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• Mental Antidotes for Many Ills." By Rev. George R. Wood. Pp. 101. Boston, U.S.A.: Richard G. Badger, The Gorham Press. 1916. Price $1.00 net.
This brochure seeks to apply in a practical and helpful manner the truths and principles of modern psychological knowledge and the fundamentals of theology to the control and conduct of individual life in every-day difficulties of inheritance and environment. The work is highly suggestive, and should prove helpful to teachers and other educationists dealing with characters in the making.
“ Colour and the Child,” by Peshoton Sorabji Goolbai Dubash, D.Sc., published by the International College of Chromatics, 3, Finsbury Square, E.C.2 (price 25.), is a highly original and suggestive brochure on systematic chromatic training for young children. “ There are two ways of treating the subject of 'Colour and the Child '-one is a compilation of physiological and psychological facts on colour in relation to children; the other is to evolve an original course of culture of the colour-sense of children. The first is interesting and important, but the second important and wanted." And this brochure provides guidances in ways and means whereby the colour sense may be developed in early life. There are two instructive diagrams, and lines for children to learn. Dr. T. H. Hayward supplies an introductory foreword.
· The Home : Its Place in the Divine Order,” by I. G. Chalmers, published by Douglas and Foulis, Edinburgh (price is. net), is a dainty little volume of experiences, reminiscences, counsels, and admonitions. It is just the suggestive and stimulating book which daughters and sons, parents and teachers will do well to read. We would specially commend it to the study of ministers of religion. Miss Chalmers has presented some delightful vignettes of her own recollections of early days and the delights of her home life. The booklet is a powerful plea for the protection of the home life of the country. The strength of a people is founded in the homes of its children.
“Queens : A Book for Girls about Themselves," by Violet Trench, published by Elliot Stock, 7, Paternoster Row, E.C.4 (price Is. net), is inspired by Ruskin's injunction Queens you must always be.” It consists of four appealing and quickening letters of counsel to girls :
What it Means to be a Queen”; “ The Kingdom of Myself”; “The Kingdom of other People”; and “ The Kingdom of the Home of the Future.” Such a dainty, interesting, wise and helpful little book is just the gift-book to be sent to adolescent schoolgirls having their highest interests at heart. We commend the book also to the consideration of teachers and others who are in touch with girls at the most impressionable period in their lives.
The Round Table. A Quarterly Review of the Politics of the British Empire. Published by Messrs. Macmillan and Co., Ltd., St. Martin's Street, W.C. 1. Single issues, 2s. 6d. net. Annual subscription, 10s.
This quarterly should be studied by all politicians, patriots and educationists. It is the most suggestive, informing, and stimulating of all periodical publications dealing with problems of Commonwealth. Although its artices are issued anonymously, they are invariably of the highest standard and characterized by vision and a statesmanlike outlook. This journal is accomplishing incalculable service for the Empire. The current number contains a revealing summary of the nature and meaning of the great ordeal through which we are passing. There are also able articles on the Growth of American War-power, the Irish Crisis, Events in Russia, Germany and Asia; Indian Politics, and Development in the United Kingdom and our Over-seas Dominions.
Space for correspondence is necessarily limited. Communications containing suggestions, serviceable
information, criticism, and anything likely to be of general interest or value should be condensed into a short letter. Writers must in all cases give their name and address, although not necessarily for publication.
else to make our propaganda work ultimately effective, the National programme this year includes an educational exhibition, a special conference, and an intensive course of lectures to be held during Baby Week at the Central Hall, Westminster, all designed for the instruction of
public health authorities, health workers, and those of the public who take an intelligent interest in matters of mothercraft.
Chairman of Executive.
THE WORK OF THE NATIONAL
BABY WEEK COUNCIL. SIR,-Owing to the restrictions in paper, printing and all the other machinery requisite for efficient propaganda work, the Vational Baby Week Council finds it exceedingly ditħcult this year to carry on the programme initiated last year with such conspicuous success. We therefore venture to appeal to the Press, which has already so generously lent its support, to make the following facts known as widely as possible. The work of the Council is purely propagandist. Its object is to make known to every parent who has a baby that this baby is the country's most valuable asset; that a very large number of the infants who die every year do so because the knowledge which exists with respect to sound mothercraft has not been available and has not been applied. It is the object of the Council to make the knowledge available to all and to see that it is applied. The results of last year's work cannot be estimated in any known terms, but from evidence which is daily accumulating they are known to be immense. More than 600 local committees were organized each with its own programme of events, some of considerable, some of ambitious proportion, but all of some educational value. This year we hope to see the number of local committees at least doubled, but we cannot expect extensive programmes; motives of economy forbid that this should be so, but we do ask mayors and other municipal authorities to organize public meetings, clergymen to preach sermons, and teachers in schools to give lessons, so that this fact as to infant mortality and the means by which it can be prevented, may be poured into every ear that is capable of hearing and understanding. Realizing that missionaries fully equipped with an adequate knowledge are required more than anything
THE CALDECOTT COMMUNITY.
Sir,-I think it may interest your readers to know something of the work and aims of the Caldecott Community. • The seed of the Community was sown five years ago when Miss L. M. Rendel and Miss P. M. Potter started their nursery school in the neighbourhood of Euston Road; there are now in the school several children who have been with them since the early days of their enterprise. year ago the Community was reconstituted as a boarding school for working-men's children at Charlton, East Sutton, Maidstone, as it was felt to be essential to the well-being of the children to remove them from the present conditions of housing in central London, and the frequent alarms of air raids. The Community provides an opportunity, and is not to be considered a charity, for working-class parents to obtain for their chilmake it into a beautiful place of worship where all may find the spirit of love, and peace, and service. The Caldecott Community stands for an ideal and a quest : for the emergence of a new order of humanity-a humanity simpler and more sincere, truer to itself, and nearer to the fundamental needs and forces of lifemen and women to whom all personality is sacred, all labour worthy, all beauty worshipful.
BLINDED SOLDIERS' CHILDREN.
dren wholesome surroundings, individual educational attention, and training in accordance with a high ethical standard. That the opportunity is readily appreciated is shown by the relatively high proportion of income which the parents are willing to spend on each child, and the number of applications for admittance which the Directors are obliged to refuse for lack of accommodation. The school at present numbers thirty-five boys and girls, the ages ranging from 3 to ni years. The teaching in the Community is non-collective, and much of the work is done by the children alone. That this method is appreciated by the scholars is indicated by the fact that to forego a lesson is found sufficient penalty for those who have neglected to do the preparation for that lesson.
The younger children work upon the impulse of the moment as far as subject is concerned, but all are expected to employ themselves definitely, mentally or manually, for certain hours in the day. The children also help in the routine work of the house, garden, and farm, so that there is a general atmosphere of “ the work of each for weal of all.” Time is given to cooperative games, and for the following of individual pursuits. The children are as far as possible put upon their own responsibility, and encouraged to their own powers of judgment, and are helped to show resourcefulness in the various questions that arise in their everyday life. A House Committee formed from the older children meets once a week to report anything which in their eyes needs readjustment for the betterment of the school life, and it was in this Committee that such proposals as a shop and a war savings association in the Community were put forward and adopted. The school is non-sectarian in its teaching. The transformation of a whitewashed coach-house into a chapel for the Community has just begun, and it is hoped that many of the members will by their gifts and the work of their hands
SIR,- Ile desire to commend to all Sunday Schools the appeal made by Sir Arthur Pearson on behalf of the children of blinded soldiers. It is suggested that on Sunday, July 14 or 21, superintendents and teachers should, where possible, arrange to give the young people an opportunity of helping so deserving a fund. It is in every way fitting that our people should have a share in assisting the children of the soldiers who have sacrificed their sight when so nobly doing their duty for their country. Any school superintendent or secretary desiring to render help can obtain a supply of picture postcards or flags by writing direct to Sir Arthur Pearson, Bart., G.C.B.E., Blinded Soldiers' Children Fund, 224, Great Portland Street, London, W.1. All amounts collected should be sent direct
Sir Arthur Pearson at the above address.
GEO, CROYDON MARKS,
of the National S.S.('.
General Secretary. 56, Old Bailey,
WAYS AND MEANS.
Under this heading descriptions are given of preparations and appliances, new and old, likely to be
of service in the study and management of child life. Every care is taken to procure reliable notices based upon practical knowledge. In this way trustworthy information is available regarding the work of inventors and the products of manufacturers, which it is believed will afford valuable guidance to all engaged in the care of infants and the protection and education of children.
PLAY-WORK. Work and play are the two great governing forces in the development of a race and the evolution of the character of a child. Vocational and recreational interests have only recently been given the scientific study they deserve. We still labour under ancient misconceptions regarding the nature and purposes of work and play. It is said that so far-sighted a student of mankind as John Wesley believed that the boy who played in his childhood would desire also to play in his manhood. And many supporters of child labour are willing to weary the adolescent with work so that he shall be unfitted to find pleasure and profit in play. We need to be continually revising our conceptions and customs in regard to play and work. In these days of strenuous dedication to duties scientific investigation into the nature and causation of fatigue is throwing much new light on our educational methods and industrial procedures. A particularly helpful manual for teachers, conductors of nursery schools and play centres, and we should like to add parents and home-makers, has been recently written by Miss Ann Macbeth and under the title of “The Playwork Book," has been published by Messrs. Methuen and Co., Ltd. The book is a description of what Scottish folk love to designate “ploys,” but instead of the toy's being of Austrian and German birth they are to have their origin in British nurseries, schools and homes. The volume meets a real need. It is but an introduction to play-work, but an introduction on sound lines. The descriptions are clearly given, and in many instances helpful figures are provided. The author's introduction is enlightening, and touches on fundamentals in child study and development with grace and truth. We venture on a few short quotations : “ Games are good for all, yet playtime should emphatically not be all
games; this is where our public schools have failed us; they have given too much importance to games and almost none 10 private enterprise in constructive play. In the little contrivances of children lie the germs of vast mechanical and artistic enterprises.
Toy's imported from Germany, France and Japan have been so plentiful and so cheap of late years that the children of to-day rarely attempt to make them for themselves, and they are immensely the poorer, intellectually speaking, for the lack of the necessity to make them. .. This spirit of creativeness and invention should find a special period for its development in the day's time-table if it is encouraged at these play centres; and it would be immensely helpful and interesting if those in charge of such centres would make collections of ‘outstanding productions from the children, and if little loan collections of these might travel round from place to place. ... How charming it would be if our municipalities would have in every museum a section of 'modern craft work? independent of the collections of antiquities we store up. ... In the country there is always an immense wealth of superfluous material to play with, and the country child has a far greater treasury from which to supply the need of hand and mind than his neighbour of the city.
Our country would be much the richer, commercially speaking, if our schools would only take up this different side of art teaching-making patterns in. stead of pictures.
Training in handicraft begins, very rightly and naturally, in our kindergarten schools, but there, unfortunately, it stops short. Now what we want to do is to plan out for our growing children such crafts as will develop intelligence and skill of hand, without demanding too great physical strength or technical training, and without undue expenditure of money upon materials and outfit. For the younger
children the easiest media to work in are clay and needlework. The clay work should be directed to the most permanent and useful things that can be produced; pottery and tiles can be very easily made, and are very permanent if they are glazed and fired and decorated, and this can be done at very little expense. Needlework must be taught so that the worker develops intelligence and independence, and is no longer made to sew the multitudes of fine stitches which were once sidered necessary, and which made the girls mere unthinking machines. All children must some day or other handle instruments of offence and destruction, and it is part of their legitimate education to learn to do no harm with them. We could keep our evening schools packed with students if they realized that their work, done in leisure hours, had some prospect of bringing in
return instead of involving outlay alone." These quotations afford evidence that the author understands something of the philosophy and practical influence of play and work. They will further afford proof that the book is one which teachers of young children cannot afford to neglect. We hope Miss Macbeth will soon provide us with an extended edition of her constructive educational handbook.
and progressive home, and a thoroughly reliable and up-to-date reference book is now available. Messrs. J. M. Dent and Sons, Ltd., have just issued “ Medical Dictionary” suited to the requirements of non-medical students. The work has been prepared by Dr. W. B. Drummond, and much industry, sound judgment, and an exceptionally wide range of professional knowledge has been devoted to its preparation. Author and publishers have loyally co-operated in the production of a work which will rank among the very best of its kind. The subject matter is, of course, arranged under alphabetically ordered headings. There is a coloured manikin, several fullpage coloured plates, numerous plates in black-and-white, and over 400 figures in the text.
There are excellent sections on Childhood, Exercise, Food Values, Infant Feeding, Mental Deficiency, Nursing, Posture, Puberty, Refraction, and the various fevers and other diseases which affect young subjects. The dictionary will be of service to medical practitioners called to advise or instruct patients, or hold classes for nurses, or give lectures to welfare workers. The volume is one which should be within the reach of all social workers, school teachers, health visitors, factory supervisors, welfare superintendents and the like, and we specially commend it to the clergy, educationists, and all called to be leaders in human affairs.
A NEW MEDICAL DICTIONARY.
Medicine occupies a prominent place in the affairs of mankind. In these days of service and sacrifice the importance of the science and art of medicine is being realized in ways little understood in times of peace, plenty, and general prosperity. Pain and privation are making us view principles and professions in their proper proportions. Powers for first aid and practice for the conduct of nursing are non recognized as among the essentials of life. Every intelligent man and woman is now expected to render assistance in the prevention of disease, and play a part where possible in the alleviation of sufferings resulting from accidents. Among the most important subjects taught in our schools is hygiene, and Boy Scouts and Girl Guides and other adolescents are becoming efficient in co-operating with nurses and doctors. A work on the principles and practice of medicine should be found in every school
GIRL GUIDES. The Boy Scouts and Girl Guides developed through the vision, ingenuity, and industry of Sir Robert Baden-Powell, K.C.B., K.C.V.O., LL.D., stand in the very forefront of our national institutions for the highest development of the youth of the British Empire. Every patriot is proud of these wisely ordered and judiciously organized and trained boys and girls, the potential parents, citizens, and defenders of our far-flung Commonwealth. Neither pains nor expense should be spared to further the Movement, which will ever be associated with the magnetic letters B.-P. The immediate object of the present note is to direct attention to a new work recently written by Sir Robert Baden-Powell, and published by Messrs. C. Arthur Pearson, Ltd. It is entitled