A section is also devoted to the reproduction of interesting examples of some special foreign orders and decorations. This admirable picturebook of orders, medals and badges should have a place in every home and school. Adults as well as children and youths will be interested in this striking album.
YESTERDAY, TO-DAY, AND TO-MORROW. Under this general heading appear miscellaneous notes and records of current events and other topics relating to child welfare, and to this section it is earnestly hoped readers of this Journal will contribute.
CHILD WELFARE AND THE CHILDREN'S YEAR IN AMERICA.
War has brought home to the citizens of the United States, as it has to thinking men and women in Great Britain and Britain Overseas, the paramount necessity for paying greater heed to the protection of child life. A great movement is beginning this month in the United States of America to arouse all to a realization of the need for better provision for child betterment. The coming year, April 6, 1918, to April 6, 1919, is to be considered “ The Children's Year,” and is to be devoted to the arousing of interest in child welfare work throughout the States of America. Through the courtesy of Dr. Julia C. Lathrop, Chief of the Children's Bureau of the U.S. Department of Labour, Washington, we have received particulars in the following statement : “ Every year 300,000 children under 5 years die in the United States. Authorities agree that half of these deaths are easily preventable, so that if civilians realize that the guarding of child life behind the lines is a patriotic duty their efforts should certainly be able to save the lives of 100,000 children in this country during the Children's Year, beginning April 6, one year from the day the United States declared war. Each State will be assigned a definite quota of the 100,000 lives to save. State councils of defence and the State women's committees are being called upon to be responsible for the State quotas. Methods of work will be those which have already proved efficient in saving children's lives in the United States and other warring countries. To inaugurate the Children's Year a nation-wide weighing and measuring of babies and children of pre-school age will be made. No such general test of the well-being of children has ever been attempted. It will show each community what its children need if the rising generation is to be free from the physical defects which the draft has revealed. The plans contemplate economy for every purpose except for the essential means
of protecting child life. In co-operation with the Iloman's Committee of the Council of National Defence, the State Councils of Defence, and public and private organizations throughout the country, the Children's Bureau is preparing plans for a child welfare campaign for the second year of the war. The first aim of the campaign will be to secure the public protection of maternity and infancy. Public health authorities agree that one-half the deaths of infants are easily preventable, and that if children are well born and Well cared for there will be practically no deaths of babies. Three hundred thousand American children under 5 years die annually. Authorities also tell us that most of the 15,000 mothers who died last year died needlessly. It is the plan of the Children's Bureau to save a certain definite proportion of these lives.
It is believed that 100,000 lives can be saved this year notwithstanding the withdrawal of a large proportion of doctors and nurses for war service. According to calculations based upon the most recent census figures available the quota to be saved in the various States in the Children's Year beginning April 6, 1918, is as follows: The State councils of defence and the State women's committees are called upon to be responsible for the State quotas. The actual methods by which the lives are to be saved are those whose effectiveness in saving children's lives is already demonstrated. They are described at length in various pamphlets which have been prepared by the Children's Bureau. Briefly, the essentials are as follows: First: The registration of births, so that the need of medical and nursing care may be promptly known and met. Second : For every mother prenatal care, necessary care of doctor and nurse at confinement, and after-care. Third : Children's conferences where well babies can be taken periodically to be weighed and examined, and clinics where sick children may be given medical advice. Fourth: Public health nurses for home visiting. Fifth : The organization of State and city divisions or bureaus of child
hygiene. Sixth : The guarding of the milk supply, that every child may have his quota of clean, pure milk. Seventh : An income making possible decent living standards. In 1916 and in 1917 a nationwide Baby Week was held under the auspices of the General Federation of Women's Clubs and the Children's Bureau which has resulted in awakening a new sense of civic responsibility for infant life in thousands of localities, and has secured many new activities, such as nursing services, clinics, children's conferences, better milk and food supplies, better enforcement of birth registration laws. In many communities the Baby Week celebrations have cost large sums, in others Baby Week has proved an exceedingly effective means of awakening permanent interest at little or no expense. Valuable as Baby Week is, however, the present emergency demands a longer and more comprehensive programme. After the nation's soldiers are provided for, the second year of the war should be dedicated by the civilian population to preserving the lives of the nation's children. Is there any greater patriotic duty for the civilian population than to safeguard the welfare of the nation's children? Hence this year the plan is simpler and yet more far-reaching than ever before. It should be far more effective because through the women's committees not only the General Federation of Clubs, but all the great women's organizations of the country will lend their co-operation. Economy in unnecessary expenditures so as to save for essentials should characterize all work this year. It is known that the examinations of the drafts have resulted in a considerable number of rejections for physical defects which might have been remedied in infancy or early childhood if then recognized. Weight and height constitute on the whole a fair standard of development; how do the young children of the United States measure up to such a standard ? As a test of child welfare, to inaugurate the Children's Year which begins on April 6, the anniversary of the declaration of war by the United States, nation-wide weighing and measuring of babies and children of preschool age is proposed. No general test of children of pre-school age has ever
en made, and an examination of such
children with special reference to weight and height is now proposed as the primary feature of the war-time Children's Year. The Children's Bureau will provide a record card which will be arranged in duplicate so that one-half can be sent in to the Children's Bureau and one-half kept by the parents. The record will be filled out by trained physicians and nurses in many places, but if parents cannot take their children to an examining station they can secure cards and make the record themselves. The record card will show the fair standard for children of a given age, and parents can judge for themselves where their children stand. Should there be any great divergence from this standard it is a warning that the children's health should be given medical consideration or should be carefully looked after. The records will all be gathered and tabulated by the Bureau. The weighing and measuring experiment can be conducted with little or no expense. Weighing and measuring should begin as soon as possible after the sixth day of April, and should be concluded within sixty days. It has been suggested that where Baby Week celebrations of any sort are to be held, the last six days of this period, being the first six days of June, should be taken for Baby Week. Such celebrations as are held will, it is hoped, especially emphasize the need of public health nurses and of special protection for young infants against the various dangers of summer heat. One of the most remarkable developments of the War, a victory not heralded on front pages, yet which in time to come will be noted by all students of human welfare, is the saving of infant life in England during the second year of the War. The report of the Chief Medical Officer of the Local Government Board, Sir Arthur Newsholme, published in 1917, shows for one sanitary district after another throughout England and Wales the number of babies who died before the war, those who died the first year of the war, and the deaths for the second year of the war, 1916. It is startling to turn over the pages of this report and to see that the general social confusion of the first year of the war resulted in a large increase in the number of babies who died. But in the second year of the war when the
as to the latest developments in child welfare work in the United States, and his plan is to visit various cities where notable work is now under way. The visit of Dr. King just now gives added emphasis to the importance of the nationwide campaign for infant welfare which the State and National Committees of Defence and the Children's Bureau are. undertaking.” We shall hope to be able to give further particulars as this promising child welfare movement gathers force. The two great branches of the Englishspeaking family, although separated by the wide Atlantic, are now united in service and sacrifice necessary to make democracy safe for the world, and they may well co-operate in making the world safe for the children who are to be the future. citizens of a civilized Commonwealth.
Local Government Board was enabled to grant financial aid to the various sanitary districts and to secure co-operation in its policy of health visitors for every mother and baby, of health centres for consultation, of hospital care for sick mothers and babies, the rate went down not only far below the rate for the year before, but far below the rate previous to the war. This record of life-saving in the midst of the strain of war by means so simple and so at command is, we believe, entirely without parallel. Although the United States now lacks the machinery for such federal aid as England was enabled to grant to local work, it has power enough locally to make a very creditable showing, and, it may be hoped, to pave the way for such Governmental provision as will enable the United States to show the even greater salvage which its unexhausted condition makes possible. Again, why should the United States, especially the newer rural States, be satisfied with a less favourable infant mortality rate than that which New Zealand can show ? The New Zealand rate has steadily gone down, notwithstanding the war, and is now almost precisely half the rate for the registration area of the United States; that is, in New Zealand one baby in twenty dies, while in the United States one baby in ten dies. The most favourable State rate in the registration area is 70, that of Minnesota. Why should Minnesota not enter the race with New Zealand. Information has just been received in this country that Dr. F. Truby King, of New Zealand, has sailed for Vancouver on his way to England. Dr. King is known as the active head of the New Zealand Society for the Health of Women and Children, an organization which, in co-operation with the Government, is credited with a large share of responsibility for the lowering of the Vew Zealand infant mortality rate in recent years. This Society was organized when Lord Plunket was Governor of New Zealand, and its nurses are known as Plunket nurses, in honour of Lady Plunket, who gave much aid to the Society. It is significant that Dr. King is now going to England to undertake similar work there at the request of a society in which Lord and Lady Plunket are moving spirits. Dr. Truby King expects to be in the United States about three weeks. He writes that he wishes to be informed
BIRTH CONTROL. The question of birth control has in view of existing war conditions been receiving increasing attention from medical and sociological experts. The whole problem has been admirably presented in a presidential address to the Leicester Literary and Philosophical Society by Dr. C. Killick Millard, Medical Officer of Health for- Leicester. The address, entitled “ Population and Birth Control, is now available in brochure form, published by Messrs. W. Thornley and Son, Green Street, Leicester (price is.). In connection with the fourth course of lectures and discussions on “Public Health Problems under War and After War Conditions," held at the Royal Institute of Public Health, 37, Russell Square, W.C.1, Dr. C. Killick Millard recently delivered a lecture on “ The Problem of Birth Control, with special reference to the Public Health Aspect.” Major Leonard Darwin, F.R.S., President of the Eugenics Education Society, presided, and in the subsequent discussion Sir Robert Morant, K.C.B., The Very Rev. the Dean of St. Paul's, Mr. Bernard Shaw, Dr. Saleehy, Dr. Dunlop and others took part. Dr. Millard said that the subject was of fundamental importance and had a farreaching influence upon other problems, e.g., poverty, overcrowding and housing reform, infant mortality, &c. Hitherto the subject had been much neglected and even tabooed, but fortunately the public attitude towards all sex questions was