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"Girl Guiding: A Handbook for Guidelets, Guides, Senior Guides and Guiders," (price is. 6d. net), and provides an authoritative and complete manual on matters relating to the essentials of the work of the Girl Guide Movement. It is intended primarily for parents, teachers and patriots. “The object of the Guide training is to give our girls, whatever may be their circumstances, a series of healthy and jolly activities which, while delighting them, will afford them a course of education outside the school in four particular lines of which there is the greatest need : (1) Character and Intelligence, through ganies, practices and activities, and honours and tests for promotion. (2) Skill and Handicraft, encouraged through badges for proficiency. (3) Service for others and Fellowship, through daily good turns, organized public service, &c. (4) Physical Health and Hygiene, through development up to standard by games and exercises designed for the purpose.” The Girl Guides are divided into four grades : (1) Brownies, under 11 years of age; (2) Guides, of from u to 16; (3) Senior Guides, over 16; and (4) Guiders, 18 to 81. Members of the latter grade are what would be termed officers, but their position is rather that of elder sisters reviving their south by playing among and leading the girls instead of ordering them about or repressing them. Sir Robert's new book provides in most atractive form an outline exposition of the principles governing Girl Guiding, and to its study we earnestly commend all eager to assist in ways and means for girl protection and girl betterment. It is full of information and inspiration for all classes of workers among girls of all ages. Those interested in the Girl Guide Movement will do well to put themselves in touch with the Girl Guides' headquarters, 76, Victoria Street, S. ll'.1.
national transactions acquaintance with the decimal method is essential. The alternative systems of decimalizing British currency would scem to necessitate an alteration in the standard of the pound sterling or of the penny. The Committee appointed to consider Commercial and Industrial Policy after the War have reported against any alteration in our pound sterling, urging that it would involve the abandonment of the sovereign as the standard and working unit of international exchange. We understand that the Institute of Bankers, the Associated Chamber of Commerce, and the Decimal Association have recommended the decimalization of the sovereign by dividing it into 1,000 units, each unit being worth 4 per cent. less than the existing farthing. As the outcome of this suggestion, Mr. A. M. Pooley, B.A., has prepared a collection of “Decimal Money Tables, containing Conversion Tables for the Reduction of English Money from and into any Foreign Money." The publication is issued by the Syren and Shipping, Ltd., 91 and 93, Leadenhall Street, E.C.3 (price 25. od. net). These tables will be invaluable for ready and rapid reference. They cover the conversion of British sterling from and into any foreign money at any rate of exchange and to any amount. This publication is a unique production, and while of special value to those engaged in commercial pursuits, it will also prove of much interest and service to teachers and all others concerned in the study of the problem of decimal coinage in this country.
DECIMAL MONEY TABLES.
EDUCATION AND CHILD
WELFARE. In “The Athenæum Subject Index to Periodicals,” now being issued at the request of the Council of the Library Association at the offices of the Athenæum, there has just appeared a section on “ Education and Child Welfare." This provides an admirable alphabetically arranged bibliography of recent literature bearing on child welfare work in its many and varied educational aspec!s. There is a useful index to authors.
Much discussion has for some time been in progress regarding the possibility and the desirability of introducing the metric or decimal system into our educational and commercial life. In scientific work and in connection with inter
YESTERDAY, TO-DAY, AND TO-MORROW. Under this general heading appear miscellaneous notes and records of current events and other topics relating to child welfare, and to this section it is earnestly hoped readers of this Journal will contribute.
THE HISTORY OF AMERICA.
We are proud to be allied with our English-speaking American cousins in the great struggle for liberty and justice, and anxious to understand the spirit, ideals and influences which inspire the citizens of the United States to great plans and far-reaching purposes. Every British patriot should endeavour to understand something of the principles and events which have gone to the development of the American nation. Our sons and daughters in schools and colleges and in their homes should be encouraged to study the history of America and her people. And to this end we desire to direct attention to two volumes which have just reached us. They are both written by Dr. Albert Bushnell Hart, Professor of Government in Harvard University, and are published by the American Book Company, Washington Square, New York City. Both volumes are notable works, admirably got-up, and plentifully illustrated. Copies of these books should be found in every reference library in this country, and we specially commend them to the notice of all teachers. The first volume is entitled “ New American History." It is intended to serve as a text-book which shall provide a reliable collection of first-class facts and afford a clear understanding of the movements which have been influential in the development of America. Essential names, events, and dates are presented, and the whole story is set out with the force and fascination of a moving picture. The book is intended to supply a basis for class exercises. There are thirty-seven chapters, and these are conveniently grouped under such headings as : Beginnings, Colonization, Revolution and the Constitution, The Federal Union, National Spirit, Sectionalism, Civil War, Reorganization, , and The World Power. As appendices there appear a list of useful desk books, a general alphabetically arranged biblio
graphy, a tabular summary of the States of the Union, and reproductions of the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution of the United States. At the end of each section are references bearing on the text and topics, a set of questions and notes on topics for further search, Particularly praiseworthy features are the excellent maps provided, portraits of leaders, and instructive illustrations. Dr. Hart believes in the importance of political geography as a background of national history. Special attention is devoted to the consideration of social conditions and events, and particularly economic features relating to pursuits, industries, trade and business. The book admirably brings out the character and public services of notable Americans. Foreign relations, diplomatic controversies and their settlement receive due attention. The principles of government are lucidly expounded. Altogether the book is to be viewed as a model one, and it should accomplish a great purpose on both sides of the Atlantic. Dr. Hart's second book bears the title of “School History of the United States." It has been prepared primarily for scholars in the upper grades of American schools. It brings out the European background of America "with due recognition of our inheritance of language, law, and political methods from England.” Great care has been taken to provide reliable accounts of the various sections of the United States which differ considerably in many respects. Much space is wisely devoted to an explanation of social and industrial conditions of America's colonies and the later United States for which twelve of the thirty-seven chapters are set apart. Wars are treated as intense experiences of the American people. The book seeks especially to bring home to the minds of children the way in which American government is carried on. The following quotation indicates something of the author's spirit and aim : “As one of the main purposes of history is to
bring boys and girls to understand such political questions as they themselves are likely to confront, about a third of the book is devoted to the period since the Civil War; the effort has been made so to supply the questions of currency, banking, transportation and business contributions, as to make them understood by school children as a part of the problems of their own national and State Governments.” Both volumes deal with America's history from the earliest times up to the participation of the United States in the present great world-wide War. These exceptionally able books will do much to develop principles and establish practices of citizenship among the youth of America, and we earnestly commend them to the consideration of all concerned for the progress of civics among the boys and girls of the British Commonwealth.
THE UPLANDS ASSOCIATION.
The Uplands Association and its Committee have been engaged for some time upon the problem of Continued Educaand the following indicate the lines along which they consider the working of the Government proposals should proceed : (1) All programmes for continued education should be based on a recognition of the changes in mental outlook accompanying the onset of adolescence, e.g., a novel restiveness in regard to authority, often balanced by an admission of helplessness and hence willingness to submit to guidance; the strength of the sex instinct, which can be best “ sublimated” by affording opportunities for club life wherever the home circle does not meet the new social cravings of youth; the formation of ideals, liable to rapid change, but possessing a strong hold on the sentiments, and affecting the wageearner's choice of occupation. For while these changes characterize all normal adolescents, the youth who earns wages undergoes a special transformation as the result of his (partial) economic independence. The sanctions of parental control are placed on a new footing when the boy or girl contributes materially to the family resources; a new set of feelings and attributes are engendered in regard to the entire household. These feelings of emancipation react also in many in
stances on his relation to religion and tohis city and country as well as to his family and other associates. (2) Public Authority, in claiming control of the adolescent up to 18, should therefore provide for individual knowledge and interest in each young person.
This can best be done by putting him under the care of
a supervisor or tutor. These officers, who would discharge some of the functions of Juvenile Labour Exchange officials, would not necessarily be professional teachers; they may be Scout Masters, Club Workers, or senior Sunday School officers. School teachers would often be available, especially those who have had charge of the young people while in the upper standards of an Elementary School. (3) The class instruction: (320 hours a year is the actual amount proposed in the Bill) to be imposed by Authority will often be given directly by the Local Education Authority, but (since its value is enhanced when the youth can express his personality through this means) it may partly be arranged either in a workshop or in a Scout troop, a girls' or lads' club, or a religious institution, Such instruction should be recognized by, and if possible, aided by, the State; attendance would be regulated by the supervisor or tutor, answerable to the Local Education Authority and complying with its regulations. (4) The two upper standards of the Public Elementary School, reorganized so as to include all scholars who have reached the age of 12, should be adapted to fit in with the scheme of Part-Time Instruction and Supervision after 14; for the years from 12 to 14 constitute a time of transition from childhood to youth. Thus an unbroken course of education and tutorial supervision from 12 right on to 18 would be possible, making more easy the transition from full-time schooling to a life of wageearning, and helping the youth before leaving school to find himself at home in the society and under the supervision which will continue with him throughout the period of youth. (5) This reorganization, involving the creation of a new department or section in the public elementary school at the age of 12, would be of advantage in other ways. Firstly, 12 is the age at which pupils ordinarily leave the public elementary school for the new
experience of a Trade or Domestic Economy School or a Secondary School; for those who are left behind some change of school conditions is necessary, both in corporate life and in curriculum; the new conditions can be extended and made effective by reaching up to 18, providing what in principle will be found to be secondary education for the wage-earner. Secondly, as soon as public opinion warrants the extension of full-time compulsory education to 15, this can be carried through without disturbing the public system. (6) Many of the teache in this reorganized upper section of the public elementary school would serve also as supervisors or tutors to youth, but in any event they would co-operate with the voluntary agencies through which many young persons of both sexes will continue to find opportunity for development. Whatever choice was offered to young persons to attend classes other than those provided by the local education authority, some part of the attendance would usually be taken in the provided classes, so that the link between the youth and his earlier education up to 14 would be maintained. (7) Curriculum : (i) The insistence in the Bill upon physical training is to be welcomed, together with the prospect of holiday or school camps. All such pursuits should be associated with a corporate life in which the maximum of freedom is permitted. (ii) Technological instruction is a necessity, not primarily to increase the wage-earning capacity of the youth, but to enable him to find in his occupation something more than wages.
So far as possible the instruction should be associated directly with the factory, the office or the shop, and the instructor should have first-hand acquaintance with the trade. Many varieties of treatment will be necessary, ranging from the lowest form of unskilled or repetition work to the elaborate crafts, from solitary employment in a house or on a farm to the thronged shops of a huge factory; but technological instruction is needed for all without exception. (iii) Some time must be left over, if only a short period, for enabling the youth to carry forward one or other of the “liberal ” studies in which he made a start between 12 and 14. No cut-and-dried scheme of compulsory classes in subjects of general education
should be imposed, but supervisors should for some years be allowed a free hand, affording to young persons a wide freedom of choice among a variety of pursuits, subject always to the Local Education Authority being satisfied as to steady attendance and industrious application. (8) Selection of Teachers and Supervisors.-The choice of fit persons to take charge of youth is by far the most important factor in the problem. Many of these can be found among the professional teachers now engaged in Elementary, Secondary or Technical schools; especially those who by working in Continuation Classes have gained a first-hand knowledge of wage-earning boys and girls. A few will be found among officers of the Juvenile Labour Bureau; others among social workers such as are mentioned in paragraph 2 above, many of these are persons who possess the requisite experience and attainments. The demand will be great and the resources scanty; every velcome should given to voluntary effort, even if the volunteers be not specifically “trained” on certificated plans of training. All such supervisors or tutors would act under the sanction of the Local Authority, who must be responsible to the community for seeing that the law as to compulsory attendance is complied with. The fear of friction, whether arising from denominational bitterness, from professional jealousy, or from distrust of employers' motives, hould not be permitted to thwart the great purpose of this national effort on behalf of the youth of England.
Under the title of “ The Young Wageearner and the Problem of his Education," a volume of essays, edited by Professor J. J. Findlay for the Committee of the Uplands Association, is to be published shortly by Messrs. Sidgwick, and Jackson, 3, Adelphi Street, London, W.C. (price 25. Od. net). This volume will expand and illustrate topics briefly outlined in the above statement. The Uplands Association propose to hold a summer meeting for teachers, parents and other social workers during two or three weeks in August of this year. It is suggested that the chief subject of study and conference should be “ The Social Life of the Young in Infancy, Childhood and Adolescence." The programme will
comprise : (a) Short courses of lectures (followed by discussion) on some of the following subjects : Problems of Social Work; Social Psychology; Sociology; The Relations of Art to Social Development. (b) Two or more seminars : One on Corporate Life within the School; another on Social Relations of the School with Society : After-care, Juvenile Delinquency, Lads and Girls' Clubs, Parttime Education and similar questions. ic) Practical work in the afternoons. Courses are in contemplation for (i) gardening and Nature study; (ii) music (eurhythmics); (ii) a handy-man coursedomestic and other repairs; (iv) poetry and drama. It is hoped that the children whose parents attend the meeting may be housed in a camp near at hand; this will serve to demonstrate the possibilities of education in the open air. Membership of the Uplands Association is open not only to teachers, but to parents and other social workers interested in educational reform. Inquiries both as summer meeting and as to the publications of the Association should be addressed to the Hon. Secretaries, 134, Portway, West Ham, E. 15.
Mother, Sir Francis Champneys, M.D., presiding; and a discussion on Mothers' Pensions will be opened by Dr. Haroid Scurfield, M.O.H. of Sheffeld. Lectures on “ Infant Care” will be given by Dr. Eric Pritchard, Dr. Maurice Craig, Dr. H. C. Cameron, Dr. C. W. Saleeby and others. There will also be a practical demonstration on the teaching of mothercraft to schoolgirls, and a lecture on “ The Hygiene of Infancy."
In connection with National Baby Week a Child Welfare Exhibition is being held at the Central Hall, Westminster, July 1 to 6. The Exhibition is open on Monday, July 1, from 3 p.m. to 8 p.m., and on other days from 10.30 a.m. to 8 p.m. Admission, is. The exhibits will include models of a completely furnished dining room for mothers, maternity hostel, infant welfare centre, day nursery, ward for ailing babies, and will illustrate methods of feeding, the needs of young life, housing and healthy environment, clothing, training in infant care, &c. Short lectures and demonstrations will be given by qualified authorities throughout the week.
The Fellowship of the Maple Leaf for the Supply of British Teachers for Western Canada, the offices of which are at 13, Victoria Street, Westminster, S.W.1, holds its Annual Meeting at Church House, Westminster, on Dominion Day, Monday, July 1, at 3 p.m.
The Home Arts and Industries Association holds an Exhibition and Sale at Claridge's Hotel, Brook Street, on Wednesday and Thursday, July 3 and 4, from II a.m. to 6.30 p.m.
Under the auspices of the National Clean Milk Society (Incorporated), the offices of which are at 2, Soho Square, 11.1, Mr. Wilfred Buckley will give an illustrated lecture on Clean Milk," at the Central Hall, Westminster, on Friday, July 5, at 2 p.m.
A lecture for teachers on “ The Use of Rhythmic Movement in the Class Teaching of Recitation ” will be given by Miss Gertrude Ingham in the Lecture Theatre at Birkbeck College, Bream's Buildings, Chancery Lane, E.C.4, on Saturday, July 6, commencing at 2.30 p.m., and ending at 4 p.m. Examples will be given by a class from Moira House Girls' School, Eastbourne. Admission will be by tickets, obtainable in advance by sending
COMING EVENTS. Baby Week is being celebrated in London and throughout a great part of the country during the first week of July, as announced in our last issue. ill workers for child welfare should make a point of supporting this beneficent and educational movement. Many well-tried friends of child welfare participate in the meeting to be held at the Central Hall, Westminster, on July 1, to inaugurate Baby Teek. Major Waldorf Astor, M.P., will be in the chair, and the Bishop of Birmingham will speak on Environment as Affecting the Mother and Infant."
In connection with the Baby Week celebrations the National Association for the Prevention of Infant Mortality has organized a conference to be held at the Central Hall, Westminster, on July 2
Dr. J. W. Ballantyne opens a discussion on Antenatal and Neonatal Factors in Infant Mortality, Sir Arthur Newsholme presiding; Lady Barrett, M.D., will deal with Institutional versus Domiciliary Treatment of the Lying-in