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THE MILK PROBLEM. Provision for pure and plentiful supply of milk must be considered an essential factor in maternity and child welíare work. The Committee on the Production and Distribution of Milk, of which Major Waldorf Astor, M.P., is Chairman, have presented to the Food Controller the report of a Sub-Committee, of which Mr. Wilfred Buckley was Chairman, and which was appointed to determine the immediate steps necessary for the control of the collection, utilization, and distribution of milk sold wholesale. In the evidence heard by the Sub-Committee special attention was called to the wasteful competition in the collection and handling of milk by superfluous depôts or factories situated in the same area, the uneconomical diversion of milk from one geographical area to another, and the unnecessary amount of transportation that takes place by road and rail, and the waste of man and horse power. After fourteen meetings it was decided to recommend the following scheme for Great Britain : (1) The objects to be aimed at are the maintenance of the milk supply, the economical handling of milk, its equitable distribution, and the full utilization of surplus supplies for manufacturing purposes.
(2) For the purposes of controlling distribution Great Britain should be divided into suitable areas. (3) Milk superintendents should be appointed in each area to take charge of local distribution and to act under the instructions of the Central Authority in London, with a separate Advisory Committee for Scotland, meeting in Edinburgh, and under the Central Authority in London. They should have access to the statistics and information in the Live Stock Commissioner's possession.
(4) À National Clearing House should be set up in London which should control the wholesale trade of the country and employ persons, firms, or societies, who are licensed to deal hy wholesale as authorized wholesale agents, as far as is necessary.
(5) The Clearing House should take over existing contracts between wholesalers and producers, but would interfere as
little as possible with direct contracts between producers and retailers. Such contracts would, however, be subject to the supervision and the approval of the Milk Superintendent for the area in which the retailer may be situated. (6) All churns in the possession of wholesale dealers other than retail delivery churns would be taken over and become the property of the Clearing House. (7) Manufacturers whose primary business is the manufacture of milk products would be authorized to act as wholesale agents of the Clearing House, and would be required to manufacture dried milk, cheese, or other products on account of, and in accordance with, the instructions of the Clearing House. (8) In the organization of the wholesale trade during the War, the power of wholesale traders may be strengthened, or in some
disorganized, for the period after the War. It is therefore recommended that in constituting traders agents of the Ministry of Food, the Government should at once obtain an option to purchase the businesses of such traders at a fair valuation to be arrived at by negotiation or by arbitration, as experience may show the ultimate necessity of the State becoming the sole wholesaler of milk, a development which this Committee considers to be desirable. (9) It should be the policy of the Clearing House to encourage producers to form themselves into co-operative associations for the purpose of improving the conditions of milk production and for the manufacture of cheese. (10) It is recognized that milk should be produced and supplied under improved conditions so that it may be more clean and wholesome when it reaches the consumer.' Any improvements that can be effected, by grading or otherwise, should be made in such a way as to anticipate the lines of future requirements.
Britishers everywhere may well and wisely unite with our American cousins and Allies in the celebration of Independence Day on Thursday, July 4. The Stars and Stripes should be flown side by side with the Union Jack from every school and college flagstaff in the land. We pray that an understanding and
lasting friendship may ever be maintained between the two great Englishspeaking peoples.
An appeal is being made for books and novels by popular authors for use in the recreation rooms of Queen Mary's Army Auxiliary Corps (W.A.A.C.). Books should be sent by parcel post addressed to the Hon. Secretary, Camps Library, 45, Horseferry Road, Westminster, S.W.1, and marked, “For the Library of the Q.M.A.A.C.” Indoor and outdoor games will also be welcomed, and may
sent to the headquarters, Q.M.A.A.C., 49, Grosvenor Street, S.W.1.
The Board of Education have published the 1918-1919 Regulations for Secondary Schools in England (excluding Wales and Monmouthshire).
The Ohio Board of Administration has issued as Bulletin No. 6 of the Bureau of Juvenile Research, a valuable and illustrated monograph “ The Feebleminded in a Rural County of Ohio." It has been prepared by Miss Mina A. Sessions, a Field Worker for the Bureau of Juvenile Research.
Among the publications of the Whittier State School, Whittier, California, of which Mr. Fred C. Nelles is Superintendent, there has recently appeared from the Department of Research as Bulletin No. 7, a suggestive “Guide to the Grading of Homes.” It provides “Directions for Using the Whittier Scale for Grading Home Conditions with the Standard Score Sheet of Comparative Data," and has been prepared by Dr. J. Harold Williams, the Director of Research of the Whittier State School.
The Children's Bureau of the U.S. Department of Labor, Washington, in connection with the Children's Year Movement, is issuing to the Press of America a series of striking educational
and appealing weekly articles on “ How Mothers can Help in Children's Year." The great Republic of America is setting the nations a fine model in effective educational service for maternity and child welfare.
The Children's Bureau of the U.S. Department of Labor, Washington, have just issued as Legal Series i and No. 31 in the Bureau Publications, an important monograph on “Norwegian Laws Concerning Illegitimate Children.”
It contains translations by Mr. Leifur Magnusson of certain Norwegian statutes passed in 1915 bearing upon the rights of children born out of wedlock. There is also a valuable historical introduction.
The London County Council has been authorized by the Admiralty to nominate a number of boys for entry in January, 1919, as boy artificers in the Royal Navy. Application forms may be obtained from the Education Officer, L.C.C. Education Offices, Victoria Embankment, W.C., and must be returned not later than September 3.
A Holiday Course for Teachers of French is to be held, at the request of the Board of Education, at Bedford College for Women, from August 22 to September 3. For further particulars applications should be made to Miss Batchelor, Bedford College, Regent's Park, N.W.1.
Teachers and others interested in school gardening and Nature study should remember that the Board of Agriculture and Fisheries, 3, St. James's Square, London, S.W.1, are issuing a series of valuable publications which give full details regarding the life history, diagnosis, and control of various insect and fungus pests. These official publications may be obtained free of charge by writing to the Secretary.
CHILD WELFARE AND THE WORK OF NATIONAL
ORGANIZATIONS AND INSTITUTIONS.
During this period of supreme testing our journal will endeavour to render every possible assistance to
National Associations and Societies, Hospitals, Homes and Orphanages, and all agencies working for child welfare and desirous of publishing particulars regarding their plans, purposes and activities for rendering special assistance to childhood and youth in these days of stress and strain. Particulars should be sent, in as clear and condensed a form as possible, to the Editor, with copies of any publications, appeals, &c., which are being issued to the public.
A YEAR'S WORK IN THE
N.S.P.C.C. The N.S.P.C.C. is accomplishing a national service of the highest importance. Mr. Robert Parr, O.B.E., the Director, has very kindly favoured us with the following condensed abstract regarding the work of the Society during the past year.
“Reconstruction” is the title of the Annual Report of the V.S.P.C.C. for the year ending March 31, 1918, because it is claimed that the Society is in the fullest sense a practical ministry of reconstruction. The Report is issued for another year in an abbreviated form for the double shortage of paper, and desire for economy. What it lacks in length is made up in interest, and the facts indicated in the year's statistics are of good import to students of social affairs. The cases of the year were 38,422, a decrease of 4,413 on 1916-17, and, more striking still, 16,350 below the total of 1913-14.
Involved in the cases 112,024 children, 17,065 fewer than in 1916-17, and 47,138 under the record of 1913-14 There is confirmation of the contention that the physical condition of children and their general welfare at home is better than in pre-war times. It is significant that in an analysis of the sources from which complaints come an all-round reduction has been found. The falling off in cases is not due to any slackness in trying to discover them. While cases of neglect have fallen to 34,131, against 38,663 in the previous year, cases of ill-treatment and assault show a reduction of nine only, the total being 2,350; though in comparison with 1013-14 there has been a decline of 1,641
in cases described
the cruelty of violence. Unfortunately, under the head of “ Corruption of Morals” there has been an increase, 800 cases as against 706, and the Report says :
“ There are offences for which it is possible to wish for a return to the pillory. Physical injury is not the only danger to a child in these cases. The permanent result most often to be feared is that certain incidents are indelibly stamped on the mind, and the whole course of life may be haunted with dark shadows." Continuing its policy of trying warnings first, the Society has again the justification of experience. The warned cases were 33,936, and where warnings failed, cases prosecuted were only 1,421, the lowest total for twenty-five years. In the year 1892-3, when the prosecutions were 1,306, the total cases were only 11,336, the proportion of prosecutions to being 15 per cent. Last year it was 3.7 per cent. Of the cases in which Court proceedings were taken, only 28 were dismissed. While gratified at the improved conditions of child life and welcoming the diminution of cases of neglect, the Society makes a strong plea for increased vigilance in attempts to discover all cases in which children are ill-treated, especially because of the seri.
consequences that may befall the child. The Report quotes a case in which a man and woman have been recently convicted of the murder of a child and sentenced to death. When one of the witnesses who appeared in the case was asked why, knowing the facts, she did not interfere, the scathing condemnation of the judge was brought out by the witness's statement that it was “not her business.” The Report urges “it is the
Society's urgent business to bring home to everyone the duty, not as an act of charity, but a personal and public duty, to acquaint someone, an inspector or anyone else, that a child is in danger.” This is really the dominant note in the Report, and its appropriateness is apparent, for child torture must be stopped. While so much is being said of the necessity for placing children in institutions, it is worthy of special mention that although the number of children dealt with during the year was 112,024, it only became necessary to make such provision for 145 children. Reconstruction of character and of home through the exercise of sympathy and patience has proved successful. Conditions which would have warranted the removal of children have been changed and the children remain where under normal circumstances they are best off, in the care of their parents. Two other features of the Report are of wide-reaching importance; the first is the record of work done for the children of soldiers, of whom 55,900 have been helped since October, 1914; and the second is a relatively new departure in paying attention to the children of persons who are undergoing terms of imprisonment. During the year 1,548 such cases have been referred to the Society by the chaplains of twenty-eight prisons, and in these cases 3,396 children were concerned. The Report says : “The fact established by the inquiries is that many of the men who go to prison are of general good character, and would not, in the ordinary course of events, have to be dealt with for neglecting their families; nor does it appear that indulgence in drink was to any appreciable extent the cause of their trouble. The percentage of bad characters and drunkards is very small.” Confirmation of this view was given by the ChaplainGeneral of His Majesty's Prisons at the recent Annual Meeting of the Society. Other features of the Report are those dealing with organization and finance, and it is claimed the work of the Society is constructive and reconstructive. Readers of THE CHILD who wish a fuller acquaintance with the efforts of the Society can obtain a full copy of the Report by sending a postcard to the Director, Robert J. Parr, O.B.E., 40, Leicester Square, W.C.2.
NOTA BENE. The Central Association for the Care of the Mentally Deficient, the Hon. Secretary of which is Miss Evelyn Fox, with headquarters at Queen Anne's Chambers, Tothill Street, Westminster, S.W.1, have recently issued the “ Transactions of the Conference on the Administration of the Mental Deficiency Act, 1913, held at the Guildhall, London, on Tuesday, Feb-' ruary 5, 1918.” In this volume of seventy pages is compressed the Report of the Proceedings. The chief papers are : “ Man-power and the Mentally Detective," by Dr. A. F. Tredgold; “ The Duties of Local Education Authorities in Relation to Mental Deficiency," by Dr. H. B. Brackenbury; “ The Provision by Local Authorities of Institutions for Defectives," by Mr. Harcourt E. Clare; and “The Criminal Defective," by Sir Herbert Smalley, M.D.
The St. Andrew's Provincial Committee for the Training of Teachers have arranged for course of training for teachers of mentally deficient and epileptic children to be held at the Dundee Training College. The course is open to certificated teachers who have a keen personal interest in such work. Preference will be given to those who have completed their period of probation, and who can produce evidence as to their suitability in respect of disposition and temperament. Particulars of the scheme of work proposed, and fee to be paid, may be obtained from Mr. James Malloch, Director of studies, at the Training College, Dundee.
The Rockefeller Foundation, the headquarters of which are at 61, Broadway, New York City, have issued an attractively illustrated and highly informing “Review of its War Work, Public Health Activities, and Medical Education projects in the Year 1917," prepared by Mr. George E. Vincent, President of the Foundation.
The Bureau of Food Supply of the New York Association for Improving the Condition of the Poor, 105, East 22nd Street, New York City, has just issued a helpful booklet on “ The Adequacy and Economy of some City Dietaries," prepared by Dr. H. C. Sherman, of Columbia University, and L. H. Gillett. This study and its publication has been made
possible by the Department of Social Welfare established by Miss Elizabeth Milbank Anderson. The same Bureau is publishing a series of nine charts as Guides to Intelligent Food Conservation.
The Uplands Association have decided to establish open-air Educational Trust on a small estate, Edmund's Farm, Gee Cross, in North Cheshire. The Trust will be public in character, and the idea is to make use of the estate for the training of rural teachers, for the health treatment of children working in city schools, and for other educational projects which will be realized as the scheme develops. The Uplands Summer Meeting is to be held on the new estate this year, full particulars of which, and of the constitution of the Trust, can be obtained on application to Professor J. J. Findlay, 6, Kent Road, Victoria Park, Manchester.
At a recent meeting of the London “ Safety First” Council, the offices of which are at 31, Westminster Broadway, S.W.1, it was announced that 40,710 pupils attending 239 L.C.C. and extraMetropolitan schools, had written “Safety First” essays, and that sixteen prizes, aggregating £44, would be awarded to successful competitors, in addition to 498 certificates.
To stimulate interest in the achievements of the British Navy and the British Mercantile Marine among children in secondary and elementary schools of the United Kingdom, the Navy League has decided to award in the autumn of 1918 a series of prizes for essays relating to these Services. The subjects for the competition are : (a) For secondary, county, and intermediate schools, “British Sea Power"; (b) For elementary schools (boys), “What our Sailors have done"; (c) For elementary schools (girls), “Our Navy and our Food.” Further information may be obtained from the General Secretary of the Navy League, 13, Victoria Street, S.W.1.
The New York Association for Improving the Condition of the Poor, 105, East 22nd Street, New York City, have issued a valuable series of educational food charts. These might well be used for the instruction of children and young people in schools and colleges on both sides of the Atlantic.
The Eugenics Education Society, 11, Lincoln's Inn Fields, W.C.2, have just issued in pamphlet form certain reprints from the Society's official journal, The Eugenics Review: “Divorce and Illegitimacy," by Major Leonard Darwin (price 3d.); The Eugenic Principle in Social Reconstruction,” by Sybil Gotto, 0.B.E. (price 4d.); “Emigration," by C. S. Stock (price 4d.); and “Reconstruction and Public Health," by E. J. Li': better (price 3d.).
The National League for Health, Maternity and Child Welfare, 4, Tavistock Square, W.C.1, have just issued a leaflet on “ Disease Spread by Vermin " (price 8d. per dozen, 25. 6d. per 100, 18s. 6d. per 1,000, post free), and a tract, " How to Prevent the Spread of Insects in War Time" (price 6d. per dozen, 25. 6d. per 100, 20s. per 1,000, carriage paid). These
suitable for gratuitous distribution to school children and others.
A Summer School of Speech Training will be held at Stratford-on-Avon, August 3 to 7. Particulars from the Secretary, School of Speech Training, Royal Albert Hall, London.
A small handbook on “ Training for Social Work (Voluntary and Professional) ” has just been issued by the Ratan Tata Department of Social Science and Administration and the London School of Economics and Political Science, Clare Market, Portugal Street, Kingsway, W.C.2, giving particulars of lectures and courses of instruction for the Session 1918-19.
Shaftesbury Day will be observed by the Shaftesbury Society and Ragged School Union on Tuesday, October 1.