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dead-weight, eliminate the so-called religious instruction and re-shape the whole method of training on the simple principle of service of the Commonwealth and of humanity, based on industry (agricultural, manufacturing, æsthetic, intellectual, administrative), and inspired by history that is, the full-orbed history of mankind, economic, political, religious, social, intellectual, artistic." Dr. F. H. Hayward provides a lengthy and characteristic preface which, it is to be feared, will not further the aims which the author has in winning sympathetic co-operation and enlightened co-ordination in constructive educational work under war and after-war conditions.

"The Relations of General Intelligence to Certain Mental and Physical Traits," by Cyrus D. Mead, Ph.D., Assistant Professor of Elementary Education, College for Teachers, University of Cincinnati, is issued by Teachers' College, Columbia University, New York City, as "Teachers' College, Columbia University, Contribution to Education, No. 76." The book is based on data collected and tests made upon about 430 feeble-minded children of the Indiana School for Feeble-minded Youth at Fort Wayne, and 480 normal children of the Caldwell, New Jersey, public schools, and the results are presented in separate chapters under the following heads: "The Age of Walking and Talking"; "Height and Weight of Children"; "Strength of Grip and Dextrality"; and "Perception and Memory." Finally, individual records are summarized in a series of thirty-six tables. Each section is provided with a succinct statement of conclusions, and several useful bibliographies are provided. This valuable monograph deserves the study of all those engaged in the estimation of standards of intelligence in childhood.

"Social Evils and Problems," edited for the Church of Scotland Commission on the War by Professor W. P. Patterson and Dr. David Watson, and published by William Blackwood and Sons, 45, George Street, Edinburgh (price 3s. 6d. net), is a work which we commend to students of and workers for human betterment. It contains authoritative articles on crime, intemperance, impurity, gambling, avarice, luxury and waste, social disintegration, rural depopulation, destitution, the housing of the people, industrial

problems, Christian ethics and business, Christianity and politics, and Christianity and international relations. We would particularly commend to our readers a consideration of the following suggestive contributions: "The Decreasing Birthrate," by the Rev. Norman Maclean, D.D.; "Child Welfare," by the Rev. Gordon Quig, B.D.; and "Adolescence and the Training of Youth," by the Rev. A. M. Maclean, C.M.G., B.D.

"New Towns after the War: An Argument for Garden Cities,” by "New Townsman," published by J. M. Dent and Sons, Ltd., Aldine House, Bedford Street, Covent Garden, W.C.2 (price is. net), is a plea and argument for reconstruction in community housing, town planning, and civic expression. The brochure is an appealing and instructive exposition of Garden City principles. The National Garden Cities Committee, 19, Buckingham Street, Strand, W.C.2, are developing the ideas set forth in this booklet. They advocate "the building of new towns, as a means of dealing with the after-war housing problem, and as part of the process of industrial, agricultural, and social reconstruction."

"Some Dietaries Worth Trying," by John Horn, of the firm of John Horn, Ltd., the well-known firm of manufacturing confectioners, Stockport, and published by F. Aspinall and Co., Wellington Road North, Stockport, is a particularly serviceable brochure providing in convenient tabular form a series of dietaries expressing food values, cost, and other practical data which will be found of great service to members of Food Control Committees, and indeed to all sensible citizens desirous of guiding practice by scientific principles. We hope Mr. Horn will continue his patriotic service and give us a series of tables relative to dietaries for children and adolescents.

"The People's Year Book for 1918," published by the Co-operative Wholesale Society, Ltd., 1, Balloon Street, Manchester (price is. net), contains in concentrated form an immense amount of valuable statistical and other data relating to forms of work for community betterment. There is much useful information regarding infant and child welfare. We advise all students of social problems to get a copy of this serviceable volume,


In this section are inserted records of the progress of Child Welfare Work as carried out by various State Services dealing with Health, Education, Industry, Delinquency, Defectiveness, and other questions relating to the care and control of the young. We shall be glad to receive copies of reports and all other official publications as soon after issue as may be possible.



The new Bill introduced by Mr. Hayes Fisher, President of the Local Government Board, is rich in promise for the extension of maternity and child welfare work. The text of the Bill is as follows: A Bill to Make Further Provision for the Health of Mothers and Young Children : 1.-Powers of Local Authorities with respect to Maternity and Child Welfare. (1) Any local authority to which this Act applies may make such arrangements as may be sanctioned by the Local Government Board, for attending to the health of expectant mothers and nursing mothers, and of children who have not attained the age of 5 years and are not being educated in schools recognized by the Board of Education Provided that nothing in this Act shall authorize the establishment by any local authority of a general domiciliary service by medical practitioners. (2) This Act applies to the following local authorities in England and Wales, that is to say, the council of any county or county borough, the common council of the City of London, the council of any metropolitan borough, and the council of any borough or urban district having a population over twenty thousand: ProIvided that if in any case after consultation with the council of any county the Local Government Board are satisfied as respects any county district in the county that any such arrangements as aforesaid (whether actual or prospective) can more efficiently be made by any district council not being a local authority to which this Act applies, the Board may, subject to such conditions as they think fit, sanction the making of such arrangements by the district council, and the district council may make such arrangements accordingly. 2.-Maternity and Child Welfare Committees. (1) Every council in England and Wales exercising powers under this Act or under section two of the Noti

fication of Births (Extension) Act, 1915, shall establish a maternity and child welfare committee, and all matters relating to the exercise of the powers of the council under this Act or under the Notification of Births (Extension) Act, 1915 (except the power of raising the rate or of borrowing money), shall stand referred to such committee, and the council, before exercising any such powers, shall, unless in their opinion the matter is urgent, receive and consider the report of the maternity and child welfare committee with respect to the matter in question, and the council may also delegate to the maternity and child welfare committee, with or without restrictions or conditions as they think fit, any of their powers under that Act or this Act, except the power of raising a rate or of borrowing money. (2) Not less than two-thirds of the members of every maternity and child welfare committee shall consist of members of the council, but the council shall also appoint as members of the committee persons specially qualified by training or experience in subjects relating to health and maternity who are not members of the council. Maternity and child welfare committees shall include women and members of the Insurance Committees concerned. (3) The committee established under this section shall take the place of any committee appointed under subsection (2) of section two of the Notification of Births (Extension) Act, 1915, and the provisions of that subsection relating to the exercise of powers by a committee shall cease to have effect. 3.-Expenses. The expenses of any council in England and Wales under this Act shall be defrayed in the same manner as expenses under the Notification of Births Act, 1907 and 1915 Provided that a county council may, if they think fit, charge all expenses under this Act or those Acts as general county expenses subject to the condition that if any district council within the county has provided for its district a

similar service to that provided by the county council for other parts of the county, the county council shall pay to the district council the amount raised by them in the district in respect of such service. 4.-Section three of the Notification of Births (Extension) Act, 1915, shall be read as if the following words were inserted at the end of paragraph (b) of subsection (1) and paragraph (b) of subsection (2) thereof, namely: "and for the purpose of any such arrangements may, subject to the sanction aforesaid, exercise the like powers as they are entitled to exercise for the purpose of the provision of hospitals." 5.-(1) This Act may be cited as the Maternity and Child Welfare Act, 1918. (2) This Act, except the section thereof providing for the amendment of section three of the Notification of Births (Extension) Act, 1915, shall not apply to Scotland or Ireland.


Every patriot should procure and study the remarkable "Report for the Year 1917 of the War Cabinet." It is issued by H.M. Stationery Office (price is. net). We quote but one illuminating sentence: "It is indeed becoming more and more apparent that reconstruction is not so much a question of rebuilding society as it was before the War, but of moulding a better world out of the social and economic conditions which have come into being during the War."

The Ministry of National Service, Westminster, S. W. 1, have recently issued a "Directory of Government Departments and National Organizations requiring Voluntary Workers." This official guide runs to 108 pages, and contains in concentrated form an immense amount of valuable information which will be of the greatest service to all patriots and workers for national welfare. Particulars are given of the Home Office Juvenile Organizations Committee with a list of the provincial branches already in existence. A list is provided of Local Education Authorities. Guidance is afforded in regard to the work of the L.C.C. Educa

tion Committee and its Special Schools. Information is available respecting the Ministry of Labour Juvenile Employment Committees. Particulars are presented of the Boys' Brigade Cadets, the Boys' Brigade, and the Boy Reserves, the Boys' Country Work Society, the Boy Scouts' Association, the Church of England Homes for Waifs and Strays, Church Lads' Brigade, London's Evening Play Centres, Federations of Working Boys' and Girls' Clubs, Girls' Friendly Society, Girl Guides, Invalid Children's Aid Association, National Association for the Prevention of Infant Mortality, National Organization of Girls' Clubs, National Society of Day Nurseries, and many other agencies touching the young life of the nation. Every worker. for child protection and betterment and all engaged in any form of welfare work and national service should make a point of procuring a copy of this invaluable Directory. We understand that on application being made to the Ministry of National Service a copy of the Directory will be forwarded free of charge.

The Ministry of Food have issued a new edition of "Food and How to Save It," by Dr. Edmund I. Spriggs, which contains an immense amount of valuable information which will be appreciated by housewives, teachers, and all wise patriots. There is a special section on "Children's Meals," which contains many serviceable suggestions. The publication can be procured at H. M. Stationery Office, Imperial House, Kingsway, W.C.2 (price 3d. net).

The Central Control Board (Liquor Traffic) have issued through H.M. Stationery Office a popular edition (price IS. net) of "Alcohol: Its Action on the Human Organism." Every teacher should make a point of studying this important Report.

The Report of the Committee appointed by the Prime Minister to inquire into the position of Natural Science in the Educational System of Great Britain has now been published (Cd. 9,011, price od. net), and should receive the fullest consideration of all educationists.


During this period of supreme testing our journal will endeavour to render every possible assistance to National Associations and Societies, Hospitals, Homes and Orphanages, and all agencies working for child welfare and desirous of publishing particulars regarding their plans, purposes and activities for rendering special assistance to childhood and youth in these days of stress and strain. Particulars should be sent, in as clear and condensed a form as possible, to the Editor, with copies of any publications, appeals, &c., which are being issued to the public.



America is setting the whole world a striking example in regard to the spirit and service of child welfare work. It may be hoped that Great Britain in these days of sorrow and sacrifice will be willing to pay heed to the fine endeavours which are being made in the United States of America to conserve child life. Among the various bodies now working for child betterment we desire to direct attention to the National Child Welfare Association, Incorporated, the headquarters of which are at 70, Fifth Avenue, New York City. This body has been established under experienced and influential direction. It is "an organization (1) for gathering the whole country's knowledge and thought as to what is best for the normal development of children; (2) for organizing this knowledge and thought into the most effective exhibit form; and (3) for making this exhibit material universally available, so that any given community can obtain it at a fraction of its cost. It provides special forms of exhibits suitable for outlying and scattered sections, and reproduces the exhibit material in publication form for broadcast distribution by State boards of health, women's clubs, &c. It acts as a clearing house and source of supply for all public and private organizations dealing directly or indirectly with the good of children." The Association has issued in handsome and artistic form an illustrated album, "A Personal Message Concerning Children in War Time," bearing the names of some of the best-known workers in the chief cities of America. The following is a general statement of the case: "The life of America is in the bodies and souls of

her children. To conserve these bodies and souls is the highest duty of society, especially in time of war, for all that war destroys the child must rebuild. At this time, when the world is paying heavy toll of manhood and womanhood, it behoves America to guard well her childhood-the pledge of her future. This is the purpose of the National Child Welfare Association. It is concerned with the welfare of the child from before birth to manhood and womanhood. It is the only organization concerned with the whole child during the whole of its life. It makes graphic the child's needs as to health, character, education, recreation, &c. It operates by a campaign of education to secure positive results in improving child life both in the home and in the community. It crystallizes public sentiment in favour (1) of existing movements for bettering child conditions, and (2) of further movements which need to be projected. It operates to prevent the suffering and waste which so many agenciesat great cost-are trying to alleviate. Since the visual appeal is the strongest appeal-90 per cent. of all impressions being received through the eye-it consistently utilizes with signal success the graphic method of carrying on its work in all departments." The album explains the essentials of a child welfare exhibit and summarizes some of the beneficial results already attained. A number of illustrations of typical exhibit panels are reproduced. A striking paragraph deals with the question, Why Child Conservation is Vital to a National War, and we venture to reproduce it here: "Experience shows that war tends to break down all standards of child care. Europe went to war without a programme for child welfare. Many of the vital safeguards

that had been built around the children through years of hard work were abandoned overnight in the thought that these safeguards were of less importance than the stern demands of war. In consequence, juvenile crime passed all records, moral and mental growth was neglected, infant mortality increased enormously, thousands of children were so stunted that their whole development was seriously impaired, and all the evils of child delinquency were augmented, so that the warring nations' growing stock was alarmingly weakened. These results were so direct and startling that European statesmen are now making redoubled efforts for child conservation, trying to remedy what they should have prevented. The lesson is plain to America. It would be insanity to neglect the warning until our own children are seared by the hot breath of war. Yet unintelligent influences are already at work to break down the welfare standards that have taken years to develop. Only the most persistent, systematic work for child conservation will save us from errors that will require years to correct. The matter cannot be postponed indefinitely, nor for a year, nor for a month, because children persist in being born and trying to grow up in war time as in peace. Only the conditions are harder, the struggle more intense." The Association is arranging for the issue of a series of publications, and already two attractive booklets are available: "The Baby Book" (price 25 cents), now in its second edition, contains reproductions in miniature of the exhibit panels dealing with the responsibility of the home and the comumnity in the rearing of healthy babies. Excellent notes accompany each panel. The companion booklet, "Childhood and Health" (price 25 cents), is a similar reproduction of panels with accompanying notes, but dealing with the care of children. Each booklet contains a useful bibliography. It is proposed to issue further publications containing reproductions of exhibit panels with explanatory text, dealing with such subjects as the Mental and Moral Development of Children, the Prevention of Tuberculosis in Childhood, Alcoholism and Tobacco and their Effect on Children, Cultivation of Thrift among Children, and Children's Reading. It is also

proposd to issue a monthly periodical, The Child Welfare Graphic. The Association publish a series of Bulletins and a score of numbers are already available. The work of the Association is accomplished very largely through exhibits. It has, first of all, a large travelling exhibit consisting of about 200 panels, each 3 × 5 ft. in size, which moves from city to city where the local welfare agencies unite to co-operate with the travelling child welfare exhibit of the Association to make the subject of child welfare a matter of vital public interest. In addition to this, the Association has reproduced a number of exhibit panels in convenient size, known as parcel post panels, which are about 17 × 28 in. These parcel post panels are lithographed in quantities on heavy cardboard, and are sold outright to hundreds of public and semi-public organizations of various kinds that are interested in the welfare of children, such as boards of health, health officers, visiting nurse associations, women's clubs, hospitals, settlements, schools, libraries, &c., who use them effectively in carrying on a campaign of public education that could scarcely be maintained in any other way. The Association already has reproduced in this parcel post size thirteen panels on "Healthy Babies," twelve panels on "Healthy Children," ten panels on "The Prevention of Tuberculosis in Childhood," ten panels on "Prenatal Care for Saving Mothers' and Babies' Lives," and eight panels for special use in connection with the Children's Year Campaign, which is now being conducted by the Women's Committee of the Council of National Defence. Lantern slides of the parcel post panels, made in colour, may be obtained at 75 cents each. The agents in this country for the publications and exhibit material of the National Child Welfare Exhibit Association of America are the publishers of THE CHILD.


Through the instrumentality of this Fund about 15,000 children went to the country in July and August of 1917. School doctors and nurses were asked to give special help in selecting from London schools children whose health most ur

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